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Third Edition. 1873. 

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lition. 1877. 6 marks. 

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Money Table. 

(Comp. p. xv.) 

































































































































































































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All Eights reserved. 

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 



Ihe object of the Handbook for Norway and Sweden is 
to supply the traveller with information regarding the most 
interesting scenery and physical characteristics of these 
countries , and with a few notes on the history , languages, 
and customs of the inhabitants. Like the Editor's other 
handbooks it is based on his personal acquaintance with the 
country described, a great part of which he has himself ex- 
plored , visiting the most important places repeatedly. His 
exertions to secure the accuracy and completeness of the 
work have been supplemented by the kind assistance of sever- 
al gentlemen, Norwegian, Swedish, English, and German, 
to whom his grateful acknowledgements are due. If, how- 
ever, any of the statements in the Handbook should be found 
erroneous or defective, he will gratefully receive any correc- 
tions or suggestions with which travellers may favour him. 
Norway is described first, as being by far the more important 
and interesting country from the tourist's point of view, but 
those who have time for a tour in both should endeavour to 
visit Sweden first. 

The traveller will effect a considerable saving both of time 
and money by preparing an outline of his tour before leaving 
home, but the details cannot be finally adjusted until the 
latest local time-tables have been consulted. The most im- 
portant of these are 'Norges Communicationer' for Norway 
and 'Sveriges Kommtjnikationer' (10 6.) for Sweden, both 
issued weekly in summer at Christiania and Stockholm re- 
spectively; but these publications, the latter in particular, 
are far from complete, containing no mention of many of the 
small steamboats which ply on the remoter fjords, lakes, and 
rivers. An excellent itinerary for the southern districts of 
Norwayis the 'Lommereiseroute' (usually published in June, 
price 1 kr. 30 ».). 

On the Maps and Plans of the most important districts 
and towns the utmost care has been bestowed , but for the 
benefit of travellers who purpose exploring remoter regions 
several of the best maps on a larger scale are enumerated at 
p. xviii. 

Heights are given approximately in English feet (1 Norw. 
ft. = 1.029 Engl. ft. ; 1 Sw. ft. = 0.974 Engl. ft.). Distan- 
ces by land and on inland lakes are given in Norwegian and 


in Swedish miles in the two countries respectively (1 Norw. 
M. = 7 Engl. M. 32 yds. ; 1 Sw. M. = 6 Engl. M. , 5 furl., 
40 yds.), and by sea in nautical miles in both countries (1 naut. 
M. = 4 Engl. M.). The Populations and other statistics 
are given from the most recent official sources. 

First-class Hotels, though much less numerous in Norway 
and Sweden than in more densely peopled countries, are to 
be found in many of the larger towns , while in the smaller 
towns and country districts there are inns (Norw. Gjastgive- 
rier , Sw. giistgifvaregardar) , posting-stations (Norw. Skyds- 
stationer, Sw. skjutsstationer) , and farm-houses (Norw. Bonde- 
gaarde, Sw. bondegardar) , the proprietors of which are bound 
to receive travellers and to provide them with horses when- 
ever required. The accommodation at these country inns or 
stations is usually unpretending, but they are generally clean, 
and the charges are very moderate. In the Introduction and 
throughout the Handbook the ordinary items of expenditure 
are given approximately. The landlords are a much more in- 
dependent class than the innkeepers of most other countries, 
being in many cases substantial farmers or shopkeepers , a 
very small proportion of whose livelihood is derived from 
innkeeping. Instances of extortion occur not unfrequently 
in the larger towns and more frequented districts , the cab- 
drivers and porters of Christiania and Christiansand being 
among the greatest offenders in this respect; but in most of 
the country districts , particularly in the far north , the na- 
tives are remarkable for their honesty, intelligence, and civil- 
ity, and the traveller's intercourse with them will often form 
one of the pleasantest features of his tour. 

To the Languages of Norway and Sweden , the former 
in particular , an unusually ample space has been allotted 
(see removable cover at the end of the volume), partly on the 
ground that a slight knowledge of them is essential to the 
complete success of the traveller's tour, and partly because 
they are not included in any of the ordinary manuals of con- 

Lovers of Sport will still find considerable scope for their 
favourite pursuits both in Norway and Sweden , but seldom 
without deviating from the beaten track of tourists, and un- 
dergoing some privations. A number of the places where the 
best shooting and fishing are obtainable are mentioned in 
the Handbook. 

From this, as well as from the Editor's other Handbooks, 
advertisements of every kind are strictly excluded. 




I. Expenses. Money. Language. Passports. Post Office xv 

II. Plan of Tour xvi 

III. Conveyances xix 

IV. Luggage. Equipment. Tourist Club xxiv 

V. Hotels and Inns xxv 

VI. National Character xxvii 

VII. Maps xxviii 

VIII. Topographical Nomenclature xxix 

IX. Physical Geography of Scandinavia xxxi 

Situation. Geological Formation. Coast Line xxxi 

Mountains, Lakes, and Rivers xxxvi 

Climate and Vegetation xxxix 

Animal Kingdom. Population xlii 

X. History of Sweden and Norway xliii 

Prehistoric Period xliii 

Transition to the Historical Period xliv 

Norway before the Union xlv 

Sweden before the Union liii 

Transition to the Union lvii 

The Union lix 

Sweden after the Dissolution of the Kalmar Union. 

Literature lxiii 

The Continued Union of Norway with Denmark. Literature lxxi 

Union of Sweden and Norway lxxvi 

Literature lxxix 

Chronological Table lxxx 

XI. Outlines of Norwegian and Swedish Grammar, at the 
end of the volume. 


Route Page 

1. Christiania and Environs 1 

Oscarshall. Hoveder. Egeberg. Frognersseter. . . 10, 11 

2. From Christiania to Drammen and Kongsberg. Ex- 

cursion to the Rjukanfos 13 

1. From Sandviken to Sundvolden andH)»nefos. Krogkleven 13 

2. From Lier to the Tyrifjord. Svangstrandsvei .... 15 

3. From Kongsberg to the Jonsknut. Labrofos 16 

4. From Kongsberg to the Hardanger Fjord through the 

Numedal 16 

5. From the Rjukanfos to Odde or to Eidfjord on the Har- 

danger Fjord 21 

3. From Christiania to Odde. Thelemarken 22 

a. Via Kongsberg 22 

1. From Moseb0 to Dale in the Maanelv Valley 23 

2. Ascent of the Vindegg 23 


Route Page 

3. From Siljord to Skien 23 

4. From Botten to Stavanger 24 

b. Via Skien 25 

1. From Skien to the Hitterdal (Rjukanfos) 25 

2. From Hvideseid to Tvedestrand or Arendal 26 

3. From the Bandaksvand to Ravnejuvet and Mo on the 

B0rtevand 26 

4. From Bandakslid to the Fyrisvand. Lille Rjukanfos. . 27 

4. From Christiania to Lardalseren 27 

i. Halliiigdal Route. (By Lake Kraderen , through the 

Hallingdal and Hemsedal , and over the Hemse- 

dalsfjeld.) 28 

i. From Vikersund to St. Olaf's Bad 29 

2. From Nebs to Lake Spirillen 30 

3. From Viko to the Valders Route 30 

4. From Ekre to the Valders Route 31 

5. From Tuf to Nystuen 31 

Upper Hallingdal 32 

1. From Tufte to the Hallingskarv 32 

2. From Tufte to the Hardanger Fjord 33 

3. From Hoi to the Sognefjord 33 

ii. Valders Route. (Via the Strandefjord, Vangsmjesen, 

and Fillefjeld.) 34 

a. Lake Mj«sen Route to Valders. Through Valders and 

over the Fillefjeld to Laerdalseren 35 

1. From Vestre Slidre to the Hvidbtffd and Kvalehjzigda . 40 

2. From 0ye to Nystuen 41 

3. From Kasa to Tvindehoug on Lake Tyin 41 

4. From Skogstad to Nystuen by the Troldhu 42 

5. From Nystuen to the Stugunefs and Suletind .... 42 

6. From Nystuen to Aardal by the Fillefjeld 42 

b. Via the Randsfjord 46 

c. Via. Lake Spirillen 48 

The Hedal 49 

5. The Sognefjord. From Lffirdalseren to the Aardalsfjord, 

Lysterfjord, and Fjserlandsfjord 51 

1. From Aardal to Fortun by the Fuglestcg 53 

2. From Aardal to the Vettisfos and Fleskedal 53 

3. From Solvorn to Hillestad. Ascent of the Molde ... 54 

4. From Marifjseren to the Jostedal. Jostedalsbrre ... 54 

5. From D#sen to the Jostedal by the Storhoug .... 56 

6. From Hillestad to Fjeerland by the Veitestrandskard. . 57 

7. From Sogndal to Fjserland by the Longedal. Thorstad- 

natten. Rommehest 57 

8. From Fjferland to the glaciers of the Suphelledal ... 57 

6. The Sognefjord. From LserdalsOTen to Aurland and 

Gudvangen. From Gudvangen to Bergen. ... 57 

1. From Indre Fr0ningen to the Blejen 58 

2. The Flaamsdal 58 

3. From Aurland to Vossevangen 59 

4. From Aurland to LiKrdal. BarshfJgda 59 

5. From Vossevangen to Eide on the Hardanger Fjord . . 61 

7. The Sognefjord. FromLaerdalsaren to Bergen' by Steamer 62 

1. From Amble to Sogndal (by land) 63 

2. From Balholm to Sande bv the Svsereskard 65 

3. From Balholm to F^rde '. 65 


Route Page 

8. From Christiania to Christiansand 67 

From Skien to Thelemarken and to the Ejukanfos . . 69 

9. Christiansand and Environs 71 

From Christiansand to Ekersund (by land) 72 

The Saetersdal 73 

From theSeetersdal to the Hardanger Fjord and Stavanger 74 

10. From Christiansand to Stavanger 74 

Excursions from Stavanger : 

A. To the Lysefjord 79 

B. To the Sandsfjord, Hylsfjord, and Savdeijord . 80 
The Suledalsvand 81 

C. To Sandeid 81 

From Sandeid to the Hardanger Fjord and Bergen . . 8L, 82 

11. From Stavanger to the Hardanger Fjord by Steamboat. 

From Stavanger to Bergen 82 

From Ter» to Vik or Eidfjord 87 

1. From Skjelnass to the Maurangerfjord. Bondhusbrfe . . 88 

2. From the Maurangerfjord across the Folgefond to Odde 88 

3. From Norheimsund to the Aadlandsfjord by Eikedal 89 

4. From J0stenf0 to the Humlegrtfvand (Bolstadefren, 

Evanger) S9 

5. The Fiksensund. From Botnen to Vossevangen ... 89 

6. From Eide to Vlvik 90 

7. From tflvik to Ose. Osefjord. Osedal 92 

8. From I'lvik to Aurland 92 

9. Excursions from Vik. V0ringsfos. Simodal . . . . 93, 94 
From Eidfjord to Odde 95 

Excursions from Odde. Buarbrse. Lotefos. Skjsegge- 

dalsfos 98-100 

The Hardanger Vidde 101 

Routes to and from the Hardanger Fjord 101 

12. Bergen and Environs 102 

13. From Bergen to Molde by Steamer 110 

1. The Dalsfjord and Ftfrdefjord 112 

2. The Nordfjord, Hornindalsvand, Hyenfjord, and Bred- 

heimsvand 113 

3. From Volden to the Eidsfjord and Hj0rendfjord . . . 114 
From Aalesund to Hellesylt by 0rstenvig and 0ie. 

Hjerendfjord and Norangsfjord. NeVbedal . . . 115 

14. Overland Route from Bergen to Molde. Vadheim, Farde, 

Faleide, Hellesylt, Seholt 120 

1. Excursions from Old0ren. Lodal. Oldendal. Glaciers 

of Melkevold and Brigsdal 125 

2. From Faleide to Jostedal by the Opstrynvand and the 

Greidungsbrse 125 

3. From Grodaas to the Hj0rendfjord 126 

4. The Geirangerfjord 127 

5. From Merok to Grjotlid and Yttredal 128 

6. From Sylte to Aak. The Tafjord 128 

7. Excursions from Molde (Varde, Rseknseshaug, Stor 

Tuen) . 129, 130 

15. From Molde to Christiania by the Romsdal, Gudbrands- 

dal. and Lake Mjesen 131 

1. From Setnses to Sylte on the Norddalsfjord 132 

2. From Ormeim to the Storhaette. . 134 


Route Page 

3. From Stueflaaten to the Norddalsfjord 134 

4. From l[0lmen to the Storh# and the Digervarde . . . 135 

5. From Holsset to Aanstad 135 

6. From Laurgaard to the H#vringen Sreter. Formokampen 137 

7. From Laurgaard to Swum 137 

8. From Bredevangen (or Storklevstad) toBjtflstad andStfrum 138 

9. From Skjseggestad to Jerkin 139 

10. From Fossegaarden to the Gausdal Sanatorium .... 140 

16. Routes from the Gudbrandsdal to the Jotunfjeld, and to 

the Sognefjord, Nordfjord, and Storfjord .... 142 

A. To Radsheim, the Sognefjeld, Fortun, and the 
Sognefjord 142 

1. From Rjadsheim to the Galdh0pig 147 

2. From Rodsheim to the Lomsegg, the Hestbreepigge, and 

Glaamstad 148 

B. To Merok on the Geiranger Fjord 153 

From Grjotlid to Opstryn and Visnses on the Nordfjord 156 

17. Jotunheim 158 

i. From Fagerlund in Valders to the Raufjords-Hotel, 

and across Lake Bygdin to Eidsbugarden .... 160 

1. Ascent of the Bitihorn 162 

2. Ascent of the Thorflnstind 163 

3. From the Nybod nn Lake Bygdin to the Gjendin Lake 

by the Langedal, or by the Thorfinsdal and Svartdal . 163 

4. Excursions from Eidsbugarden. Skinegg. Langskavl. 

Uranaastind 165 

ii. From Skogstad and Nystuen to Tvindehoug and Eids- 
bugarden 165 

iii. From Eidsbugarden to the Gjendebod on Lake Gjen- 
din and Radsheim 166 

1. Ascent of the Memurutunge and Gjendinstunge .... 167 

2. From the Gjendebod to Skogadalsbpen through the 

Raudal 168 

3. From the Hellerkjern to the Leirdal by the H«rgvagle . 169 

4. From the Spiterstul to the Galdhapig 170 

5. Ascent of the Glittertind 170 

6. From the Visdals-Ssetre to the Gokraskard, the Lauvba, 

and the Smaadal 171 

iv. From Eidsbugarden through the Melkedal to Sko- 

gadalsbeen, and across the Reiser to Fortun. . . 171 

v. From the Vettisfos to Tvindehoug and Eidsbugarden 173 

Ascent of the St0lsnaastinder and Falketind .... 173 
vi. From the Vettisfos to Radsheim through the Utlatlal, 

the Gravdal, and the Leirdal 174 

1. Ascent of the Skogadalsnaasi and the Styggedalstind . . 175 

2. From Muradn to Fortun through the Vetle Utladal . . 176 

vii. From Lillehammer to Lake Gjendin 177 

viii. From Bjelstad to Lakes Gjendin and Bygdin. . . . 178 

From Gjendeosen through the 0vre Leirungsdal to the 

Gjendebod 178 

ix. From Storvik to Lake Gjendin 179 

1. From the Ruslien-Ssetre to the Nautgardstind .... 180 

2. From the Ruslien-Ssetre to the Memurubod by the Rus- 

vand .... 180 

wNI-ENTS. xi 

Route Page 
3. From the Bessessetre to the Veslefjeld. Besh0 and 

Besegg- 180 

x. From Fortun to the Horunger 181 

Ascent of the Skagastizilstind 182 

18. From Molde to Throndhjem 182 

a. Via the Romsdal and Dovrefjeld 182 

1. Ascent of the Sneheetta 184 

2. From Jerkin through the Foldal to Lille Elvedal ... 184 

3. From Aune to Sundalserren. Lilledal 186 

4. From 0xendals0ren to the Eikisdal 186 

5. From Bjerkaker to 0rkedals0ren 186 

b. By Direct Steamer 187 

c. Via the Kornstadfjord or the Battenfjord and Chris- 

tiansund 188 

d. Via, Thingvold, Stangvik, Garberg, and 0rkedal . . 189 

19. Throndhjem and its Environs 190 

20. From Throndhjem to Christiania by Railway 198 

1. From R0ros to Throndhjem by Lake Stelbo 201 

2. From R0ros to the F8emund-Sj0, the StorsjjJ, and Rena 201 

3. From Tjanset to Austbjerg 202 

4. From Tunset to the Stor-SjU and Bena 203 

5. From Atna to Atnebro. The Rondane 203 

6. From Elverum to the Fsemund-Sju 205 

21. From Throndhjem to Namsos 205 

1. From Levanger to Sweden 200 

2. From Stenkjajr to the Snaasenvand and the Fiskumfos . 207 

3. From Namsos to the Fiskumfos and Vefsen 208 

22. From Throndhjem to Bode and the Lofoden Islands. 208 

1. From Namsos to Kongsmo in the Indre Foldenfjord . . 214 

2. The Bindalsfjord and Thosenfjord 214 

3. The Velfjord 215 

4. The Vefsenfjord 216 

5. From S0vig to Her0. Dynnfes0en 217 

6. The Ranenfjord, Svartisen, Dunderlandsdal, and Junkers- 

dal 217, 218 

7. The Melfjord 219 

8. Holandsfjord. Reindalstind. Glomfjord 220 

Excursions from Bode. Beierenfjord. Beierendal. Sal- 

tenfjord. Skjerstadljord. Sulitjelma. Saltdal 221-223 

From Bode to the Lofoden and Vesteraalen Islands . 224 

23. From Bode to Tromse, Hammerfest, Varde, and Vailse. 

Finmarken. North Cape. Nordkyn 230 

1. The Foldenfjord 230 

2. The Tysfjord. The Ofotenfjord 231 

3. From Stfveien to the Bardudal and Maalselvsdal . . . 233 

4. From Maalsnses to the Rostavand 233 

5. From MaalsnEes to the Altevand 234 

6. From Kirkemo to Suveien 234 

7. From Tromstf to the Tromsdal. Tromsdalstind . . . 235 

8. The Lyngenfjord 236 

9. The A'ltenfjord 238 

From Vadse to Nyborg 251 

From Vadse to the Syd-Varanger 252 

24. Inland Routes from Alten 254 

i. From Alten to Karasjok 254 


Route Page 

ii. From Alten to Haparanda in Sweden 255 

25. From Christiania by Railway to Charlottenberg .... 258 

From Kongsvinger to Elverum 259 

26. From Christiania to Stromstad (and Gothenburg) via 

Sarpsborg, Frederiksstad, and Frederikshald . . 259 

1. From Frederiksstad to the Sarpsfos 260 

2. Smaalens-Bane from Christiania to Frederikshald . . . 261 


27. From Charlottenberg to Stockholm 263 

1. From Fryksta to the Frvken Lakes 264 

2. The Valley of the Klarelf 265 

3. From Kristinehamn to Filipstad 265 

4. From Flen to Eskilstuna 266 

0. From Gnesta to Tullgarn and Trosa 266 

28. From Frederikshald or from Stromstad to Gothenburg . 267 
i. By Steamboat 267 

ii. From Frederikshald to Gothenburg bv the Dalslands 

Canal ^ 269 

From Frederikshald to Sunnana on Lake Venern 271 

Towns to the S. of Gothenburg 275 

29. From Gothenburg to Stockholm 275 

i. By Railway 275 

1. From Herrljunga to Boras 276 

2. From Herrljunga to Venersborg 276 

3. From Stenstorp to Hjo 277 

4. From Stenstorp to Lidkoping. The Kinnekulle. . . . 277 

5. From Skofde to Karlsborg 278 

6. From Moholm to Mariestad 278 

ii. From Gothenburg to Stockholm by Steamer. Gota 

Canal. Lakes Venern and Vettern 278 

iii. By Jonkoping and Lake Vettern 287 

From Jonkoping to Nassjo 288 

30. From Hallsberg to Orebro, Koping, and Stockholm . . 291 

31. From Frovi to Ludvika and Smedjebacken. The Stroms- 

holms Canal 293 

32. Stockholm and its Environs 295 

Staden and Riddarholmen 301 

The Northern Quarters of the Town 306 

The National Museum 312 

Sodermalm 320 

Environs : Djurgarden , Marieberg , Carlberg , Solna 

Kyrka, Haga, Ulriksdal 321-324 

Excursions on Lake Malaren : Drottningholin , Grips- 
holm, Strengnees, Thorshalla, Eskilstuna, Vesteras 325-330 
The Baltic : Vaxholm, Gustafsberg, etc 331, 332 

33. From Stockholm to Upsala 332 

34. Upsala 335 

Excursions: Gamla X T psala, Mora Stones, Hammarbv . 339 

35. From Upsala to Gene 340 

From Orbyhus to Dannemora 341 

36. From Gefle to Falun 342 

From Falun to Kil (Bergslagernas Bana) 343 


Route Page 

37. From Upsala to Falun and Lake Silj an by Krylbo. Dale- 

carlia. Passes to Norway 344 

From Krylbo to Borlange 344 

38. From Gefle to Sundsvall and Ostersund 347 

1. From Soderhamn to the Ljusnadal 348 

2. From Ostersund to Levanger 849 

3. From Ostersund to Hernosand 349 

39. From Sundsvall to Haparanda 350 

From Lulea to Qvickjock and to Bod# in Norway . . 352 

40. From Stockholm to Visby 354 

41. From Stockholm to Malmo by Steamer 359 

1. The Island of Oland 360 

2. From Karlshamn to Ronneby and Karlskrona .... 362 

3. The Island of Bornholm 363 

4. From Trelleborg to Fabsterbo and Skanor 364 

42. From Stockholm to Malmo by Railway 366 

1. Excursions from Nojrkoping .... ... . . 367 

2. From Norsholm to Atvidaberg . . . . ... 368 

3. The Kinda Canal 369 

4. From Mjijlby to Skenige 369 

5. From Stehag to Rbstanga and to the Ringsjo .... 371 

6. From Lund to Trelleborg . 373 

43. Branches of the Stockholm and Malmo Railway .... 374 
i. From Nassjo to Oskarshamn 374 

ii. From Alfvesta to Kalmar and Karlskrona 374 

iii. From Vislanda to Karlshamn 375 

iv. Branch Lines from Hessleholm : 

From Hessleholm to Kristianstad and Solvesborg . 376 

From Hessleholm to Helsingborg 376 

v. Branch Lines from Eslof : 

From Eslof to Landskrona 378 

From Eslof to Ystad v 378 

vi. From Malmo to Ystad 379 

Flans and Maps. 

Comp. the Key Map at the End of the Book. 
Plans: 1. Christiania (1 : 20,000), with Map of the Environs 
("1:100,000). — 2. Gothenburg (1:25,000). — 3. Stockholm 
(1 : 15,000). 

Maps. 1. General Map of S. Norway (1 : 2,000,000): before 
the Title-page. 

2. Map of the District between Christiania , Kongsberg, and 
Lake Krederen (1 : 500,000) : between pp. 12, 13. 

3. Map of Thelemarken (1 : 500,000): between pp. 20, 21. 

4. Map of the Eastern Part of the Sognefjord, including Jotun- 
fjeldene (1 : 500,000): between pp. 40, 41. 

5. Map of the Central Part of the Sognefjord (1:500,000): 
between pp. 56, 57. 

The N.W. corner of Map 4. and the N.E. corner of Map 5. could not 


be filled in with such detail as the rest of the series, as the official District 
Map of the Romsdal has not yet been published (p. xxix). 

6. Map of the Stavanger Fjord and its Branches (1 : 500,000) : 
between pp. 78, 79. 

7. Map of the Western Hardanger Fjord, including the En- 
virons of Bergen (1 : 500,000) : between pp. 84, 85. 

8. Map of the Inner Hardanger Fjord (1 : 500,000) : between 
pp. 188, 189. 

9. Map of the Environs of Throndhjern (1 : 100,000) : p. 192. 

10. Map of the North West and North Coast of Norway 
(1 : 1,500,000), 1st Sheet: between pp. 208, 209. 

11. Map of the North West and North Coast of Norway 
(1 : 1,500,000), 2nd Sheet: between pp. 230, 231. 

12. Map of the Djurgard near Stockholm (1 : 25,000) : p. 322. 

13. Map of the Environs of Stockholm (1 : 100,000): between 
pp. 322, 323. 

14. General Map of S. Sweden (1 : 2,000,000) : after the Index. 

15. Key Map of Norway and Sweden, showing the Routes and 
Maps of the Handbook : after the Vocabulary. 


N., S., E., W. = north, Nor- 
thern ; south, southern ; east, 
eastern ; west, western. 

M. = Norwegian mile in Nor- 
way (1 Norw. M. = 7 Engl. 
M.) , and Swedish mile in 
Sweden (1 Sw. M. = 63/ 4 Engl. 
M. , nearly) , unless the con- 
trary is stated. 

R. B., D., S., A. = room, break- 
fast, dinner, supper, atten- 

R. also = Route. 

Kr., ». = crowns and ere in 

O = ore , the form used in 

Ft. = English feet. 

A cross (f) prefixed to the name of a station indicates that it 
is 'fast' (see Introd. III.). — On all land-routes and inland lakes 
and rivers the distances are given in Norwegian or Swedish miles, 
while on sea-routes in both countries they are expressed by sea- 
miles (1 sea mile = 4 Engl. M.). — On railway and steamboat- 
routes the distances are generally reckoned from the starting- 
point of the journey, while on high-roads the distances from station 
to station are given as more convenient. 

Asterisks (*) are used as marks of commendation. 


I. Expenses. Honey. language. Passports. Post Office. 

The cost of travelling in Norway and Sweden is much more 
moderate than in most other parts of Europe, hut as the distances 
are very great and much time is consumed in traversing them by 
road, steamboat, and rowing-boat, the sum total of the traveller's 
expenses will not usually amount to much less than would be spent 
on a tour in Switzerland or the Tyrol. After arriving in the country, 
the traveller should allow at least 11. for each day of his tour, but 
less will suffice if a prolonged stay be made at one or more rest- 

Money. By the monetary conventions of 1873 and 1875 the 
currency of the the three Scandinavian kingdoms was assimilated. 
The crown (krone) is worth Is. l^j^d. and is divided into lOOparts 
called 0re in Norway and ore in Sweden (see money-table before 
the title-page). English sovereigns, each worth 18 kr., usually 
realise their full value at all the principal centres of commerce, 
but the traveller will find it more convenient to obtain an abund- 
ant supply of small notes, and perhaps of gold also, at Gothenburg, 
Stockholm , Christiania , or Ohristiansand before starting on his 
tour. At Copenhagen the exchange is generally a little more fa- 
vourable than in Norway or Sweden. The rate of exchange is often 
a few ere less than 18 kr. per pound. 

Language. English is spoken on board almost all the Nor- 
wegian steamboats and at the principal resorts of travellers both 
in Norway and Sweden, but in the country districts the native 
tongue alone is understood. The Danish language, as pronounced 
in Norway, is on the whole the most useful , especially as most 
travellers devote far more time to Norway than to Sweden. (See 
grammars and vocabularies in the removable cover at the end. of 
the volume.) 

Passports are unnecessary, except for the purpose of procuring 
delivery of registered letters. 

Post Office. The postage of a letter to Great Britain, weighing 
Y2 oz., is20e., and of a post-card 10 ere. The traveller should 
avoid giving his correspondents any poste restante address other 
than steamboat or railway stations , as the communication with 
places off the beaten track is slow and uncertain. Telegraph 
Offices are numerous in proportion to the population. 


II. Plan of Tour. 

A careful plan should lie prepared before the traveller leaves 
home, but the details must be left to be filled in as he proceeds 
on his way. The steamboat arrangements are constantly undergoing 
alteration, and the slowness and uncertainty of travelling by car- 
riole and rowing-boat often give rise to disappointment, while 
many of the traveller's movements must of course depend on the 
state of the weather. For journeys by carriole i l li-1 hours should 
be allowed for each Norwegian mile, and for boating expeditions 
2-272 hrs. per mile. 

The best season for travelling, both in Sweden and Norway, is 
from the beginning of June to the middle of September, but for 
the Jotunheim and other mountain regions July and August , as 
many of the loftier routes are apt to be obstructed by snow both 
earlier and later in the season. The gnats which swarm in some of 
the inland districts, especially in the Swedish Norrland, including 
Lapland, are a great source of annoyance and suffering , but the 
plague generally abates after the middle of August. For a voyage to 
the North Cape (fi. 23), or to Haparanda and Avasaxa (RR. 24, 39), 
for the sake of seeing the midnight sun , the best season is from 
the middle of June to the end of July. It may also be noted that 
August is often a rainy month in the eastern districts of Norway, 
while the wet season sets in somewhat later on the W. coast. 

An energetic traveller may see almost all the chief points of 
interest in Norway and Sweden in l 1 /^ months, but a thoroughly 
exhaustive tour cannot be accomplished in one season. The chief 
attractions in Norway are the fjords of the west coast , the Jotun- 
heim Mountains, and the magnificent scenery of the Nordland 
within the Arctic Circle. The chief interest of Sweden consists in 
its towns and its canals , but picturesque scenery , though on a 
smaller scale than that of Norway, also abounds. Lakes Vettern 
(R. 24. ii.) and Siljan (R. 37), the Storsjti (R. 38), the Angerman- 
elf (R. 38), and the trip from Lulea to Qvickjock (R. 39) deserve 
special mention. The routes given in the Handbook may be com- 
bined in many different ways, but a few of the favourite tours are 
subjoined asspecimens. 

i. Two or three Weeks from Christiansand. 


From Christiansand by steamer to Slavanger and Odde on the Har- 
danger Fjord, and thence to Bergen (RR. 10-12) 5-7 

From Bergen by steamer to Bolstaderen, and by road, small steamer, 
and road again to Gudvangen on the Sognefjord (R. 6) . . . . 2-3 

From Gudvangen to Lcerdalseren, and Excursion to the Jostedals- 
brw (RR. 6, 5) 3-4 

From L,£erdals0ren over the Fillefjeld to Christiania (R. 4. ii. a) . 4-6 

ii. Three or Four Weeks from Christiansand. 
From Christiansand by steamer to Arendal, and by road to Tin- 
oset; or (quicker) all the way by steamer to Skien, and thence 



liv lake steamer to Hitterdal, and by road from Hitterdal to Tin- 
oset (RR. 2, 3) 4-li 

From Tinoset to the Rjukanfos, and thence to Vinje, either via 
Tinoset or via the Totakvand (R. 3) 3-4 

From Vinje to the Haukelidscnter and Odde (R. 3) 3-4 

From Odde to Bergen and thence either via Boldstaderen as in 
Tour i, or by steamer all the way, to Lwrdalseiren (RR. 11, 12, 6, 7) 5-6 

Excursions from La:rdals0ren , and thence to Christiania as above 
(RR. 5, 4) : 7-9 

iii. Three or four Weeks from Christiania. 

From Christiania to Drammen, Kongsberg and the Rjukanfos (R. 2) 2-3 
From the Rjukanfos to Odde, Bergen, Lwrdalseren, and Christiania 
(as in Tour ii) 18-24 

iv. Three or four Weeks from Christiania. 

By steamboat from Christiania to Skien, and thence by lake steamer 
to Hitterdal; excursion thence to the Rjukanfos and hack 
(RR. 3, 2) 5-0 

From Hitterdal by road to Hvidestid and by steamer to Trisect and 

Dale; excursions from Trisect and Dale (R. 3) 5-G 

From Dale or Trisset to Odde; steamboot to Eide; road to Vosse- 
vangen and Gudvangen; and thence to Christiania (as in Tours 

ii, iii) _. 10-16 

v. Three or four Weeks from Christiania. 

From Christiania over the Fillefjeld to Lcerdalseren and Gudvangen 
(RR, 4, 6) 5-7 

From Gudvangen to Eide on the Hardanger Fjord ; thence to Odde, 

and from Odde to Bergen (RR. 11, 12) 7-9 

From Bergen by the Overland Route to Molde (R. 14) 4-5 

From Molde to the Romsdal . the Gudbrandsdal, Lillehammer and 

Christiania (RR, 15, 20) 6- 8 

vi. Four or five Weeks from Christiania. 

As in Tour v. to Molde ' 16-21 

From Molde to the head of the Romsdal and back (R. 15) ... 3-4 

From Molde by steamboat direct, or partly overland, to Thrond- 
hjem (R. 18) " 1-3 

From Throndhjem over the Dovrefjeld to Lillehammer, and thence 

to Christiania (RR. 18, 15) _. 7-9 

vii. Eight to twelve Weeks from Gothenburg. 

From Gothenburg to Trollhattan, Jbnkbping, Vadslenn, and Stock- 
holm (R. 24) 5-7 

Stockholm and Environs 3-4 

From Stockholm to Upsala, Gefle, and Hernosand (RR. 33-35, 38) 3-4 

From Hernosand to Solleftea on the Angermanelf, Ostersund, and 
Levanger in Norway (E, 38) 10-14 

From Levanger to Throndhjem; thence to the North Cape, and back 
to Throndhjem (EI!. 21-23) 15-20 

From Throndhjem over the Dovrefjeld to the Romsdal and Molde 
(R. 18) 5-6 

From Molde overland to the Sognefjord and Bergen (R. 14) . . . 4-6 

From Bergen to Odde on the Hardanger Fjord, thence to Eide, 

Gudvangen, Lcerdalseren, and Christiania, as in Tours ii, iii. 14-21 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. h> 

xviii II. PLAN OF TOUR. 

(If Sweden be omitted, and the start be made from Christiania, the 
traveller may reach Throndhjem thence by railway in two days, ttms 
reducing the above tour by 3-4 weeks.) 

Walking Tours. All the above tours are easy, being accom- 
plished almost entirely by steamboat , railway, and carriole, and 
the traveller will rarely suffer any privation worthy of mention. 
To mountaineers, pedestrians, and lovers of wild and grand scenery, 
who are prepared for occasional privations and fatigues, the follow- 
ing walks and excursions are recommended : — 

From Christiansand through the Scetersdal to the Suledalsvand and 
Odde, RR. 9, II. 

Excursions to the Buarbrw and Folgefond, the Skjceggedalsfos, the 
Veringsfos, and the walk from Ulvik to Eide, R. 11. 

From Lwrdalseren to Josledal ; back to the Ly&terfjord, and then to 
Skjolden, Fortuity and Oscarshoug, RR. 5, 17. 

From Fortun to Aardal and the Vettisfos, and thence to Lakes Tyin, 
Bygdin, and Gjendin, RR. 5, 17. 

From Lake Gjendin to the Galdhepig, the highest mountain in Nor- 
way, and to Redsheim, RR. 16, 17. 

From K0dsheim to Opstryn, and excursions at the head of the Nord- 
fjord, RR. 16, 14. 

From Hellesylt to the Norangsfjord and back, R. 13. 

From Hellesylt to Merok, and thence to Stavbrekkene and back, RR. 14, 16. 

From Merok across the mountain to Yltredal and Sylte, and thence 
to Aak in the Romsdal, R. 14. 

From Veblungsnces or from Molde to the Eikisdalsvand and Sundals- 
ei-en, R. 18. 

From Bode to the Suliljelma, R. 22. 

From Tromsa to the Lyngenfjord, R. 23. 

From Vadse to Karasjok and Xautokeino, or from Alien to Kautokeino, 
and down the wild cataracts of the Muonio Elf to Haparanda, It. 24. 

From Luleii to the Njbmmelsaska Falls and Qvickjock, and thence 
either to Bode in Norway, or back to Lulea, R. 39. 

Travellers returning southwards from Throndhjem may take the route 
thence to the Scelbo-Sjer, Kirkevold , and Reros, and from R.#ros by the 
Fcemund-Sjei and Storsje to Aamot ; see R. 20. 

Sport of all kinds has fallen off greatly in Norway and Sweden 
of late years. Excellent salmon-fishing is indeed still obtainable, 
but only at high rents, and the best rivers, such as the Namsenelv 
above Namsos, are let on long leases, chiefly to wealthy Englishmen. 
Trout fishing , however, may still be had in abundance by those 
who are prepared for some hardships. Among the best waters ('Fis- 
kevand') for trout and grayling are the Thelemarken Lakes , the 
Messna and Laagen which fall into Lake Mjwsen , the Storsje, 
Isternsje, and Fcemundsje, the Ostra Dalelf and other streams fall- 
ing into Lake Siljan in Sweden, the Lule Elf and the lakes from 
which it descends in Lapland, and many other lakes and rivers 
mentioned in the Handbook. — It is difficult now to obtain good 
shooting in Norway and Sweden , but the mountains enclosing the 
Hallingdal are still said to afford good reindeer-shooting , which 
may also be had on the Hardanger Vidde, in the neighbourhood 
of the Romsdal, near Reros, and in Lapland. Wild-fowl abound 
in many parts of Norway, particularly in the trackless forests of 
0sterdalen, in the Ostra and Vestra Dal in Dalarne, in the vicin- 


ity of the Storsjo in Jemtland, and in Lapland, but the sportsman 
■will find serious difficulties to contend with. In the first place 
a very large proportion of the mountain and forest districts, where 
the best sport is obtainable, belongs to government, and by a Nor- 
wegian law passed in 1877 200-500 crowns, according to circum- 
stances, must be paid for a license to shoot there. Persons found 
shooting without a license are liable to a fine of 200-1000 crowns. 
Although no license is required when psrmission is obtained to shoot 
over private property, the sport is generally very inferior. Another 
drawback to the sportsman's enjoyment is the difficulty of obtaining 
good or even tolerable quarters. The Swedish game-laws, however, 
are as yet much less stringent, no license being required for shoot- 
ing on unenclosed land belonging to government. 

The Close Seasons in Norway are as follows: — For heath-hen and 
black-hen (Rei and Aarhene), 15th March to 15th Aug. ; capercailzie (Tiur), 
blackcock (Aarhane), and hazel-hen (Hjerpe), 15th May to 15th Aug. ; par- 
tridge (Rapphens), 1st Jan. to 1st Sept. ; eider-duck (Edderfugl), 15th April 
to 15th Aug. (no eider-fowl to be killed in Tronis0 Stift or in the Fog- 
derier of F'osen and Namdal till the end of 1885) ; ptarmigan (Rype), 15th 
May to 15th Aug. ; reindeer (Rensdyr), 1st April to 1st Aug. ; hare (Hare), 
1st June to 15th Aug. ; elk (Elgsdyr), beaver (Bcevei-), and deer (Iljort), 
1st Nov. to 1st Aug. (but foreigners are prohibited from shooting them 
at any time). — Salmon (Lax) and sea-trout (Smerret) in rivers, estuaries, 
and lakes, 14th Sept. to 15th April ; in brooks or on the sea-coast, 14th 
Sept. to 14th Feb. 

The close seasons for game in Sweden are nearly the same, usually 
ending on 9th August. 

III. Conveyances. 

Time Tables for Norway in ^Norges Communicalioner\ for Sweden in 
^Sveriges Kommunikaiioner\ and for Denmark in the ' Reiseliste'. 

Steamboats (Norw. Dampskibe, Sw. angbatar). Most of the 
steamboats, both in Norway and Sweden, are comfortably fitted up, 
and have good restaurants on board. Travellers who are about to 
spend one or more nights on board a steamer should lose no time 
in securing a berth by personal application to the steward. In the 
smaller vessels the dining-saloon is used at night as a sleeping- 
cabin, but there is always a separate ladies'-cabin. A passenger 
travelling with his family pays full fare for himself, but is usually 
entitled to a reduction ('Moderation') of 25 per cent for each of 
the other members of the party. On most of the steamboats return- 
tickets, available for various periods, are issued at a fare and 
a half. 

The food is generally good and abundant, but vegetables are 
rare, and 'hermetiske Sager', salt relishes, and cheese always pre- 
ponderate at breakfast and supper. The usual charge for a sub- 
stantial breakfast or supper is l-l'^i for dinner 2-2 1 /2 crowns. 
Wine, beer (250. per half-bottle), tea, and coffee are all extras. 
No spirits are procurable. At 7 or 8 a.m. most passengers take a 
cup of coffee and a biscuit or rusk ('Kavringer'). The account should 
be paid daily, to prevent mistakes. The steward expects a fee of 



i/ 2 - 1 kr. for a voyage of 24 hours, but less in proportion for longer 

Railways (Norw. Jernbaner, Sw. jernvagar). Most of the rail- 
ways are similar in all respects to those of other European countries. 
Both in Norway and Sweden , however, there are several narrow- 
gauge lines (31/g ft."), with two classes only, which correspond with 
the 2nd and 3rd on the other lines. The carriages on these narrow 
lines are often badly hung and unprovided with spring-buffers, so 
that the passenger sustains a severe jolting at starting and drawing 
up. The average fares in Norway are 80, 60, and 30 0. per Norw. 
mile in the first, second, and third class respectively ; in Sweden 
75, 55, and 35 6. per Sw. mile. From 50 to 70lbs. of luggage are 
usually free. All luggage, except what the passenger takes into 
the carriage with him, must be booked. The average speed of the 
quick trains (Norw. Hurtigtog, Sw. snalltag) is 22-24 Engl. M., 
that of the mixed trains (blandede Tog, blandade tag) 15-20 Engl. 
M., and that of the goods trains (Godstog, godatag) 10-12 Engl. M. 
per hour. These last, which usually convey 2nd and 3rd class 
passengers only, are extremely tedious for long distances. All the 
trains have smoking carriages (Regekupe, rokkupe) and ladies' com- 
partments (Kvindekupe, damkupe). 

The Railway Restaurants in Norway are generally poor, but 
iii Sweden they are good and inexpensive. Passengers help them- 
selves, there being little or no attendance. Foi breakfast or supper 
the usual charge is 1 1 /4~l 1 /2 , for dinner lV4-l 3 /4 crowns; for a 
cup of coffee or half-bottle of beer 25 0. Spirituous liquors not 

Posting (Norw. Skyds, Sw. skjuts; pronounced shoss or shyss 
in each case). Sweden is so well provided with railways and in- 
land steamboat-routes that the traveller rarely has occasion to drive 
on the high-roads. In Norway, however, there are still immense 
tracts of country where the Stolkjarre (a light cart with seats 
for two persons, and generally without springs) and the Kariol-\- 
(a light gig for one person) afford the sole means of communication . 
The luggage is strapped or attached with a rope behind the trav- 
eller, and on the top of it the Skydsgut (or simply Gut) takes his 
seat, while the traveller usually drives himself. If he does so he 
will be responsible for any accident, but not if he allows the 'Gut' 
to drive from behind. The horses, or rather ponies, which are al- 
most always weak and slow, are often cruelly overdriven by for- 
eigners. The traveller should bear in mind that the average charge 
of 2-3d. per Engl, mile is very inadequate remuneration to the 

+ A comfortable carriole or a 'Trille' (open four-wheeler) may be 
bought at, Christiania, or hired for the whole journey, at moderate cost 
but serious drawbacks to this mode of travelling are the loss of inde- 
pendence thereby occasioned, and the delays and expense of conveying 
the vehicle long distances by railway, steamer, and, rowing-boat. 


Skydspligtige, or peasants who are bound to supply the horses, and 
that on this account also it is unfair to overdrive them. As a rule 
iy2"2 hrs., and sometimes more, should be allowed for each Nor- 
wegian mile (7 Engl. AL). Most of the principal roads in Norway 
have been reconstructed of late years , and are now as good and 
level as is consistent with the hilly character of the country. Some 
of the still existing older roads are extraordinarily hilly, and of 
course very trying to the horses, but they are certainly more pictur- 
esque than the new. The roads are made by government, but 
maintained by the peasantry through whose land they pass , often 
entailing on them a heavy burden. At intervals of s /^-2 l /2 Norw. 
M. there are Skydsstationer (pron. stashooner), or farmhouses 
(Gaarde) whose proprietors are bound to supply travellers with 
horses whenever required , and most of whom also provide board 
and lodging. 

Those stations where the proprietor is bound to have several 
horses always in readiness, and is liable to a fine if he keeps the 
traveller waiting for more than V4-V2 hour, are called Faste Station- 
er (i. e. 'fixed stations', where a 'fixed' number of horses is always 
in readiness), or usually by English travellers 'fast stations' (indi- 
cated in the Handbook by af). At many of the fast stations in the 
country, and at all those in towns , the owners are authorised to 
exact an increased tariff (forheiet Betaling), amounting for horse 
and carriole to 1 kr. 80 e. per mile. Another class of stations, now 
rare, except in little frequented districts, is the Tilsigelse-Stationer 
(or Shifter), where no supply of horses is kept , but the owners of 
which are bound to procure them from the neighbouring farmers. 
For the 'Tilsigelse' (from tilsige, 'to tell to', 'send to') , or trouble 
of sending for horses, the station-master (Skydsskaffer) is entitled 
to 14 0. for each. At these stations, which are justly called 'slow' 
by English travellers by way of antithesis to the 'fast', the charges 
are very low, but the traveller may often be kept waiting for several 
hours. These annoying delays are obviated by sending Forbud 
('previous message') to stations of this class, and the same remark 
applies to 'slow' boat-stations. The 'Forbud' must be sent at least 
three hours before the time at which horses are required, or better 
on the previous day. If there is regular postal communication on 
the road, the message may be sent by letter or post-card ; or it may 
be sent by any one preceding the traveller on the same route. 
Otherwise it is sent by post-card , which the post-office transmits 
to the nearest post-town or post-station, after which it is forwarded 
from station to station at a charge of 80 0. per mile (that being the 
charge for the las Hest which the messenger rides) -j-. 

Among other regulations , it may be mentioned that each pass- 
enger drawn by one horse is allowed 64lbs. ofluggage. If two per- 

t The Forbudseddel, or message , may be expressed as follows : — 
Paa Skydsskiftet (. . . name the shuionj beslilles era Hest (to Ilcsle , etc.) 


sons travel together in a Stolkjarre, for which they pay a fare and 
a half, they are allowed 24lbs. of luggage only. Lastly it should 
be noted that in hilly districts the 'Skydsskaffer' is frequently au- 
thorised to charge for more than the actual distance. Every station- 
master is bound to keep a Dagbog or day-book, in which the trav- 
eller enters his orders and records his complaints if he has any to 
make. On the first page of the 'Dagbog' is always entered the 
distance to the nearest station in each direction, whether by road or 
by small boat, so that the traveller will have little difficulty in 
calculating the fare. Strictly speaking the fare may be exacted 
before the hirer starts, but it is usually paid at the end of the stage, 
when the 'Gut', or girl (Jente) who takes his place, receives a gra- 
tuity of 20 0. per mile. The following table shows the fares exi- 
gible at the different kinds of posting-stations : • — 




From fast stationsin 

From fast stations m 

From slow stations 

towns, or those in 


in the country. 

the country, or slow 
in towns. 

the country at an in- 
creased tariff. 

~e ii 

"8 *■ "? 


T3 <u 

"e Jr "S 

"Ci <w 

~s s- ■£ 


s fc 

e ° g 


g S> 

s ° 


s fc 

g o c 


c | 

e ,2 i 


S fc 

£ ^ V 


c g 

c « V 


S} ""^ 

« o 2 1 


^ 'r^- 

» =■ 2* 


*> --^. 

tu o ^ 


•s -a 

"3 'r s 


OD -^ 

n -~ g 


eio »J£ 

K -~ g 


&- "^ 

s. J- -S 


*■ "S 

&. &- -S3 


*■ "S 

*. S- -S 


o o 

o h ^- 


o o 

O *- V- 


o o 

O h &■ 


a; as 

as 8 & 


Erj 5q 

» = a. 


fcq So 

tB 8 8. 

kr. 0. 

kr. 0. 

kr. 0. 

kr. 0. 

kr. 0. 


kr. 0. 

kr. 0. 

kr. 0. 

y 2 










5 /s 




























































For a saddle and bridle the usual charge is 7»., for a pack- 
saddle (KLevsadel) 4». per mile. 

For the transmission of passengers and their luggage by boat 

med Karjol (Karjoler) eller StoUjcerre (Stolkjwrrer) Mcmdagen den 20. Juli, 
Formiddagen (Eftermiddagen) Klokken et (*o, (re, etc.). Paa same Tid varm 
Frokost for en Person (to, tre Personer). 

Date & Place. Signature. 

The station-master may dismiss the horses if the traveller is more 
than 2 1 ,'■• hours late, and after the first hour of waiting he may exact 
Ventepenge or 'waiting-money'. 


(Baadskyds or Vandskyds) the regulations are similar. The follow- 
ing table shows the usual fares : — 


From fast coun- 

From slow sta- 

From fast sta- 

try stations with 

From fast sta- 

tions in 


tions i 

n the 

raised tariff, and 



from slow town- 

tions in towns. 


2 men with 
four oars 
and sail. 

3 men with 
six oars 
and sail. 

2 men with 
four oars 
and sail. 

3 men with 
six oars 
and sail. 

2 men with 
four oars 
and sail. 

3 men with 
six oars 
and sail. 

2 men with 

four oars 
and sail. 

3 men with 
six oars 
and sail. 

kr. 0. 

kr. 0. 

kr. 0. 

kr. 0. 

kr. 0. 

kr. 0. 

kr. 0. 

kr. 0. 

l h 





1. 7 




5 /h 

1. 1 





2. 1 



3 U 









7 /8 



























I1/4 2. 1 

3. 1 







Travellers accompanied by a guide may always employ him as 
a rower, and thus dispense with one of the boat's usual crew. Each 
rower generally wields (or 'sculls' with) two oars. A boat manned 
with two rowers is therefore called a Firring, or four-oared boat, 
one manned with three rowers a Sexrlng, and with four rowers an 
Ottering. The number of persons accommodated depends on the 
size of the boat. For a large party, or where speed is desired, three 
or four rowers had better be taken. If no sail is required , a de- 
duction of 13 or 27 0. from the above charges is made for a four- 
oared and six-oared boat respectively. For the 'Tilsigelse' of each 
man at a slow station the charge is 7». , and in the country a charge 
of 7 0. more is made for ordering an eight or ten-oared boat. Far- 
ther information, if desired, will be found in the Lommereiseroute 
('pocket travelling itinerary'), published every summer by Abel- 
sted of Christiania (price 1 kr. 3«.). The exact fare, however, 
may always be ascertained by enquiry on the spot, and attempts at 
extortion are happily rare. 

Pedestrian Tours. Neither Norway nor Sweden is suitable for 
long walking excursions, as the distances are too great , and the 
points of interest lie too far apart. Many of the expeditions re- 
commended above to the notice of pedestrians and mountaineers 
may be accomplished on horseback, but there is no lack of glacier- 
excursions and mountain-ascents which can be undertaken on foot 

xxiv IV. LUGGAGE. 

only. In mountainous regions, as well as on high roads, the natives 
usually reckon the distances by Norwegian miles. On an ordinary 
road a mile may easily be walked in two hours, but on rough ground 
three hours at least should be allowed for each mile. 

IV. luggage. Equipment. Tourist Club. 

Luggage. Travellers who intend to perform the whole of their 
tour in Norway and .Sweden by railway and steamboat need not 
restrict the quantity of their luggage, but those who purpose tra- 
velling by carriole should, if possible, limit themselves to 30-40 
lbs., and this had better be divided between a small and strong 
wooden box and a carpet-bag, to which may be added a wallet or 
game-pouih to be used on occasional walking excursions. If long 
expeditions on horseback are contemplated, 32 lbs. must be the 
limit, that being the quantity (2 'Lispund') which a rider may carry 
with him ; if that limit be exceeded, a sumpter-horse (Packhest, 
with a Klevsndel) which will carry 192 lbs. (12 'Lipsund') must be 
hired. A soft or compressible portmanteau is not recommended, as 
the 'Skydsgut', who is sometimes a ponderous adult, always sits on 
the luggage strapped on behind. A supply of stout cord and sev- 
eral straps will be found useful, and a strong umbrella is indis- 

Equipment. The traveller is recommended to avoid the common 
error of overburdening himself with 'articles de voyage', eatables, 
tea, or anything not absolutely necessary. On all the ordinary 
routes, and even in some of the remoter places, tolerable food can 
almost always be obtained. Spirits are not to be had at the inns or 
on board the steamboats, but good Cognac may be purchased at any 
of the large towns for 4-5 kr. per bottle. A superabundance of cloth- 
ing should also be eschewed. Two strong, but light Tweed suits, 
a moderate supply of underclothing, a pair of light shoes for steam- 
boat and carriole use, and a pair of extra-strong Alpine boots for 
mountaineering ought to suflice. Lastly a couple of square yards 
of stout waterproof material, to be used as a wrapper for coats and 
rugs, or for covering the knees in wet weather, will complete the 
traveller's equipment. The aprons (Skvatlceder) of the carrioles, it 
may here be observed, are often dilapidated, so that a waterproof 
coat and rug are very desirable. Visitors to Lapland should also 
be provided with veils to keep off the gnats. Ladies travelling in 
Norway should also dress as simply, strongly, and comfortably as 
possible, eschewing all superfluous ornament. Those who aspire to 
the rougher mountain tours should be provided with stout gaiters 
or leggings. 

Tourist Club. The Norske Turistforening ('tourist union') ex- 
tends its useful sphere of operations throughout almost every part 
oi'Norway. These consist in building refuge-huts, improving moun- 
tain paths, establishing tariffs for guides and boats, and otherwise 


watching over the interests of travellers. The subscription is only 
4 kr. per annum, for which a copy of the 'Aarbog' will be sent to 
the traveller through the medium of any Norwegian address he 
names. The members are always received with marked courtesy 
in the mountainous regions, and enjoy a preference in the case of 
a competition for accommodation at the club huts. Travellers may 
enrol themselves at W. Schmidt's (p. 2) at Christiania, at the 
shop of Bers, the jeweller, at Bergen, at Brcekstad's in Throndhjem, 
at Aars\ the Landhandler at Fagerlund (p. 39), and many other 
places. The club-button (Klupknap), which members wear as a 
distinctive badge, costs 8O0. more. 

Guides usually receive 4 kr. per day, and on the expiry of their 
engagement have to return home at their own cost. 

V. Hotels and Inns. 

Except in the capitals and a few of the larger towns, hotels of 
the first class are rare in Sweden and still rarer in Norway, but 
second class hotels and unpretending country inns are abundant 
in proportion to the population, affording, as a rule, cheap and 
very tolerable accommodation. The hotels at Christiania, Christian- 
sand, Bergen , and Throndhjem are all as expensive as similar 
houses in Germany or Switzerland. In Stockholm , on the other 
hand, the charges at the three principal hotels are reasonable, and 
in several of the other Swedish towns (Karlstad, Linkoping, Norr- 
koping, Malmo, etc.) there are excellent hotels with very moderate 
charges. At the stations or wayside inns in Norway the usual charge 
for a bed is 80 0. to lkr., for breakfast 1, supper 1, and dinner 
l 1 / 2 _ 2kr., while the servant (generally a Pige or Jente) is amply 
satisfied with a fee of 30-400. from each person (Norw. Drikke- 
penge, Sw. drickspengar). The country inns (gastgifvaregardar) in 
Sweden are usually cleaner than those in Norway, but in the less 
frequented districts they afford very poor accommodation. In remote 
places the traveller is sometimes asked to share a room and even a 
bed with another. In Norway travellers are generally conveyed to 
or from the railway station or steamboat-quay by the hotel-omnibus- 
es free of charge. 

Tables d'hote are almost unknown in Sweden , except at the 
Grand Hotel at Stockholm, and are rare in Norway, except in the 
principal towns. On board of all the steamboats, however, they are 
the rule. All the Swedish and Norwegian hotels have a restaurant 
attached to them, where most of the natives dino and sup <i la carte. 
The Smorgasbord or Brdnnvinsbord, where relishes of various kinds, 
bread-and-butter, and brandy and liqueurs are served by way of 
a stimulant to the appetite, is an institution peculiar to Sweden. 
The following dishes are among the commonest in the Mnl.sci.ldH or 
Spiseseddet (bill of fare) at the restaurants : — 



. Knolish. 



. English. 







































Roast veal 












Roast mut 


i Poli'tes 
\ Kartofler 










Roast veni- 










Roast rein 













Red wine 






White wine llvidtvin 




01 (short) 


01, bier. 




Beer is the beverage usually drunk (halv Flask or halfva buielj, 
20-250.), but good Bordeaux and other wines are procurable at the 
better inns and on board all the steamers. Porter has also come 
into vogue of late years, particularly at Gothenburg and Stockholm. 
Spirit-drinking, which used to prevail to an enormous extent, has 
been greatly diminished by recent — 

Liquor Laws. In Norway, where the liquor-traffic was formerly al- 
most entirely free, the consumption of raw spirits amounted in 1833 to 
28 quarts per head of the entire population. Owing to the raising of the 
duty and to the efforts of temperance societies the quantity was reduced 
in 1843 to 17 ! /2 pints per head, and in 1871-73 to about 9 pints per head 
per annum. In 1874 and 1875 the average consumption rose to nearly 12 
pints for each person per annum, but the recent introduction of a 'per- 
missive bill' has again caused a great reduction and is said to have been 
attended with the most beneficial results. By the laws of 9th June, 1866, 
3rd May, 1871, and 22nd May, 1875, the authorities of each district may, 
by a majority, refuse to grant any license for the retail sale of spirits 
within their district, or they may grant a monopoly of the spirit-trade 
to a company which is bound to pay the whole of its profits to the 
municipality, after deduction of expenses and 5 per cent interest. The 
former option has been exercised in many country-districts, with the 
result that drunkenness is now almost unknown and that poverty, crime, 
and disease are greatly diminished. The other alternative has been 
adopted in many of the larger towns, such as Bergen and Christiansand, 
with the result that drunkenness and crime are much less frequent than 
formerly, and that a considerable revenue is yielded to the municipality 
for the support of the improvident classes. The sale of spirits is entirely 
prohibited on Sundays and saints' days, and also on Saturdays and the 
eves of festivals after 5 p.m. — The laws restricting the sale of wine 
and beer are similar, but of a much less stringent character. 

In Sweden the leading statute regulating the retail spirit-trade was 
passed on 24th August, 1877, partly in consequence of the success which 
for several years previously had attended the 'Gothenburg licensing sys- 
tem 1 . Its provisions are similar to those of the Norwegian statutes, and 
by § 3 it is farther provided that food shall always be sold at spirit-shops. 
By §§ 10, 14 it is enacted that the authorities of a district may either 
sell one or more licenses, in accordance with the requirements of the 
place, by auction to the highest, bidder, or to a company which shall 
pay the whole of its surplus profits to the municipality, or they may by 
a majority refuse to grant any license for the retail sale of spirits. Again 


by § 17, no license will be granted to any one in a town, except on his 
undertaking to pay duty on at least 1200 Kannor at the rate of 25 0. per 
Kanna (2'/s quarts) of spirits sold for consumption elsewhere, or at the 
rate of 40 0. per kanna of spirits consumed on the premises. The mini- 
mum quantity on which duty must he paid in the country is 600 Kannor. 
j\ license in a town, if granted at all, therefore costs 300-480 kr., and in 
the country one-half of that sum. By § 28 spirit-shops are closed in the 
country, and in towns they may he closed by order of the authorities, 
on Sundays and festivals. — In October, 1877, the municipality of Stock- 
holm, under § 10 of the statute, granted the sole license to retail spirits 
to a company similar to that at Gothenburg, and the police statistics 
show that drunkenness and crime have already decreased. 

Travellers requiring to leave a country inn early in the morn- 
ing should make all their arrangements and give their orders on 
the previous night, as the people are generally very slow in their 
movements. When lodging is obtained at the house of a 'Lens- 
inand' or a pastor, the traveller may either ask for the hill, or pay 
at least as much as would have been charged at an inn. — Cafes 
are almost unknown in Norway, but are to be found in all the lar- 
ger Swedish towns. One of their specialties is the famous Swedish 
punch, a mixture of rum or arrak with lemon-juice and sugar, 
which is drunk as a liqueur and undiluted. "With ice in summer 
it is a palatable, but not very wholesome beverage. 

VI. National Character. 

The Swedes are generally pleasant and courteous in their man- 
ners, and very hospitable and obliging to strangers, but by ordinary 
tourists, who traverse the country by railway and steamboat, they 
are seldom seen to advantage. 

With the Norwegians, on the other hand, whose country, in 
pleasant, old-world fashion, must be explored chiefly by driving, 
riding, or walking, the traveller will have ample opportunity of 
becoming better acquainted. Principal Forbes, the learned author of 
a standard work on Norway, calls the natives 'a free, intelligent, and 
fine-hearted people', and the definition is still correct, particularly 
with regard to those who are somewhat removed from the influen- 
ces of modern 'civilisation'. Sincerity, honesty, and freedom from 
conventional cant are the chief national virtues. In the country 
the traveller will often find the people inquisitive, their usual 
questions being — 'Are you an Engelskmand ? Where do you come 
from, and where are you going to? Have you ever been here be- 
fore '?' On the other hand they are quite prepared to answer ques- 
tions in their turn, and are particularly communicative if the tra- 
veller speaks the language and takes an interest in their country. 
The outward forms of politeness are very little observed. On arriv- 
ing at an inn or a station the traveller is seldom welcomed by the 
host or hostess, and on his departure he is treated with the same 
apparent neglect. The omission of such attentions arises partly 
from the independent position of many of the station-masters, with 
whom innkeeping is quite a subsidiary branch of business, and 

xxviii VII. MAPS. 

partly from the national unobtrusiveness and simplicity of character. 
Of true politeness and genuine kindness there is seldom any lack. 
The democratic character of the people manifests itself m the free- 
dom with which the peasant , the guide, and the Skydsgut seat 
themselves at the same table with the traveller, and it is not un- 
common for them on the termination of their employment to invite 
the traveller to drink a parting 'Flask 01' with them at their ex- 
pense; but all this is done with perfect propriety and politeness. 
On receiving a gratuity, the recipient usually shakes hands with 
the donor in token of his gratitude. Persons who object to such 
demonstrations had better abstain from visiting Norway. The na- 
tional honesty and other virtues of the Norwegians are the outcome 
of good education and high principle. They are uniformly well 
educated and intelligent, often unaffectedly pious and devout, and 
generally a God-fearing, law-abiding people. Occasionally, how- 
ever, their piety degenerates into superstition and mysticism , as 
in the case of the 'Haugianer'. 

From what has already been said the traveller will rightly 
conclude that extortion, dishonesty, and incivility are rarely met 
with in Norway. In some cases, in parts of Thelemarken for 
example, somewhat high charges are asked on the ground that they 
are not higher than would be paid at Christiania, but they are 
rarely insisted on if the traveller remonstrates. Lastly it may be 
observed that in many cases in which travellers have had cause to 
complain of incivility or overcharging, the offence has been oc- 
casioned by the unreasonableness of their requirements and still 
oftener by their own want of politeness and consideration. 

VII. Maps. 

In maps of an extensive, but sparsely peopled country like the 
Scandinavian peninsula there is abundant space for names, and as 
there is no lack of these (see below, 'Nomenclature') the traveller 
will often be misled by their apparent importance. In mountain- 
ous and remote districts particularly, each farm-house and even 
many insignificant 'sajters' or chalets are named in almost as bold 
type as Christiania itself. In the maps in the Handbook the 
names of unimportant 'gaards' have been omitted, but those of 
churches carefully marked. Where several different names are 
applied to the same place that most commonly used is given. As 
the spelling (see below, 'Nomenclature' ) of many of the Norwe- 
gian names differs in different maps and geographical works, 
several discrepancies between the names in the letter-press and 
those in the maps will be observed, which, so far as possible, will 
be removed in a future edition, while several new special maps 
will also be prepared. 

In Norway a series of Ordnance Maps, the publication of 
which began in 1826, on the scale of 1 : 200,000, has been com- 


pleted only as far as the northern boundary of Hcdemarken, Kris- 
tiansamt, and Nordre Bergenhus Amt. That of the important 
Romsdals Amt has not yet been published. These maps are exe- 
cuted entirely in black, and are often indistinct, as most of the 
plates have suffered from frequent use. A series of 200 new ord- 
nance maps on a scale of 1 : 100,000, called the 'Topografisk Kart 
over Kongeriget Norge" (water coloured blue, mountains shaded in 
chalk), is now in progress, but 15 plates only have as yet been 
issued. Of a ' Oeneralkart over det sydlige Norge', on a scale of 
1 : 400,000 (in three colours), 5 sheets only have been published. 
The maps of these two series exhibit a good many striking discre- 
pancies. The same remark applies to Professor Munch's maps of 
l Det Nordlige Norge' and 'Det Sydlige Norgc', on a scale of 1 : 700, 000, 
originally published in 1852, and revised in 1878 (four plates, 
published by J. W. Cappelen, Christiania), when compared with 
' Waligorski fy Wergeland's Veikart over Norge' (1 :1, 000, 000 ; two 
plates, published by J. Dybwad, Christiania). For ordinary use 
the latter maps are the most satisfactory. Lastly we may mention 
'Haffner $ DahVs Kart over Finmarkens Amt' (1:400,000; two 
plates) and the recently published 'Kart over Tromse Ami 
(1:200,000; two plates). 

Of Sweden, on the other hand, there exists a most satisfactory, 
though still uncompleted, ordnance map, called the 'Oeneralstahens 
Karta ofver Sverige' (water coloured blue), on a scale of 1 : 100,000. 
The southern provinces, extending as far as Gefle and Lctaforss, 
will occupy 102 plates, about half of which are published. — An- 
other excellent map is the 'Generalkarta ofver Sverige' (1 : 100,000), 
in three plates, of which the two southernmost have been issued. 
— We may also mention the 'Lanskartor' (1 : 200,000) and the 
1 Atlas ofver Sveriges Llin och Stdder by Dr. M. Roth. 

VIII. Topographical Nomenclature. 

In Norway and Sweden , the former in particular, the spelling 
and pronunciation of the names of places is very variable. In 
Sweden the modified a and o are written a and 6, but in Norway 
usually a and 0, while a and also sometimes occur, the latter 
being used by some writers to indicate the short sound of the 
letter. Again in Norway aa, au, ou, and are frequently inter- 
changed, as in Laag, Laug, Long, or Log, 'river', and Haug or 
Houg, 'hill'. The vowels 0, u, and y, especially when short, are 
also frequently interchanged , while their pronunciation is nearly 
identical , as Lykke or Lekke, 'happiness' (also 'villa', 'country- 
house'), Stel or Stul, 'sseter', 'chalet'. Lastly it may be observed 
that in many words g and k, when hard, are used indifferently, as 
Agershus or Akershus , Egersund or Ekersund , Vig or Vik. — In 
the Danish or Norwegian language the letter to does not occur, but 


in Swedish v and w are constantly interchanged, the latter having 
of late come more into vogue. 

In both countries the traveller will often be struck by the 
simplicity and primitiveness of the nomenclature, names signify- 
ing merely 'the creek', 'the promontory', 'the lake', 'the end of 
the lake', 'the river', 'the river valley', 'the valley river' recurring 
very frequently. Farm-houses again usually take their names 
from their proprietors, and the converse is also often the case. 
The following is a list of several Norwegian words of frequent re- 
currence (re and being placed last in the alphabet) : — 

Aak, Ok, probably contracted Mork, Merk, forest, sometimes a 

from Aaker or Ager , field, 

cultivated land. 
Aar, from Aa, river. 
Aas, hill. 

Aur, earth, gravelly soil. 
Bra, glacier. 
Bu, Be, 'Gaard', hamlet. 
By, town, village. 
Bygd, parish, district, hamlet. 
Dal, valley. 

Egg, corner, edge, ridge. 
Ekle, isthmus, neck of land. 
Elv, river. 
Fjeld, mountain. 
Fjord, bay, arm of the sea. 
Fos, waterfall. 
Fjare, beach, strand. 
Gaard , farm - house (Engl. 

Haug, Houg, hill. 
Hei, Heia, barren height. 
Helle, slab of stone, rock, cliff. 
Hyl, Hel, hollow, basin. 
Kirke, church. 
Kleo, cliff. 

Kvam, Qvam, ravine. 
Laag, Log, Laug, Loug, river. 
Mark, field. 

'mountain-tract . 
Nut, mountain-top, peak. 
Nas, nose, promontory. 
Odde, tongue of land, promontory. 
Ose, 0s, mouth, estuary. 
Plads, hamlet, clearing. 
Prcestegaard, parsonage. 
Reigja, Reia, Reie, parish. 
Sater, 'chalet', mountain-farm, 

cowherds' hut. 
Stul, Stel, see 'Saeter'. 
Stue, wooden house, saeter, hut. 
Sund, strait, ferry. 
Tind, peak. 
Tjarn , Tjem , or Kjcern , small 

mountain-lake, 'tarn'. 
Tuft , site of a house , plot of 

ground (theEnglish and Scotch 

provincial word 'toft'). 
Ur, rubble, loose stones. 
Vaag, bay, harbour. 
Vand, Vatn, water, lake. 
Vang, meadow, pasture. 
Vas, contracted genit. of 'Vand'. 
Vig, Vik, creek. 
0, island. 

0e,0y, peninsula, tongue of land. 
0rt, 0yr, alluvial soil, tongue 

of land. 

Mo, Mog, plain, dale. 

Many places have two or more different names, one usually 
applying to the church, another to the principal 'gaard', a third 
to the posting-station, and so on, the number of names being some- 
times in an inverse ratio to the importance of the place. In the 
following examples the name most frequently used is placed first, 
but in some cases two or more names are used equally often : 


Aahjem, Vanelven, p. 113. Bena, see Aamot. 

Aarnot. Arnestad , Nordre Moen, Skeaker, Aanstad, p. 154. 

Bena , Sorknces , 0degaard (six Skjceggedalsfos , Bingedalsfos, 

in all), p. 204. p. 100. 

Aanstad, Skeaker, p. 154. Skjaggestad, Bingebo, p. 139. 

Eidfjord, 0ifjord, Vik, p. 63. Slamstad, Andvord, p. 143. 

Elverum, Vestby, p. 204. Storklevstad, Kvam, p. 138. 

Krederen, Sundvolden, p. 29. Seholt, 0rskog, p. 128. 

Moen, Sel, p. 137. Serum, Vaage, Svee, p. 142. 

Norheimssund , Sandven , Viker, Tenset, Bamsmoen, p. 202. 

p. 89. Ulvik, Brakences, p. 91. 

IX. On the Physical Geography of Scandinavia. 

Situation. Geological Formation. Coast Line. 

Scandinavia, the largest peninsula in Europe, embracing the 
kingdom of Norway on the W. and N. sides, Sweden on the E. and 
S., and part of Russia to the N.E., is about 296,500 Engl. sq. M. 
in area. It extends from S.S.W. to N.N.E. between 55° 20' and 
70° 10' N. latitude, being upwards of 1100 Engl. M. in length. 
Between the Gulf of Bothnia and the N.W. coast its breadth is 
about 260 Engl. M., and towards the S. its breadth gradually in- 
creases, though at the point where the Throndhjem Fjord forms a 
deep indentation it narrows to 160 M. Farther to the S., in 
latitude 60° (that of Christiania and Upsala), the width increases 
to 435 M., beyond which Norway terminates in a rounded penin- 
sula ending in Cape Lindesnaes (58° 59'), while the S. part of 
Sweden forms another peninsula to the S.E. of the Christiania 
Fjord, gradually narrowing, and terminating in the promontory of 
Falsterbo (55° 20') near Copenhagen. The entire coast-line of the 
peninsula, disregarding its innumerable indentations, measures 
2060 M. in length, the part between Cape Lindesnaes and Vadsa 
alone measuring 1250 M. 

The peninsula contains no distinct mountain-ranges like those 
occurring in most other countries, but mainly consists in its W. 
part of a vast elevated plateau, descending abruptly to the western 
fjords and sloping gradually down to the plains of Sweden and the 
Gulf of Bothnia on the E. side. Roughly speaking, a line drawn 
parallel with the W. coast, about 50-60 Engl. M. inland, mark9 
the boundary of the mountain plateau, the W. margin of which is 
deeply indented with innumerable bays and creeks, and fringed 
with a belt of countless rocky islands. The latter are known as 
Skjmr (Sw. skar), and the island-belt as the Skjargaard (skdrgard), 
To different parts of the mountain-plateau are applied the names 
of Fjeld ('fell'), Heidar ('heights'), and Vidder ('widths', barren 

xxxii IX. I'HYSrCAL GEOGRAlh i. 

expanses), and in the N. part of the peninsula Kjeler ('mountain- 
ranges), and from it rise at intervals rounded and occasionally 
pointed peaks of considerable height. 

The Mountains are composed almost entirely of primary rocks, 
presenting nearly the same form as when originally solidified, and 
rarely overlaid with more recent formations, so that for the geolo- 
gist they possess the charm of the most hoar antiquity. These 
primary rocks consist of granite, gneiss, mica, horneblende slate, 
quarzite, clay slate, limestone, and dolomite, disposed in the form 
of strata, corresponding with which are occasional well-defineil 
layers of more recent si ate -formations and particularly of lime- 
stone. At places, notably in the Romsdal, or Valley of the Kauma, 
the gneiss, the oldest of these rocks, towers in most imposing 
pinnacles, 5000-6000 ft. in height, unencumbered by any later 
formations. That valley extends from the Moldefjord to the S.E., 
intersecting the pure gneiss rock, which rises on each side in almost 
perpendicular cliffs, 2000-3000 ft. in height , and is afterwards 
prolonged by the Gudbrandsdal descending to Lake Mjtfsen. In 
grandeur of rock-scenery, and in the purity of its formation, this 
magnificent valley is hardly inferior to the far-famed \osemite 
Valley of the Sierra Nevada in California. 

About the year 1840 rocks of the Silurian Formation were 
discovered by geologists in the vicinity of the Christiania Fjord, and 
since that date other deposits of that period have been found in 
Skane, Western Gotland, the island of Gotland, Herjeadalen, and 
Jcmteland in Sweden, and also on the banks of Lake Mjesen and 
in Throndhjems Stift in Norway, but nowhere of great extent. The 
largest Silurian basin in the peninsula is that of the Storsjo in 
Jemteland, a lake of 2580 Engl. sq. M. in area. 

One of the most instructive sections of the country is formed 
by the route from Sundsvall in Sweden to Ostersund on the Storsjo 
and Throndhjem in Norway. The primitive crystalline rocks of 
Jemteland are first replaced by limestone, extending to the E. 
bank of the lake, where the Silurian formations begin. These 
stretch westwards to the great mountain backbone of Sweden and 
Norway. On this route rises Areskutan, the highest mountain in 
Sweden (p. 349), pan of the base of which on the E. and W. sides 
belongs to the Silurian formation, while the primary rocks, con- 
sisting of quartzite, horneblende, mica-slate, and gneiss, protrude 
through it all the way to the summit. From this vantage-ground 
we obtain an excellent idea of the character of the Scandinavian 
mountains. Many of the hills, rounded and worn by glacier-action, 
are almost entirely bare, or clothed only with lichens (Cetruria 
cucullata nivalis, Cronicularia ochroleuca, etc.), and present an 
exceedingly sombre and dreary appearance. The slopes of the 
intervening basins are often well wooded, but the lower plateaux 
are mainly covered with vast tracts of lake and marsh. 


Coal occurs here and there hi the peninsula. The coal-measures 
of Helsingborg at the S. extremity of the peninsula arc of con- 
siderable value and extent. On the island of Ande, one of the 
Vesteraalen group, in latitude 69°, a bed of coal was also recently 
discovered at the mouth of the Ramsaa, but investigation has proved 
it to be of little value. The condition, however, of its organic re- 
mains proves that the island must have been subjected to violent 
convulsions about the period when the coal was formed. Under 
the sea extends a thick seam of coal , above which lie strata of 
sandstone, clay-slate, and later coal, extending into the island. 
The island must therefore have at one period been more extensive 
than now, and thickly clothed with vegetation , after which it ap- 
pears to have been submerged and then upheaved anew. 

The configuration of the mainland must at one time have differ- 
ed greatly from its present form. That it was once higher above 
the sea than now, is proved by the formation of the coast with its 
water and ice-worn fjords, straits, and isthmuses (Eid). On the 
other hand the sea appears within recent centuries to have receded 
at places. This was first observed by Celsius (A. 1744) and Linne 
(d. 1778), who caused marks to be made on the rocks at Kalmar 
and Gefle with a view to measure the retrocession of the sea, by 
the German naturalist Hell at Varde in 1769, and by L. v. Buck, 
the geologist, in 1807. Throughout avast tract, extending from 
Spitzbergen to about latitude 62°, the whole country is ascertained 
to be gradually rising, or the sea to be receding. In the Altenfjord, 
near Hammerfest, there are ancient coast-lines 620 ft. above the 
present sea-level, and others gradually decreasing in height extend 
all the way to Throndhjem and still farther S., while at Throndhjem 
itself a rise of 20 ft. within 1000 years is well authenticated. At 
Tornea, at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia, the ground is even 
said to have risen 5 ft. in a century ; in the Aland Islands, farther 
S., a rise of 3 ft. within the same time has been observed ; while at 
Karlshrona no change of level has been detected. To the S. of 
Karlskrona, on the other hand, a gradual depression of the land or 
encroachment of the sea appears to be taking place. These cal- 
culations are probably not very trustworthy, but careful measure- 
ments made at eleven different places between 1839 and 1865, 
proved that the average rise of the coast-line between Maase and 
Christiania during that period was 1 foot. According to Kjerulf, 
the most eminent of the Norwegian geologists, the elevation of the 
coast has taken place fitfully, as several facts tend to prove. Thus 
it will generally be observed that in all the Norwegian valleys and 
fjords there are several distinct terraces, between which there is a 
sudden and well-defined dip, and that the old coast lines , with 
their heaps of debris , descend abruptly at their lower ends at an 
angle of 25-30°. Again it will be noticed that the different water- 
levels on the rocks are marked by a kind of disintegrated pathway 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. C 


or furrow, each separated from its neighbour by a comparatively 
intact and unworn surface. 

In glancing at the Glaciers of Norway, the traveller will ob- 
serve that all the most important are situated to the S. of latitude 
67°. Even so far N. as Novaja Semlja, in lat. 72°, there are no 
glaciers of considerable size. The most extensive is the Jostedals- 
bra (p. 54), lying between lat. 61° and 62°, 515 Engl. sq. M. in 
area, and the largest glacier in Europe. In form it resembles an 
enormous roof, from which a number of offshoots descend to within 
150-200 ft. of the sea-level. A similar ice-mantle is that of the 
Folgefond (p. 87), a little to the S. of lat. 60°, and another of 
vast extent is that of Svartisen (p. 217), within the Arctic Circle. 
The upper parts of these glaciers form immense and comparatively 
level expanses of dazzling ice and snow, uninterrupted by moraines 
or crevasses , except where their ramifications descend into the 
valleys, and rarely broken by peaks rising above them. These 
plateaux of ice accordingly correspond with the mountain - con- 
figuration peculiar to Norway, and on a small scale they afford an 
idea of the character of the glaciers which once covered the whole 
country. Of that period numerous traces still exist in Scandinavia 
as well as on the Baltic coasts. Striated rocks are everywhere 
observable, from the coast-line upwards ; the debris of moraines is 
distributed over every part of the country ; and the soil formed by 
glacier-friction now forms good cultivable land and affords abun- 
dant material for brick-making. Erratic Blocks seem to have 
been first deposited in S. .Sweden by the glaciers on their south- 
ward course, and they abound in N. Germany, sometimes lying a 
few feet only below the surface of the soil , sometimes clustered 
together with sand, mud , o and gravel, and rising into hills of 70- 
185 ft. in height, called Asar in Sweden , and known in Ireland 
and Scotland as escars and kames. 

The coast is indented with innumerable Fjords, almost all of 
which have several minor ramifications. Similar indentations occur 
in the precipitous W. coast of N. America, extending northwards 
from the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and on the S. American coast, to 
the S. of the Island of Chiloe, and on a smaller scale there are 
numerous fjords on the W. and E. coasts of Greenland, in Spitz- 
bergen, Novaja Semlja, and on the W. coasts of Iceland, Scotland, 
and Ireland. All these fjord-formations cease within 40-50° from 
the equator, and at the same time they generally correspond with 
the rainiest regions of the countries where they occur. The E. coast 
of Scandinavia was probably also at one time indented with fjords 
to which the numerous inland lakes once belonged, but which have 
gradually been filled up by the alluvial deposits of the rivers. That 
the fjords have been formed, as would naturally be supposed bv 
the erosive action of ice and water, seems to be disproved bv' the 
fact that they are often much deeper than the sea beyond their 


mouths. The Sognefjord, for example, is no less than 4100 ft. 
deep at places. The fact appears rather to be that these basins 
existed before the glacier era. They are generally narrow and 
deep, and with the exception of those in E. Finmarken , they lie 
at right angles to the axis of the mountains. On the banks of the 
fjords usually extends a strip of fertile and sheltered land which 
has attracted a considerable population. 

The immense and intricate archipelago of the Skjaergaard 
(skargard), or island-belt, which affords admirable shelter to the 
coasting steamers, accompanies nearly the whole of the Scandina- 
vian coast from Vadse to Haparanda. The only considerable inter- 
vals are in the Arctic Ocean near the North Cape, off the mouth of 
the Foldenfjord (64 , / 2 ) ) off Jcedern and Lister (between 58° and 
59°), and opposite the coasts of Halland and Skane in Sweden. 
"Within the Arctic Circle are a considerable number of large islands, 
the Kvale, on which Hammerfest is situated, the Seiland, Sere, 
Stjerne, Kaage, Arne, Varne, Ringsvadse, and Hvale ; between 
the last and the mainland is the Tromse , with the town of that 
name ; then Senjen and the Vesteraalen and Lofoden Islands. Of 
the last-named group the first is the Hinde, the largest island in 
Norway (644 Engl. sq. M.), to the S. of which there are others of 
considerable size. All these islands, particularly those near the 
Arctic Circle, are mountainous, and many of them present strik- 
ingly picturesque forms. Among the finest are the Hestmandse, 
Threnen, Lovunden, Alstene with the 'Seven Sisters', and the sin- 
gular Torghmtta, all of which are described in the Handbook 
(pp. 215-19). 

The great resource of the busy coast-population is the Cod 
Fishery, besides which the Herring, Oyster, and Lobster Fisheries 
and Seal Hunting yield a considerable revenue. The great fishing- 
banks of the Lofoden Islands are mentioned at p. 225. These 
fisheries support a population of no less than 100,000 souls. The 
annual yield of the cod-fishery is estimated at l,300,000i., and 
that of the seal-hunting (Phoca vitulina) at 55,600£., while about 
a million and a half of lobsters are annually exported to England 
alone. Herrings formerly abounded near Stavanger, but disap- 
peared from 1784 to 1808, during which period cod were abundant 
in that neighbourhood. In 1808 the cod in their turn disappeared 
and the herring returned, but since 1869 the former have again 
been found in their old haunts. The shoals of cod and herring are 
usually attended by a kind of whale (Balenoptera musculus), which 
was formerly supposed to prey on the latter, but this is ascertained 
to be erroneous. The oyster-fishery is chiefly carried on on the S. 
coast near Kragere, and on the W. coast near Finnaas in Send- 
hordland , near Lindaas in Nordhordland , near Veslnces in the 
Romsdalsfjord, by the Bjcere, and near Vigten in the Namsdal. The 
Salmon Fishery is also of considerable importance. Among the 


most famous rivers are the Drammenselv, the NumedaMuay, the 
Ongneelv in Jsederen, the Suledalselv in Ryfylke, the Rauma and 
Driva in the Romsdal , the <?«Ja near Throndhjem , the Namsen 
in the Namsdal, and the Altenelv and Tana in Finmarken. 

These valuable resources of the coast-districts, compared with 
which the Opland or inland districts offer little or no attraction to 
settlers, have also given rise to the important Maritime Trade of 
Norway, the foundation of which was laid by the piratical Vikings 
(inhabitants of 'Vikar' or creeks), whose expeditions extended to 
Constantinople, and who discovered Iceland, Greenland, and N. 
America ('Vinland') 500 years earlier than Columbus. On some 
of the fjords still exist the tumuli of these early navigators, who 
sometimes caused themselves to be buried along with their vessels. 
The commercial fleet of Norway now ranks next to those of Great 
Britain and the United States. Timber for shipbuilding purposes 
is abundant. 

The E. coast of the peninsula is less favourable for the purposes 
of navigation, especially as many of the harbours have altered their 
position or been rendered shallow by the gradual rise of the coast- 
line, and accordingly few of the vikings had their headquarters 
there. The coasting-trade of Stockholm, however, and the inland 
lake and canal-traffic are of considerable importance. 

Mountains, Lakes, and Stivers. 

Owing to the sudden descent of the mountains on the W. coast 
the streams on that side of the peninsula all have the character of 
boisterous torrents, while on the E. coast they take the form of 
long, narrow lakes, connected by rivers and often by waterfalls. 
The mountains in the northernmost part of the peninsula, border- 
ing on Russia, rarely exceed 1000 ft. in height, but they become 
loftier as we proceed towards the S.W., rising to most imposing 
dimensions on the Lyngenfjord (p. 236) and at the head of the 
Saltenfjord (p. 222), where the Sulitjelma forms the boundary 
between the sister kingdoms. To the S. of the great glacier-moun- 
tains of Svartisen (p. 217) the mountains decrease in height, and 
a number of large lakes send their waters eastwards to the Baltic, 
while the Namsen and Snaasen descend, to the well-cultivated 
plains on the Throndhjem Fjord. Farther to the S. the mountains, 
such as the Jomafjeld, Kjelhaugen, Areskutan in Sweden, and 
the Syltoppe, again attain a height of 4000-5000 ft., while the 
islands off the coast contain mountains of similar height. In lati- 
tude 63° the main range divides, the backbone of the peninsula 
continuing to run southwards, while a branch diverges to the "W. 
nearly at a right angle. In the central range rise the Oster and 
Vester Dalelf, which afterwards unite and descend to the S.E. to 
the Gulf of Bothnia. Adjoining the same range lies the Fcemund- 
Sje, out of which flows the Fcemundselv, afterwards called the 


Klarelf, and falling into Lake Venern, whence it descends under 
the name of the Gbtaelf to the Kattegat. A little to the N. of the 
Faemund-Sj» lies the Aursund-Sje, the source of the Qlommen, 
the largest river in Norway, which forms the imposing Sarpsfos at 
Sarpsborg andfalls into the Skager Rak at Frederiksstad. Near the 
same lake rises the Gula, which descends to the N.W. to Thrond- 
hjem, and through the valleys of these two rivers runs the impor- 
tant railway from Throndhjem to the copper-mines of Rotos and 
Lake Mjesen. 

Between the Faemund-Sje and the Glommen rise the lofty 
Hummel fj eld, Tronfjeld , and Elgepig, and between the Glommen 
and the Gudbrandsdal tower the isolated Rondane (6890 ft.). To 
the N.W. of the latter stretches the Dovrefjeld, culminating in the 
Sneltatta (p. 184), formerly supposed to be the highest mountain 
in Norway. To the W. of this point, and to the N.W. of the Gud- 
brandsdal, stretch the gneiss mountains of the Romsdal, already 
mentioned. The mountains to the S. of the Romsdal are usually 
known as the Langfjelde, which include the Jostedalsbra with the 
Lodalskaupe and extend to the Horungerfjeld and the Jotunheim 
Mountains. To the last-named group belongs the Ymesfjeld, a 
huge mass of granite nearly 10 Engl. M. in breadth, culminating 
in the Galdlwpig (p. 148), and surrounded by rocks of the tran- 
sition period. Farther to the S. lie the extensive Lakes Gjen- 
din, Tyin, and Bygdin, surrounded by imposing mountains, be- 
longing like the Horunger to the easily disintegrated 'gabbro' 
formation, and remarkable for picturesqueness of form. All these 
mountains are covered with perpetual snow, with the exception of 
the highest peaks, on which, owing to their precipitousness, the 
snow does not lie. 

The southern mountains of Norway, which also run from N.E. 
to S.W., are hounded by the Sognefjord on the N.W. , by the 
Christiania Fjord on the S.W., and by a line drawn on the E. side 
from the Fillefjeld to Christiania. Between the Sognefjord and 
the Hardanger Fjord are the isolated plateaux of the Vosseskavl, 
the Hardanger Jekul, and the Hallingskarv, rising above the snow- 
line. The Hardanger Fjeld is separated by the innermost branch 
of the Hardanger Fjord from the Folgefond (p. 87) , an extensive 
snow-clad mountain with several peaks. To the S.E. of the Har- 
danger-Fjord stretches the extensive Hardanger Vidde, with peaks 
3000-4600 ft. in height, which gradually slope on the E. and S. 
sides. Farther to the E. are the deep valleys of the picturesque 
region of Tkelemarken, which frequently intersect each other. The 
E. outpost of the whole of this mountain-region is the Skogs- 
horn, to the N. of the Hallingdal. Farther to the E. are the Nume- 
dal, Hallingdal, and Valders valleys, descending towards the S., 
beyond which we again meet with a number of transverse valleys, 
where the most fertile land in Norway is situated (such as Hade- 


land on the Randsfjord and liingerike on the Tyrifjord). The 
mountains then descend to the plain of Jarlsberg and Laurvig. 
Among their last spurs are the Gausta and the Lidfjeld in Thele- 
marken, and the isolated Norefjeld, rising between Lake Krederen 
and the Eggedal. 

The mountains extending towards the S.E. next enter the 
Herjeadal and Vermeland in Sweden, where they contain valu- 
able iron ores, particularly in Vermeland, Dalarne, and Vestman- 
lund. The range next runs between Lakes Venern and Vettern, 
where it is called Tiveden, and extends to the E. under the names 
of the Tydoskog and Kolmardcn. It then intersects the province 
of Gotland and forms the plateau of Smaland to the S. of Lake 
Yettern. An important spur a little to the S. of that lake is the 
Taberg, a hill containing about 30 per cent of iron ore. The hills 
then gradually slope down to the plains of Shane and Holland, 
where there are a few insignificant heights only. In the plains of 
Gotland rise the isolated Kinnekulle on Lake Venern, the Halle- 
berg, the Hunneberg, and the Omberg. 

The Swedish islands of Gotland and Oland contain no hills 
above 210 ft. in height. 

To a comparatively recent geological period belongs the Swe- 
dish Basin extending from the Skager Rak through Lakes Venern 
and Vettern to Lake Malaren, the land to the S. of which was 
probably once an island. These lakes are believed to have once 
formed a water-way to the Gulf of Finland, which again was pro- 
bably connected with the White Sea , and this theory seems to 
be borne out by the fact that a kind of crayfish found in the 
White Sea and Lake Venern does not exist in the Atlantic or in 
the Baltic. The modern canal-route connecting these lakes is de- 
scribed in R. 29. 

The coast to the N. of Stockholm is flat and well wooded, and 
intersected by numerous rivers and long lakes, at the mouths of 
which lie a number of towns chiefly supported by the timber-trade. 
One of the most important lakes is the picturesque Siljan (p. 346), 
through which the Osterdalelf flows. Below Falun that river joins 
the Vesterdalelf, and their united waters form a fine cascade at 
Elfkarleby. Of the many other rivers the most important are the 
picturesque Angermanelf (p. 350), the Lule-Elf (p. 351), and the 
Tome-Elf. The last, the longest of all, is connected by a branch 
with the parallel river Kalix. Most of these eastern rivers are 
rather a series of lakes connected by rapids and waterfalls. The 
heavy rainfall in the mountain regions descending into the valleys 
where the sun has not sufficient power to evaporate it, forms these 
lakes and extensive swamps, the overflow of which descends from 
basin to basin till it Teaches the sea. The lower ends of these 
rivers are generally navigable for some distance. Steamboats nlv 
on the Angermanelf and the Lule-Elf (pp. 350, 351). 


Climate and Vegetation. 

Temperature. Judging from the degrees of latitude within 
which the peninsula is situated, one would expect the climate to 
be uniformly severe and inclement, hut this is only the case on 
the E. coast and among the central mountains. The climate of the 
W. coast is usually mild, being influenced by the Atlantic and 
the Gulf Stream which impinges upon it. In the same latitude in 
which Franklin perished in the Arctic regions of America, and in 
which lies the almost uninhabitable region of E. Siberia, the water 
of these western fjords of Norway never freezes except in their 
upper extremities. As we proceed from W. to E., and in some 
degree even from N. to 8., the temperate character of the climate 
changes, and the winters become more severe. The climate is 
perhaps most equable at Skudemces, near Stavanger, where the 
mean temperature of January is 34.7°Fahr. , and that of July 55.4 : 
difference 20.7°. At Stockholm, on the other hand, the mean tem- 
perature of January is '24.8°, and that of July 63.5°: difference 
38.7°. The difference is still greater in many places farther to the 
N., as at Jockmock (66° 36' N. lat. ; 925 ft. above the sea), where 
the January temperature is 3.2°, that of July 57.92°, and the diffe- 
rence 54.90°. The tract lying between the Varanger Fjord and the 
Gulf of Bothnia, the interior of Finmarken and Lapland, and the 
southern mountains above the height of 2300 ft., all have an an- 
nual mean temperature below the freezing point. Some of the 
other isothermal lines are curious. Thus the line which -marks a 
mean January temperature of 32° Fahr. runs from the Lofoden 
Islands southwards, passing a little to the E. of Bergen and through 
the inner part of the Stavanger Fjord. It then turns to the S.E. 
to Cape Lindesnses, and thence to the N.E. towards the Christia- 
nia Fjord, and southwards to Gothenburg and Copenhagen. The 
line marking a mean January temperature of 23° passes through 
Hammerfest , Saltdalen, Rotos, Christiania, and Upsala. In the 
depth of winter, therefore, the Lofoden Islands are not colder than 
Copenhagen, or Hammerfest than Christiania. Again, while the 
mean temperature of the whole year at the North Cape is 35.6°, it 
is no higher at Ostersund in Jemtland, 552 Engl. M. farther 
south. Lastly, it may be mentioned that while the climate on the 
W. coast is comparatively equable throughout the year, that of 
the E. coast and the interior of the country is made up of a long, 
severe winter and a short and sometimes oppressively hot summer. 
The average temperature of the sea is ^/i-l" warmer than the air, 
being of course lower than that of the air in summer and higher 
in winter. The healthiest part of the peninsula is probably the 
island of Karme-, where the death rate is only 12 per thousand. 
The average rate for Norway is 19, for Sweden 20 per thousand. 

Rainfall. In the interior of Norway less rain falls than on the 
coast. In Sweden the greatest rainfall is between Gefle and Gothen- 



burg. The mean rainfall in Sweden is 20.28 inches, that of 
Gothenburg 28.18, and that of the E. coast 16.88 inches. August 
is the rainiest month in Sweden , especially in the N. provinces. 
In Norway the maximum rainfall is at Flore, where it sometimes 
reaches 90-91 inches per annum; on the S. coast the average is 
about 40 inches, and on the W. coast, to the S. and N. of Flora, 
70-75 inches. August and September are the rainiest months in 
the E. districts of Norway, but on the W. coast the rainy season 
is somewhat later. June and July are therefore the best months 
for travelling in Sweden and the E. districts of Norway, and July 
and August for the W. coast. In the neighbourhood of the Roms- 
dal the rainy season does not usually set in before December. 
Hail and thunderstorms are rare in Norway. The latter, however, 
are sometimes very violent on the W. coast, where no fewer than 
forty churches have been destroyed by lightning within the last 
150 years. The following table shows the mean temperature and 
average rainfall in different parts of Norway : — 

A a> 








c a 

'-' : S, 


c g 

2 c 


M o 






Varde .... 

42 70° 22' 33.45 

52 62° 53' 


Nyborg .... 


70° 2' 



Bovre .... 


62° 5' 



Fruholmen . . 


71° 6' 



Reiros .... 


62° 35' 

27. 5 



69° 58' 


Flore .... 


61" 36' 



Tromsg . . . 


69° 39' 



Bergen . . . 


60° 24' 



Andemi'S . . . 


69° 20' 



Ullensvang . 


60° 19' 




67° 17' 



Skttdesnces . 


59° 9' 



Ran en .... 


66° 12' 



Lindesnws . 


57° 59' 



Br&ng .... 


65° 28' 



Mandal . . . 


58° 2' 



Yttereen . . . 


63° 49' 



Sandesund . 


59° 55' 



Christian sund 


63° 7' 



Christiania . 


59° 55' 



Air Pressure. The pressure of the air in January is greatest 
in the interior of N. Norway and lowest in Finmarken. In July it 
is highest on the W. coast and lowest in the interior. The pre- 
vailing winds in winter are accordingly land-winds, which are fre- 
quently diverted towards the N. and follow the line of the coast. 
In summer, on the other hand, W. and S.W. winds prevail, blow- 
ing towards the region where the air-pressure is lowest, also fre- 
quently following the line of the coast towards the N., and rarely 
impinging on the coast at a right angle. The most prevalent wind 
blows from the S.W., and on the coast is usually accompanied with 
dull weather, but this is less the case in the interior. The most 
violent storms, which prevail chiefly in winter, come from the same 
quarter. The mountains form a boundary between two distinct 
climates, the W. wind being the dampest on the W. coast and the 
driest in the interior. 


The Vegetation, as might be expected from the climate and 
the geological features of the peninsula, is generally poor, but the 
flora is unusually rich for so northern a region. About 25,758 
Eugl. sq. M. are covered with forest, chiefly pines, the wood of 
which is valuable owing to the closeness of the rings which mark 
its annual growth. Next in point of frequency are the oak , the 
birch, the elm, and the beech. Other trees occur frequently, but 
not in the forests. The beech , which suffers more from cold than 
the oak, but does not require so high a mean temperature, rarely 
occurs in Sweden N. of Kalmar, while the oak is found as far N. 
as Gene. In Norway, on the other hand , the beech extends to a 
point beyond Bergen , and the red beech even occurs at Thrond- 
hjem. Near Laurvig, in latitude 59-59 1 /2° the beech is found in 
considerable plantations. ■ — The apple-tree (Pyrus malus) occurs 
as far as 65° 10' N. lat., the plum (Primus domestica) up to 64°, 
and the cherry to 66°, while currants (ilibes nigrum and rubrum), 
gooseberries (Bibes grossularia) , strawberries (Fragaria vesca), 
raspberries (Rubus idaeus), and the common bilberry (Vaccinium 
myrtillus) occur as far north as the North Cape. 

Wheat is cultivated as far as 64 1 / 2 °, and in the S. of the country 
to a height of 1000-1250 ft. above the sea ; Rye grows as far N. as 
69 °, and in the S. up to a height of 1950 ft. ; Barley and Oats 
occur up to 70°, and in the S. to a height of 2050 ft. above the 
sea. Botanists are referred to the instructive works of Schuebeler 
and Axel Blytt. — The cultivated land in Norway occupies the 
insignificant area of 1074 Engl. sq. M., but in Sweden 10,678 sq. 
M. In the northern regions the Oxyria remiformis, a kind of sorrel, 
is largely cultivated as a substitute for corn. It is kept in a frozen 
condition in winter and boiled down to a pulp for use, being fre- 
quently mixed with flour and made into Fladbred. In the S. 
districts, however, the 'flat bread' is usually made of wheat or 
barley flour mixed with mashed potatoes , and sometimes with 
pease-meal. The Lapps mix their bread with reindeer-milk and 
sometimes with the bitter Mulgedium alpinum , which is believed 
to be a preventive of scurvy. 

It is a curious fact that barley takes exactly the same time 
(90 days) to ripen at Alten (70° N. lat.) as at Christiania and in 
the S. of France, but it is now generally believed that the great 
length of the Arctic days compensates for the lack of warmth. The 
seed, however, if brought from a warmer climate, requires to be 
acclimatised, and does not yield a good crop until after two or three 
seasons , so that the effects of a bad harvest are felt for several 
succeeding years. 

The traveller will also observe that the leaves of most of the 
trees which occur in the northern districts of Norway are larger 
than those of trees of the same kind in the southern regions. Thus 
the leaves of maples and plane-trees ( Acer platanoides and pseudo- 


platanus) transplanted from Christiania to Tronise have been found 
to increase greatly in size , while the trees themselves become 
dwarfed in their growth. This leaf development is also attributed 
to the long continuance of the sunlight in summer. It would be 
interesting to know what effects the protracted light produces on 
the colours of flowers and the flavour of fruits , but these points 
have not yet been investigated. 

The Animal Kingdom comprises most of the domestic and other 
animals common in Great Britain , besides many which are now 
extinct there, and a number of others peculiar to the Arctic regions. 
.\mong the animals most characteristic of the country are the rein- 
deer (Cermet tarandus), an exceedingly useful mammal , and the 
sole support of the nomadic Lapps, and the lemming (Georychus 
lemmus), a rodent, somewhat resembling a water-rat, which some- 
times affords food to the reindeer (see p. 172). Among beasts 
of prey the bear and the wolf are still common in many parts of 
the country, and the lynx and glutton occasionally occur. For 
killing any one of these the government offers a reward of 25 
crowns. Conspicuous among large game is the handsome elk 
('Elgsdyr' ; Cerrus aloes'), now becoming rare, next to which rank 
the reindeer and the red deer. The finest of the wildfowl is the 
capercailzie ('Tjur' ; Tetrao urogallus), after which come the ptar- 
migan ( 'Ilype'; Logopus mutus) and hazel-grouse ('Hjerpe'; Tetrao 
bonitsiri). Partridges rarely occur in Norway, but abound in the 
8. of Sweden, where they were introduced about the year 1500. 
The most valuable of the wildfowl , however, is the eider-duck 
('Edder'; Anas mollissima) , which is most abundant within the 
Arctic Circle. The down of the female, which she uses in making 
her nest, is gathered in the Dunvar of Finmarken, yielding a con- 
siderable revenue (see p. 246). 

The Population is now almost exclusively of Gothic origin, but 
the oldest element consists of the Lapps and the Finns, who were pro- 
bably the aboriginal inhabitants of the country and who both belong 
tu the Ugrian race. Their languages are both of the Turanian stock 
(akin to Hungarian), and are said by Castren , the philologist, to 
have been identical some 2000 years ago. The Lapps now number 
about 24,000 only in Norway and Sweden , and the Finns about 
22,000 souls. They are both of the Mongolian type, with high 
cheek-bones, low foreheads, full lips, narrow eyes, blunt noses, 
and yellowish complexions, but the Finns are now by far the su- 
perior race, both physically and mentally. The names usually 
applied to them are not used by themselves. The Lapps ('nomads') 
call themselves Sumi or Sahmelads, and the Finns ('fen-dwellers') 
Suomi. — The dominant race, by which the Lapps have been well- 
nigh extinguished , is of the Aryan or Indo-Germanic stock and 
is believed to have begun to settle in the peninsula before the 
birth of Christ (see below). With regard to their language see the 

X. HISTORY. xliii 

grammars at the end of the volume. — The total population of 
Norway at the end of 1875 was 1,807,555; that of Sweden at the 
end of 1876 was 4,429,713. The annual increase , which is slow, 
owing to the frequency of emigration, now amounts in Norway to 
about 18,000, and in Sweden to 47,200 per annum. 

X. History of Sweden and Norway. 

Prehistoric Period. The earliest antiquities in Scandinavia 
belong to the Flint Period, during which the peninsula appears to 
have been inhabited by the same race as Denmark and N. Ger- 
many. Their rude implements indicate that they possessed fixed 
dwelling-places and cattle, and were acquainted with the art of 
fishing and probably of hunting also. They buried their dead in 
large stone tomb-chambers. This epoch was succeeded by the 
Bronze Period, when implements and ornaments in bronze and 
even in gold were first imported into the country and afterwards 
manufactured by the natives themselves. Agriculture was now 
regularly practised , and the same domestic animals were used as 
at the present day. The tombs of this period sometimes contain 
cinerary urns, and sometimes bones unconsumed. During this and 
the preceding period the population seems to have been confined 
to Skane and Vester-Gotland. Lastly, about the time of the birth 
of Christ, begins the Iron Period, when the use of that metal 
was introduced from Central Europe. At the same time silver 
and glass make their appearance, and Roman coins and 'bracteates' 
(ornamental discs of metal) are occasionally found. 

During this period also the contents of tombs prove that the 
dead were sometimes burned and sometimes buried in coffins. The 
cinerary urns are usually of terracotta, rarely of bronze. Among 
other curiosities which have been found in the tombs are trinkets 
and weapons, some of which appear to have been purposely broken. 
To this period also belong the earlier Runic Inscriptions, in a large 
character differing from that afterwards used. Quite distinct from 
the earlier part of this era is the Later Iron Period, which be- 
gan in Sweden about the year 500 or 600 and in Norway about 
the year 700 A. D. The Runic inscriptions of this period are in 
the smaller character, and the language had by this time attained 
to nearly the same development as that used by the later MSS., 
while the native workmanship exhibits evidence of a new and in- 
dependent, though still barbarous stage of culture. 

To what race the inhabitants of Scandinavia during the first 
and second of these periods belonged is uncertain, but it is sup- 
posed that they were of the aboriginal Finnish stock. That the 
relics of the following periods were left by a different race is most 
probable, as no antiquities have been found which show a gradual 
transition from the bronze to the early iron period, and it is well 

xliv X. HISTORY. 

ascertained that the inhabitants of the S. parts of the peninsula 
were of Germanic origin, both during the earlier and later iron 
periods. It has also been ascertained that the older Runic alpha- 
bet of 24 letters, common to Scandinavian , Anglo-Saxon , Bur- 
gundian, and Gothic inscriptions, was afterwards modified by the 
Scandinavians, who substituted for it the smaller character, con- 
sisting of 16 letters only. It therefore seems to be a well estab- 
lished fact that during the later iron period, if not earlier, the 
Scandinavians had developed into a nationality distinct from the 
ancient Goths or the Anglo-Saxons. 

Transition to the Historical Period. 

The earliest historical writers agree that Scandinavia was at 
an early period inhabited partly by a Germanic race, and partly 
by Finns or Lapps. The Germanic inhabitants, before whom the 
weaker race seems gradually to have retreated , were first settled 
in Skane (Skaney) in the S. of Sweden , whence the country was 
named Scandia, and the people Scandinavians. The name 'Swe- 
des' is mentioned for the first time by Tacitus (Suiones), the 
'Goths' are spoken of by Ptolemy, and the Suethans and Suethidi 
(i. e. Svear and SvCthjod) by Jordanis. Jordanis also mentions 
the Ostrogothae and Finnaithae, or the inhabitants of Oster-Gotland 
and Finnveden in Sweden, the Dani or Danes, the Raumaricice 
and Eagnaricil, or natives of Romerike and Raurike in Norway, 
and lastly the Ethelrugi or Adalrygir, and the Ulmerugi or Holm- 
rygir. As far back, therefore, as the beginning of our era, the 
population in the S. of Sweden and Norway appears to have been 
of the Gothic stock. To this also points the fact that the names 
of Rugians , Burgundians , and Goths still occur frequently in 
Scandinavia; the Rygir were a Norwegian tribe, the name Bor- 
gund and Bornholm (Borgundarholm) recur more than once , and 
the district of Gotland and the island, of Gotland or Gutland were 
doubtless so called by Goths or Jutes. It is therefore more than 
probable that the picturesque myth of the immigration of the JE&ir 
or ancient Scandinavians from Asia under the leadership of Odin 
entirely lacks foundation in fact. 

It is at least certain that the history of Scandinavia begins 
with the later iron period. At that time the southernmost part of 
Sweden seems to have belonged to the Danes. Farther N. was 
settled the tribe of the Obtar, to whom belonged the adjacent is- 
land of Oland, while Gotland appears to have been occupied by an 
independent tribe. Still farther N. were the -Swear, who occupied 
Upland, Vestermanland, Sodermanland, and Nerike. The territory 
of the Gotar and the Svear were separated by dense forest while 
the latter were also separated from the Norwegian tribes by' forests 
and by Lake Venem and the Gotaelf. Beowulf, the famous Anglo- 
Saxon epic poem, dating from about the year 700, mentions Den- 

X. HISTORY. xlv 

mark as an already existing kingdom, and also speaks of the differ- 
ent states of the Gotar and Svear, which, however, by the 9th cent, 
had become united, the Svear, or Swedes, being dominant. 
The same poem refers to 'Norvegr' and 'Nordmenn', i.e. Norway 
and the Northmen , but throwns no light on their history. It 
is, however, certain that the consolidation of Norway took place 
much later than that of Denmark and Sweden, and doubtless after 
many severe struggles. To the mythical period must be relegated 
the picturesque stories of the early Ynglingar kings, beginning 
with Olaf Tratelje, or the 'tree-hewer' ; but they are probably not 
without some foundation in fact, and it is at any rate certain that the 
migrations and piratical expeditions of the Northmen, which soon 
affected the whole of the north of Europe, began about this time 
(7th-8th cent. A. D.). The predatory campaigns of the Danish King 
Hugleikr, which are mentioned both in the Beowulf and by Frankish 
chroniclers, are doubtless a type of the enterprises of the vikings 
(from Vik, 'creek), which continued down to the 11th century. The 
Swedes directed their attacks mainly against Finland , Kurland, 
Esthonia, and Russia, which last derived its name and its political 
organisation from Sweden ; the Danes undertook expeditions against 
France and England, and the Norwegians chiefly against the north 
of England, Scotland, the Orkney and Sketland Islands, and the 

Norway before the Union. 
From the semi-mythical Ynglingar and Olaf Traetelje, who is 
said to have flourished about the middle of the 7th cent., Halfdan 
Svarte, King of a part of Norway corresponding with the present 
Stift of Christiania, professed to trace his descent. His son Harald 
Haarfagre ('fair-haired'), after several severe conflicts, succeeded 
in uniting the whole of Norway under his sceptre after the deci- 
sive battle of the Hafrsfjord near Stavanger in 872. The final 
consolidation of the kingdom, however, was not effected until a 
century later. The kingdom was repeatedly attacked by the petty 
kings who had been banished , while great numbers of the pea- 
santry, to escape the burdens of taxation, emigrated to the Orkney 
and Shetland Islands, to Iceland, and even to the Hebrides. In 
this weakened condition Harald transmitted the crown to his fa- 
vourite son Eirikr Blodox, whose exploits as a viking had gained for 
him the sobriquet of 'bloody axe'. After having slain several of 
his brothers, Eric was expelled about the year 935 by Haakon the 
Good, who in his turn was defeated and slain by Eric's sons at 
the battle of Fitjar in 961. Among the sons of Eric, several of 
whom were put to death by their own subjects, the most disting- 
uished was Harald Oraafeld, who was, however, at length defeated 
by the Jarl (earl) of Lade in the district of Throndhjem, with the 
aid of Harald Gormsson, king of Denmark (970). At this period 
a number of petty kings still maintained themselves on the fjords 

xlvi X. HISTORY. 

and in the interior of the country, trusting for support from the 
kings of Sweden and Denmark. The Jarls of Lade, who ruled 
over Throndhjem, Helgeland, Namdalen, and Nordmere, acknow- 
ledged the supremacy of the kings of Norway, until Haakon Jarl 
transferred his allegiance to the kings of Denmark. On the out- 
break of war between Denmark and Germany he succeeded in 
throwing off the Danish yoke, but did not assume the title of 
king. Haakon was at length slain by one of his own slaves during 
an insurrection of the peasantry (995) , whereupon Olaf Trygg- 
vesson , a descendant of Haarfagre , obtained possession of the 
kingdom, together with the fjords and inland territory which had 
belonged to Haakon. With the accession of Olaf begins a new 
era in the history of Norway. 

In the 10th century Paganism in the north was in a moribund 
condition. Based on the dual system of a world of gods (Asgardr, 
Godheimr) and a realm of giants (Utgardr, Jiitunheimr), it regarded 
mankind (Midgardr, Mannheimr) as a kind of object of contention 
between the two. All alike partook equally of the joys and sorrows 
of life , of sin , and even of death. The period of the vikings, 
however, to the close of which we owe the Eddas, materially altered 
the tenets of the old religion. As victory was their great object, 
they elevated Odin, , the god of victory , to the highest rank in 
their pantheon, while Thor , the god of thunder, had hitherto 
reigned supreme. The bards depict in glowing colours the halls 
of Odin, which become the abode of heroes slain in war. But as 
the gods had been in many respects lowered to the rank of men, 
and were themselves believed to have their destinies swayed by 
fate , it necessarily followed that they were not themselves the 
Creators, but at most the intermediate artificers and administrators 
of earth. They therefore failed to satisfy the religious wants of 
men, who began to speculate as to the true and ultimate Creator 
of the universe , and it was about this period that Christianity 
began to dawn on the benighted north. The vikings came into 
frequent contact with Christian nations, and Christian slaves were 
frequently brought to Norway and Sweden. Many of the Northmen 
professed to be converted , but either retained many of their old 
superstitions or speedily relapsed into them. A few, however, 
embraced the new religion zealously , and it is to them that the 
final conversion of the peninsula was due. The first Christian 
monarch was Haakon the Good, who had been brought up by King 
Athelstane in England, and been baptised there ; but his attempts 
to convert his people were violently opposed and met with no success. 
The sons of Eric, who had also been converted in England, showed 
little zeal for Christianity, and under Haakon Jarl heathenism 
was again in the ascendant. At length when Olaf Tryggvessen 
who had also become a Christian, ascended the throne, he brought 
missionaries from England and Germany to Norway and succeed- 

X. HISTORY. xlvii 

ed in evangelising Norway , Iceland , the Orkney and Shetland 
Islands and the Faroes , partly by persuasion , and partly by inti- 
midation or by bribery. Iceland, however, had already been partly 
converted by Thorvaldr Vidforli , a native missionary , aided by 
the German bishop Friedrich. 

King Svejn Tveskaig ('double beard') of Denmark now attempt- 
ed to re-establish the Danish supremacy over Norway , and for 
this purpose allied himself with his stepson King Olaf, Skot- 
konung or tributary king of Sweden , and with Eric, the son of 
Haakon, by whose allied fleets Olaf Tryggvessen was defeated and 
slain in the great naval battle of Svold, on the coast of Pomerania, 
about the year 1000. Norway was now partitioned between the 
kings of Denmark and Sweden, who ceded most of their rights to 
the Jarls Eric and Svejn, sons of Haakon Ladejarl. The kingdom, 
however, was soon permanently re-united by St. Olaf, son of 
Harald Orenski , and a descendant of Harald Haarfagre. After 
having been engaged in several warlike expeditions , and having 
been baptised either in England or in Normandy , he returned 
to Norway in 1014 to assert his claim to the crown. Aided by 
his stepfather Sigud Syr, king of Ringerike, and by others of the 
minor inland kings, he succeeded in establishing his authority 
throughout the whole country , and thereupon went to work 
energetically to consolidate and evangelise his kingdom. His 
severity, however, caused much discontent, and his adversaries were 
supported by Canute , king of England and Denmark, who still 
asserted his claim to Norway. Canute at length invaded Nor- 
way and was proclaimed king, while Olaf was compelled to seek an 
asylum in Russia (1028). Having returned with a few followers to 
regain his crown , he was defeated and slain at Stiklestad near 
Levanger on 29th July, 1030. Canute's triumph , however, was 
of brief duration. He ceded the reins of government to Haakon 
Jarl Erikssen, and after the death of the jarl to his son Svejn and 
the English princess Aelgifu , the mother of the latter ; but a 
reaction speedily set in, stimulated chiefly by the rumour of Olaf's 
sanctity , which found ready credence and was formally declared 
by a national assembly. Olaf's son Magnus, who had been left by 
his father in Russia, was now called to the throne , and Svejn was 
obliged to flee to Denmark (1035). The sway of Magnus was at 
first harsh, but he afterwards succeeded in earning for himself the 
title of 'the good'. In accordance with a treaty with Hardicanute 
in 1038, he ascended the throne of Denmark after the Danish 
monarch's death in 1042, but his right was disputed by Scend 
Estridssen. In 1046 he assumed as co-regent the turbulent Harald 
Sigurdssen, step-brother of St. Olaf, who succeeded him on his 
death in 1047. After a series of violent conflicts with Svend, 
Harald was obliged to renounce his pretensions to the crown of 
Denmark, but on Harald's death at the Battle of Hastings (1066) 

xlviii X. HISTORY. 

the hostilities between Norway and Denmark broke out anew. 
Haiald was succeeded by Olaf Haraldsstfn, who in 1068 entered 
into a new treaty with Svend of Denmark at Kongshelle, whereby 
the independence of Norway was finally established. 

Olaf, who was surnamed Hinn Kyrri, or 'the peaceful', now 
devoted his attention to the internal organisation of his kingdom, 
and several of the Norwegian towns began to attain importance. 
Skfringssalr (near Laurvik) and the neighbouring Ttfnsberg already 
existed; Nidaros (afterwards Throndhjem) is said to have been 
founded by Olaf Tryggvesstfn, Sarpsborg by St. Olaf, and Oslo by 
Harald Hardraade ; but the foundation of Bergen and several other 
towns, probably including Stavanger, is attributed to Olaf Kyrri. 
His court was famed for its magnificence and the number of its 
dignitaries, and at the same time he zealously promoted the in- 
terests of the church. While Olaf's predecessors had employed 
missionaries, chiefly English, for the conversion of their subjects, 
he proceeded to establish three native bishoprics and to erect 
cathedrals at Nidaros, Bergen, and Oslo, making the dioceses as 
far as possible coextensive with the three provinces in which 
national diets (Thing) were held. His warlike son Magnus Barfod 
(1093-1103), so surnamed from the dress of the Scotch Highland- 
ers which he had adopted, did not reign long enough seriously 
to interrupt the peaceful progress of his country , and the three 
sons of Magnus, 0ystein (d. 1122), Sigurd (d. 1130), and Olaf 
(d. 1115), thereafter proceeded to carry out the plans of their 
grandfather. Sigurd was surnamed Jorsalafarer ('Jerusalem farer') 
from his participation in one of the Crusades (1107-11). The 
same devotion to the church also led about this period to the 
foundation of the bishopric of Stavanger, and of several mon- 
asteries (those of S<el0 in the Nordfjord, Nidarholm near Thrond- 
hjem^Munkelif at Bergen, and Gimse near Skien), and to the in- 
troduction of the compulsory payment of tithes (Tiende, 'tenths', 
known in Scotland as 'teinds'), a measure which secured indepen- 
dence to the church. King 0ystein is said to have been versed 
in law , and both he and several of his predecessors have been 
extolled as lawgivers, but no distinct trace of legislation in Nor- 
way of a period earlier than the beginning of the 12th cent, has 
been handed down to us. 

After Sigurd's death the succession to the throne was disputed 
by several claimants, as, in accordance with the custom of the 
country, all relations in equal propinquity to the deceased, 
whether legitimate or not, enjoyed equal rights. The confusion 
was farther aggravated by the introduction (in 1129) of the custom 
of compelling claimants whose legitimacy was challenged to un- 
dergo the 'iron ordeal', the practical result of which was to pave 
the way for the pretensions of adventurers of all kinds. Conflicts 
thus arose between Harald d/Uli, a natural son of Magnus Barefoot 

X. HISTORY. xlix 

and Magnus Sigurdssen ; between Sigurd Slembedegn, who claimed 
to be a brother of Harald , and Ingi and Sigurd Munn, sons of 
Harald; and afterwards between Ingi and Haakon Herdebred, a 
son of Sigurd Munn. All these pretenders to the throne perished 
in the course of this civil war. Ingi was defeated and slain by 
Haakon in 1161 , whereupon his partisans elected as their king 
Magnus Erlingssen,'w'ho was the son of a daughter of Sigurd Jorsala- 
farer. Haakon in his turn having fallen in battle, his adherents 
endeavoured to find a successor, but Erling, the father of Magnus, 
whose title was defective, succeeded in obtaining the support of 
Denmark by the cession of Vigen, and also that of the church. 

Meanwhile the church had firmly established her power in the 
north. At first the sees of Sweden and Norway had been under 
the jurisdiction of the archbishops of Hamburg and Bremen , but 
in 1103 an archiepiscopal see was erected at Lund in Skane. The 
Norwegians, however, desiring an archbishop of their own, Pope 
Eugene II. sent Cardinal Nicholas Breakespeare to Norway for the 
purpose of erecting a new archbishopric there , and at the same 
time a ffifth bishopric was erected at Hamar. The new archbis- 
hop's jurisdiction also extended over the sees of Iceland, Green- 
land, the Faroes, the Orkneys, the Hebrides, and the Isle of Man, 
and his headquarters were established at Throndhjem. In 1164 
Erling Jarl induced Archbishop Eystein to crown his son Magnus, 
a ceremony which had never yet taken place in Norway , and at 
the same time he engaged to make large concessions to the church, 
including a right to a voice in the election of future kings. 

Supported by the church, personally popular, and a meritorious 
administrator , Magnus had at first no difficulty in maintaining 
his position, but his title and the high privileges he had accorded 
to the church did not long remain unchallenged. 

After several insurrections against Magnus had been quelled, 
there arose the formidable party of the Birkebeiner ('birch-legs', so 
called from the bark of the birch which they used to protect their 
feet), who in 1177 chose as their chief Sverre, a natural son of 
Sigurd Munn, who had been brought up as a priest, and who soon 
distinguished himself by his energy and prudence. In 1179 Erling 
was defeated and slain by Sverre at Nidaros, and in 1184 his son 
Magnus met the same fate in the naval battle of Fimreite in the Sogn 
district. Sverre's right to the crown , however, was immediately 
challenged by new pretenders, and he incurred the bitter hostility 
of the church by ignoring the concessions granted to it by Magnus. 
In 1190 Archbishop Eric, Eystein's successor fled the country, and 
the king and his followers were excommunicated ; but , though 
severely harassed by several hostile parties, particularly the Bagler 
(the episcopal party, from Bagall , 'crozier'), Sverre died uncon- 
quered in 1202. He was succeeded by his son Haakon (d. 1204), 
by Outtorm Sigurdssen (d. 1204), and by Inge Baardssen (d. 1217), 

Baedeker's Xorway and Sweden. d 


under whom the hostilities with the church still continued. For 
a time, however, peace was re-established by Haakon Haakonss#n 
(1217-63), a grandson of Sverre, under whom Norway attained a 
high degree of prosperity. His father-in-law Skule Jarl , brother 
of King Inge, on whom he conferred the title of duke, proved his 
most serious opponent, but on the death of the duke in 1240 the 
civil wars at length terminated. New rights were soon afterwards 
conferred on the church, but of a less important character than those 
bestowed by Magnus Erlingssen, the clergy being now excluded 
from a share in the election of kings. The king also amended the 
laws and sought to extend his territory. Since the first colonisa- 
tion of Iceland (874-930) the island had been independent , but 
shortly before his death Haakon persuaded the natives to acknow- 
ledge his supremacy. In 1261 he also annexed Greenland , which 
had been colonised by Icelanders in the 10th cent, and previous- 
ly enjoyed independence, so that, nominally at least, his sway 
now extended over all the dioceses subject to the see of Thrond- 
hjem, including the Orkney and Shetland Islands, the Faroes, the 
Hebrides, and the Isle of Man. His claim to the Hebrides being 
disputed by Alexander III. of Scotland, he assembled a fleet for the 
purpose of asserting it, and set sail for the Orkney Islands, where 
he died in 1263. He was succeeded by his son Magnus Lagabeter 
('betterer of laws'), who by the treaty of Perth in 1268 renounced 
his claims to the Hebrides and Man in return for a small payment 
from Alexander. In his reign, too, the Swedish frontier, long a 
subject of dispute, was clearly denned, and the relations between 
church and state were placed on a more satisfactory footing. 

Constitution. From an early period Norway was divided into 
four large districts , each presided over by a Thing or Lagthing 
(Legthing), a diet with judicial and legislative functions. The 
eight Fylker or provinces of Throndhjem sent representatives to 
the Frostuthing, so named from Frosten, the meeting-place of the 
diet , and to these were afterwards added Helgeland , Namdalen, 
Nordmere, and Romsdalen. The Gulathing, in the Fylke of Gulen, 
embraced the Fylker of Firda, Sygna, and Herda, to which Roga- 
land, Agder, and Sondmere were afterwards added. The district 
of Vigen appears to have had a Thing of its own , which after the 
time of St. Olaf met at Sarpsborg and was called the Borgarthing ; 
but from the 12th cent, onwards representatives were sent to this 
diet by Ranrfki, Vingulmerk , Vestvold, and Grenafylke also. 
Lastly the mountain districts of Heina, Hada, and Rauma, held a 
diet called the Heidsa-visthing, afterwards named the Eidsifathing 
from Eidsvold where it assembled. This diet, though separate 
from that of Vigen, was under the same law, which had been de- 
clared common to both by St. Olaf. A committee of each diet, 
called the Legretta, chosen by the king's officers , performed the 
judicial duties of the diet, while the Lagthing itself exercised 


jurisdiction over the diets held at irregular intervals in the diffe- 
rent Fylker. Resolutions were passed by a majority of the peas- 
antry at the diet. The four cities of Throndhjem, Bergen, Tens- 
berg, and Oslo each possessed a distinct Legthing , the law ad- 
ministered by which was called 'Bjarkeyjarrettr'. 

King Magnus proceeded to abolish these diets (in 1267 and 
1268), but was prevented from finally accomplishing his object 
by the protest of Archbishop Jon Raudi at the diet of Frosten 
(1269). He then directed his attention to the amendment of the 
laws. In 1271 a code called Jarnsida ('iron side') was completed, 
and in 1272-4 a new code was promulgated at the Frostuthing, 
which seems to have been immediately adopted by the other 
districts. In 1276 a new municipal law was introduced at Bergen 
and soon afterwards into the other towns also ; and lastly the 
Jdnsbok, a collection of the laws of the mainland , was compiled 
in 1280 and promulgated in Iceland. From these codes ecclesias- 
tical law was excluded. Though each of them bears a distinctive 
name, such as 'Law of the Frostuthing', 'Town Laws of Bergen', 
etc., and is somewhat modified to suit the requirements of the 
district or town which adopted it , they substantially formed a 
single code for the whole kingdom. The whole country was now 
subject to the jurisdiction of the four diets, with the exception of 
Helgeland, Jemtland, and Herjedalen , which still formed inde- 
pendent districts. Meanwhile King Magnus concluded a Concordat 
with the church at Bergen in 1273 and another at Temsberg in 
1277, and at the same time sanctioned an ecclesiastical code 
drawn up by Archbishop Jon , wherein -he renounced all control 
over ecclesiastical causes and over the election of prelates. An- 
other interesting code of this period was the Hirdskraa ('law of 
servants', probably 1274-77), which affords an insight into the 
early condition of Norway. 

Magnus Lagabeter died in 1280 and was followed by his son 
Eric Magnuss.en (d. 1299), who was succeeded by his brother 
Haakon Magnuss^n (d. 1319). Under these monarchs the con- 
cessions of Magnus to the church formed the subject of constant 
dispute , and it was not till 1458 that they were finally secured 
to the hierarchy by Christian IV. In their secular administration, 
however, the sons of Magnus experienced less difficulty. At first 
the functions of the Lagthing or diets had been deliberative, judi- 
cial and legislative, and those of the king executive only, but the 
constitution gradually assumed a more monarchical form. The 
first steep was to transfer the judicial powers of the diets to offi- 
cials appointed by the king himself. The Lagmenn ('lawyers') 
had originally been skilled assessors at the diets , elected and 
paid by the peasantry, but from the beginning of the 13th cent, 
onwards it was customary for the king to appoint them , and they 
became the sole judges of all suits in the first instance. In the 



second or higher instance the diet was still nominally the 
judge, but it was presided over by the Legrnann and attended by 
others of the king's officials. The king himself also asserted a right 
to decide cases in the last instance , with the aid of a 'council of 
the wisest men'. The four ancient diets were thus in the course 
of time transformed into ten or twelve minor diets, presided over 
by Ltfgmenn. 

At the same time great changes in the social and political 
system were effected. In accordance with the old feudal system, 
it had been customary for the kings to bestow temporary and re- 
vocable grants of land ('Veitsla', probably from veitla, 'to bestow') 
on their retainers and courtiers ('Hird'), on the understanding 
that the tenants ('Huskarlar') would administer justice , collect 
the taxes, and render military and other services. In some cases, 
too, a Jarl was appointed governor of a considerable district and 
invested with extensive powers and practical independence , and 
it was usual for the king to confirm the heirs of these officials and 
dignitaries in their respective lands and offices. All these minor 
jurisdictions, however, were abolished by Haakon Magnussen 
(1308), who directed that all his officials should in future be 
under his own immediate control. Thus, by the beginning of the 
14th cent. , the Norwegian monarchs had attained a position of 
great independence, and had emancipated themselves alike from 
democratic and from aristocratic interference. The peasantry, 
however, always enjoyed greater freedom than in most other Euro- 
pean countries, and possessed their lands in freehold, being them- 
selves lords of a great part of their native soil ; but they never 
attained to much wealth or importance, as the trade of the country 
from a very early period was monopolised by Germans and other 
foreigners. Of scarcely greater importance was the nobility of the 
country, their lack of influence being due to want of organisation 
and political coherence. 

The Intellectual Culture of Norway during this period, as may 
be supposed, made no great progress. The Runic character had 
indeed been in use from the early Iron Period downwards , but it 
was merely employed for short inscriptions and rude registers of 
various kinds, and not for literary purposes. On the foundation 
of the archbishopric of Land , the Latin character was at length 
introduced, but before that period all traditions and communica- 
tions were verbal , and it is mainly to the bards or ministrels 
(Skaldskapr') that we owe the preservation of the ancient mythi- 
cal and historical sagas or 'sayings'. About the year 1190 the 
Latin character began to be applied to the native tongue, both for 
secular and religious purposes. Of the exceedingly rich 'Old 
Northern' literature which now sprang up , it is a singular fact 
that by far the greater part was written by Icelanders. Among 
the most famous of these were Ari Fr6di (d. 1148), the father of 

X. HISTORY. liii 

northern history ; Oddr Snorrason and Ounnlaugr Leifsson 
(d. 1218), the biographers of King Olaf Tryggvessen ; the prior 
Styrmir Kdrason (d. 1245). the biographer of St. Olaf; the abbot 
Karl Jdnsson (d. 1212), the biographer of King Sverre ; and lastly 
Eirtkr Oddsson, Snorri Sturluson (d. 1241), and Sturla Thordarson 
(d. 1284), who were both historians of the kings of Norway and 
zealous collectors of their own island lore. The bards attached to 
the Scandinavian courts were also generally Icelanders. To Nor- 
wegian authorship are traceable comparatively few literary works, 
the most important being juridical compilations, the 'King's 
Mirror', which affords an insight into the court-life and commer- 
cial transactions of the 13th cent., the 'Anekdoton Sverreri', a 
polemic in favour of the crown against the church, several ballads 
of the earlier Edda, and a number of romances translated from 
English and French. This poverty of the literature of the main- 
land is doubtless to be accounted for by the fact that it was con- 
stantly harassed by wars and intestine troubles at this period, 
while Iceland was in the enjoyment of peace. While, moreover, 
in Norway the clergy held themselves aloof from the people and 
from secular pursuits , and the nobles were busily engaged in 
fashioning their titles, their manners, and their costumes on the 
model of those of their more civilised neighbours , the Icelanders 
of all classes retained their national coherence in a far higher 
degree , all contributing with equal zeal to the patriotic task of 
extolling their island and preserving its ancient traditions. 

Sweden before the Union. 

With regard to the early history of Sweden there exist no 
chronicles similar to those of the Icelanders and Norwegians. It 
is ascertained, however, that the country was partly evangelised 
in the 9th cent, by Anskar(i. 865) and other German missionaries, 
and by Ms successor Rimbert (d. 888). Archbishop Vnni after- 
wards preached the Gospel in Sweden, where he died in 936, and 
after the foundation of several bishoprics in Denmark about the 
middle of the 10th cent., Sweden was visited by several other 
German and Danish missionaries. The secular history of the 
country is involved in much obscurity , from which, however, it 
to some extent emerges when it comes into contact with that of 
Norway. About the end of the 10th century Olaf Skotkonung 
('tributary king') took part in the battle of Svold against Olaf of 
Norway and in the subsequent dismemberment of that country. 
He was afterwards compelled by his own peasantry to promise to 
come to terms with St. Olaf, and on his failure was threatened 
with deposition. He was then obliged to assume his son Onund 
as co-regent . and had to make peace with Norway about the 
year 1019. Olaf and Onund are said to have been the first Chris- 
tian kings of Norway. Onund was succeeded by his brother 

liv X. HISTORY. 

Emund (d. 1056), the last of Ms royal house , on whose death 
hostilities broke out between the Gtotar , who were now inclined 
in favour of Christianity and the more northern and less civilised 
Svear , who were still sunk in paganism. Emund had been in- 
different about religion , but Ms successor Stenkil Bagnvaldsson 
was a zealous Christian and was keenly opposed by the Svear. On 
the death of Stenkil about 1066 open war broke out between the 
Christian and the pagan parties. When his successor Inge Sten- 
kilsson (&. 1112), in whose reign the archbishopric of Lund was 
erected (1103), forbade heathen sacrifices, the Svear set up Ms 
brother-in-law Blot-Sven as a rival king, but Inge and Ms nephews 
and successors, Inge II. (d. about 1120) and Philip (A. about 1130), 
succeeded in maintaining their independence. These dissensions 
greatly weakened the resources of the kingdom. Stenkilsson fought 
successfully against Magnus Barfod of Norway and acquitted himself 
honourably at Kongshelle (1101), but his successors often allowed 
the Norwegians to invade their territory with impunity. 

On the death of Philip, Magnus, a Danish prince, and grand- 
son of Stenkilsson, assumed the title of king in Gotaland, but 
was defeated and slain in 1134 by Sverker I., who had been elected 
king two years previously. Sverker was next opposed by Erik 
Jedvardsson, who was proclaimed king by the Svear, and on Sver- 
ker s death in 1156 this Erik, commonly called the 'Ninth' and 
surnamed the 'Saint', obtained undivided possession of the throne. 
Eric, a zealous churchman, converted the temple of Upsala into a 
Christian place of worship , and conquered and Christianised 
the S.W. part of Finland. In 1160 he was attacked and slain by 
Magnus Henriksson, a Danish prince, who laid claim to the throne, 
and who in the following year was defeated and slain by Karl 
Sverkersson. The latter in his turn was slain by Erik Knutsson in 
1167, and the contest between the rival houses of Sverker and 
Eric lasted down to 1222. Eric died in 1195, his successor Sverker 
Karlsson in 1210, and Jon Sverkersson , the son of the latter and 
the last of his family , in 1222, whereupon Erik Lsespe ('the lis- 
ping'), a son of Eric Knutsson , ascended the throne unopposed. 
Meanwhile the Svear, or Swedes in the narrower sense , had been 
converted to Christianity. The church was at first presided over 
by missionary bishops only , but in the reign of Olaf Eriksson a 
bishopric was erected at Skara, and under Stenkil another at 
Sigtuna. Under King Sverker a bishop of Oster-Gotland was ap- 
pointed, with his residence at Linkbping , one for the diocese of 
Upper Sweden at Upsala, and others for Sodermanland and Vester- 
manland at Strongnas and Vesteras , while several monasteries 
were also founded. The primacy of Sweden was granted to Arch- 
bishop Eskil of Lund by Hadrian IV. (Nicholas Breakespeare) about 
the year 1154, but in 1163 was transferred to Stephanus. the newly 
created Archbishop of Upsala. 


Eric Laespe , though respected by his subjects , was a weak 
prince. Long before his time the Folkungar, a wealthy family of 
Ostef-Gotland, had gradually attained to great power, and Birger 
Brosa (d. 1202), a member of the family , had obtained the title 
of Jarl or Duke of the Swedes and Gotlanders. From an early 
period , moreover , intermarriages had taken place between the 
Folkungar and the royal families of Sweden , Norway, and Den- 
mark. In 1230 an attempt to dethrone Eric was made by Knut 
Jonsson, a distant cousin of Birger, but Knut was defeated and 
slain in 1234, and his son was executed as a rebel in 1248. The 
position of the family, however, remained unaffected. Birger Jarl, 
a nephew of Birger Brosa , married Ingeborg , the king's sister, 
while Eric himself married a member of the Folkungar family 
(1243). Birger now became the real ruler of Sweden, the terri- 
tory of which he extended by new conquests in Finland. On the 
death of Eric , the last scion of the house of St. Eric , without 
issue in 1250, Valdemar, Birger's son, was proclaimed the succes- 
sor of his uncle. During Birger's regency the country prospered, 
but on his death in 1266 hostilities broke out between his sons. 
The weak and incapable Valdemar was dethroned by his brother 
Magnus (1275), whose vigorous administration resembled that of 
his father, and who maintained friendly relations with the Hanse- 
atic League. He also distinguished himself as a lawgiver and an 
upholder of order and justice, and earned for himself the surname 
of Ladulas ('barn-lock', i. e. vindicator of the rights of the 

In 1290 Magnus was succeeded by his son Birger Magnusson, 
during whose minority the government was ably conducted by 
Marshal Thorgils Knutsson , but serious quarrels afterwards broke 
out between Magnus and his brothers, the dukes Eric and Valde- 
mar. In 1304 the dukes were banished, and in 1306 the faithful 
marshal was executed by the king's order. Soon afterwards, 
however, the dukes returned and obtained possession of the king's 
person. After several vicissitudes , peace was declared and the 
kingdom divided among the brothers in 1310 and again in 1313. In 
1318, however, the dukes were arrested, imprisoned, and cruelly 
put to death by their brother's order, whereupon Birger himself 
was dethroned and banished to Denmark (d. 1321). The following 
year Magnus , the infant son of Duke Eric , was elected king 
at the Mora Stones of Upsala (p. 340), while Magnus, Birger's 
son, was taken prisoner and executed. The first attempts to unite 
the Scandinavian kingdoms were made in the reign of Magnus 

The Constitution of Sweden at first resembled that of Norway. 
The country was divided into districts, called Land, Falkland , or 
Landskap , each of which was subdivided into Hundari ('hun- 
dreds'), called in Gotland Hiirath. Each 'Land' had its diet or 


Thing, presided over by a Logman, and each hundred had its 
Harathsthing , whose president was called a Domar ('pronouncer 
of dooms') or Harathshof thing. The Landsthing exercised delib- 
erative and judicial functions, and each had its own code of laws. 
Precedence among these diets was enjoyed by the Svea Thing or 
that of Upper Sweden , at which , although the monarchy was 
nominally hereditary, kings were first elected. After his election 
each new king had to swear to observe the laws, and to proceed 
on the 'Eriksgata', or a journey to the other diets , in order to 
procure confirmation of his title. Resolutions of the Svea Thing 
were even binding on the king himself. As the provincial laws 
differed , attempts to codify them were made in the 13th and at 
the beginning of the 14th cent., but with the consolidation of 
the kingdom these differences were gradually obliterated. The 
chief difference between Sweden and Norway was the prepon- 
derance of the aristocratic element in the former. From an early 
period, moreover, it had been usual to hold diets composed of the 
higher officials, the barons, prelates, and large landed proprietors, 
and to these after the close of the 13th cent, were added the Lag- 
menn. This aristocratic diet was farther enlarged by Magnus 
Ladulas (1280) , who admitted to it all knights willing to serve 
him in the field , according to them the same exemption from 
taxation as that enjoyed by his courtiers and by the clergy. As 
no one, however, in accordance with a law of 1285, could attend 
these diets without a summons from the king himself, he retained 
the real power in his own hands and reserved a right to alter the 
laws with the advice of the diet. From an early period the Lag- 
man and the Harathshofthing had been the sole judges in lawsuits, 
and from the first half of the 14th cent, downwards they were 
proposed by the people, but appointed by the king. At the same 
time the king possessed a right of reviewing all judgments in the 
last instance. No taxes could be exacted or troops levied without 
the consent of the popular diets, and it therefore became custom- 
ary as early as the 13th cent, for the kings to employ mercenary 
troops. — The privileges of the church were well defined, but 
less extensive than in Norway. The payment of tithes was com- 
pulsory, and in 1248 and 1250 the right to elect bishops was 
vested in the chapters, while all the clergy were prohibited from 
taking oaths of secular allegiance. At the same period the celibacy 
of the clergy was declared compulsory. As early as 1200 the 
clergy was declared amenable to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction 
only , and in some cases the church-courts could even summon 
laymen before them. On the other hand the supreme legislative 
power in church matters still belonged to the state, and parishes 
enjoyed the right of electing their pastor when no express right of 
patronage existed. — In the latter half of the 13th cent, the dig- 
nity of Jarl or earl was abolished, and the Drotsate ('high steward'), 


Marsker ('marshal'), and Kanceler ('chancellor') now hecame the 
chief officials of the crown. The rest of the aristocracy consisted 
of the courtiers and royal vassals, the barons and knights (Riddare), 
the esquires (Sven af vapen, Vcepnare), and even simple freemen 
who were willing to render military service whenever required. 
Between all these and the peasantry there was a wide social gap. 
The history of early Swedish Literature is well-nigh an ab- 
solute blank. The oldest work handed down to us is a com- 
pilation of the laws of West Gotland , dating from the beginning 
of the 12th century. A few meagre historical writings in Latin, 
a work concerning the 'Styrilse kununga ok hofdinga' (the rule of 
kings and governors), and several translations of foreign romances 
also belong to this period. 

Transition to the Union. 

On the death of Haakon Magnussan of Norway in 1319 without 
male issue, he was succeeded by Magnus Eriksson, afterwards 
called Magnus Smek ('the luxurious') , the son of his daughter 
Ingeborg and the Swedish Duke Erik , and at that time a child of 
three years. On the banishment of King Birger in 1319 Magnus 
was also elected King of Sweden , so that the two crowns were 
now united, but it was arranged that each country should retain 
its own administration. The union, however, was not attended 
with happy results. At first Sweden was prudently governed by 
the regent Mats Ketilmundsson , and in 1332 the province of 
Skane, which had been pledged to the Swedish Marshal von Eber- 
stein by Erik Menved and Christopher II. of Denmark (1318), 
declared itself in favour of Magnus. The king, however, who 
soon afterwards assumed the reins of government, and his queen 
Blanche of Namur , were ruled by unworthy favourites and soon 
forfeited the respect of their people. A disastrous fire at Thrond- 
hjem (1343), great inundations in the Guldal and Orkedal (1345), 
and above all the plague which swept away about two-thirds of 
the population (1349-50) aggravated the discontent of the Nor- 
wegians, who in 1350 elected Haakon Magnusson, the minor son 
of Magnus, regent of Norway, and in 1355 Haakon entered upon 
his functions , the province of Vigen and Iceland alone being 
reserved to his father. In Sweden Magnus consolidated the pro- 
vincial laws and drew up a new municipal code in 1347, but here 
too he was overtaken by many troubles. The aristocracy resented 
his endeavours to restrain their excesses, the people were exas- 
perated by the unsuccessful issue of his Russian campaigns (1348- 
49, 1350-51), the plague intensified their dissatisfaction in 1350, 
and lastly the king was excommunicated in 1358 on account of 
his failure to pay debts due to the pope. Eric, the king's son, 
took advantage of these troubles and assumed the title of king in 
1356, but died in 1359. New disasters, however, soon followed. 

lviii X. HISTORY. 

In 1360 the Danes regained Skane and in 1361 they took posses- 
sion of the islands of Oland and Gotland. In 1363 Haakon married 
the princess Margaret, daughter of King Valdemar of Denmark, 
then eleven years old , a union which gave great offence to the 
Swedish nobles , who were farther exasperated by the reconcilia- 
tion of Haakon with his father. Magnus now banished twenty- 
four of his most obnoxious opponents, who proceeded to Mecklen- 
burg and offered the crown to Albert, second son of the duke and 
of Euphemia, a daughter of Duke Eric of Sweden. 

Albert accordingly came to Sweden in 1363, and in 1365 Mag- 
nus and Haakon were defeated at Gata, near Enkoping, where the 
former was taken prisoner. In 1370-71 a rebellion in favour of 
Magnus took place in Upper Sweden, and in 1471 Haakon invaded 
the country with a Norwegian army, but peace was shortly after- 
wards concluded, and Magnus set at liberty on payment of a heavy- 
ransom and on condition that he would not again lay claim to the 
Swedish crown. The death of Magnus in 1374 finally extinguished 
the hopes of those in favour of union. Albert was now compelled 
to place himself under the guidance of the powerful aristocratic 
party. In 1375 Bo Jonsson, the most powerful noble in Sweden, 
was appointed Drost or regent. Meanwhile the Norwegian nobil- 
ity under King Haakon had attained to considerable indepen- 
dence, while in the towns the dominant party consisted entirely 
of Germans , whose proceedings were often most oppressive and. 
tyrannical. Even in Sweden, in accordance with the municipal 
code of Magnus Smek, one-half of the burgomasters and civic 
authorities in every town was required to consist of Germans ; 
and it may be here added that Albert chiefly owed his unpopularity 
to his partiality for German favourites. 

In 1375 Valdemar IV. of Denmark died without male issue, and 
in the following year he was succeeded by Olaf, son of his daughter 
Margaret and Haakon, king of Norway. On the death of Haakon 
in 1380, Olaf Haakonssen, his only son, acceded to the throne of 
Norway also, thus uniting the crowns of Denmark and Norway. 

Olaf's early death in 1387 dissolved this brief union, but 
within a few weeks his mother Margaret was proclaimed regent 
of Denmark, pending the election of a new king, while in Norway 
she was nominated regent in 1388 without any such limitation. 
At the same time, as it was deemed necessary to elect a successor 
to the throne from among the different competitors, the Norwegians 
appointed Erik of Pomerania , Margaret's nephew , heir to the 
crown, but under the condition that he should not ascend the throne 
during Margaret's lifetime. On the death of Bo Jonsson (1386), 
who had held two-thirds of Sweden in fief or in pledge, Albert's 
quarrels with his magnates broke out afresh, whereupon the mal- 
contents proclaimed Margaret regent of Sweden also (1388), 
agreeing to accept the king whom she should nominate. Margaret 

X. HISTORY. lix 

thereupon invaded Sweden and defeated Albert at Falkoping 
(1389), taking him and his son prisoners. The war, however, 
still continued , and it was at this period that the Vitalien 
Brotherhood (1392) came into existence, originally deriving their 
name ('victuallers') from their duty of supplying Stockholm with 
provisions during the war. The city was at that time occupied 
by the German adherents of Albert, and these German 'victuallers' 
were in truth a band of lawless marauders and pirates. Peace 
was at length declared in 1395, and King Albert set at liberty on 
condition of his leaving the country. During the same year Erik 
was elected king of Denmark, and in 1396 of Sweden also, so that 
the three crowns were now united, and the three kingdoms ruled by 
the same regent. The following year Erik was solemnly crowned 
at Kalmar by a diet of the three nations. Lastly, in 1398, Mar- 
garet gained possession of Stockholm , the last stronghold of the 
German partisans of Albert. The union of the three kingdoms 
thus effected by Margaret, who is sometimes called the 'Northern 
Semiramis', lasted till the beginning of the 16th cent., when it 
was dissolved by the secession of Sweden, but Norway and Den- 
mark remained united down to the year 1814. 

The Union. 

Though nominally united and bound to make common cause 
against all enemies, the three kingdoms jealously maintained their 
respective forms of government. Margaret ruled over the three 
countries with wisdom and moderation, though harassed by many 
difficulties, and on her death in 1412 King Erik assumed the reins 
of government. Erik , whose queen was Philippa , daughter of 
Henry IV. of England, was a weak, incompetent, and at the same 
time a cruel prince. He wasted large sums of money in an at- 
tempt to recover Slesvig from the Counts of Holstein, who held it 
as a Danish fief, and who were supported by the Hanseatic League. 
Meanwhile Bergen was twice plundered by the Germans (142S 
and 1429), who now became masters of that city, and in Sweden 
the people were most oppressively treated by Erik's German and 
Danish officials. In 1435, after a disastrous quarrel of twenty- 
three years, Eric was at length compelled to confirm the privileges 
of the Hanseatic League and to leave the Counts of Holstein in 
undisturbed possession of Slesvig. Exasperated by Erik's malad- 
ministration, by the debasement of the coinage, and other griev- 
ances, the Swedish peasantry, headed by Engelbrekt Engel- 
brektsson, a wealthy proprietor of mines, rebelled in 1433 and 
compelled Erik and his council to appoint Karl Knutsson regent 
of the kingdom (1436), shortly after which Engelbrekt was assas- 
sinated. In Norway also the oppressive sway of foreign officials 
caused great discontent and gave rise to a rebellion in 1436. Erik 
in despair retired to the island of Gotland, and in 1433 a number 


of Danish and Swedish magnates assembled at Kalmar, where 
they drew up a new treaty of union, hut without affirming that 
the three kingdoms were thenceforward to he ruled by one 
monarch. Lastly, in Denmark also a rebellion broke out, chiefly, 
however, against the nobility and the clergy , and the Danes were 
therefore compelled to seek for a new king. 

In 1439 Denmark and Sweden formally withdrew their alle- 
giance from Erik, and Christopher of Bavaria was elected in his 
stead, being afterwards proclaimed king of Norway also (1442). 
Erik spent ten years in Gotland where he supported himself by 
piracy, and ten years more in Pomerania, where he died in 1459. 

The separate election and coronation of Christopher in the 
three countries shows that their union had ceased to exist in more 
than the name. The new king succeeded, however, in asserting 
his authority in every part of his dominions, although not without 
many sacrifices. In his reign Copenhagen was raised to the rank 
of the capital of Denmark. His plans for the consolidation of his 
power were cut short by his death in 1448, and the union was 
again practically dissolved. The Swedes now proclaimed Karl 
Knutsson king, while the Danes elected Christian of Oldenburg, 
a nephew of the Duke of Holstein and Slesvig. In 1449 Christian 
also succeeded by stratagem in procuring his election in Norway, 
but Karl Knutsson was proclaimed king and crowned by the pea- 
santry. The following year, however, Karl renounced his second 
crown, and Christian was thereupon crowned at Throndhjem. 
Karl having rendered himself obnoxious to the clergy and others 
of his subjects in Sweden, Christian succeeded in supplanting him 
here also, and he was crowned king of Sweden in 1457. In 1460 
Christian next inherited the duchies of Holstein and Slesvig from 
his uncle, but he was compelled to sign a charter declaring that 
he would govern them by their own laws and not as part of Den- 
mark. The government of this vast empire was a task to which 
Christian proved unequal. Norway was plundered by Russians 
and Karelians and grievously oppressed by the Hanseatic mer- 
chants, who in 1455 slew Olaf Nilsson , governor of Bergen , and 
the bishop of the town, and burned the monastery of Munkeliv 
with impunity. In 1468 and 1469 he pledged the Orkney and 
Shetland Islands to Scotland, and caused great discontent by the 
introduction into Norway of Danish and German nobles, to whom 
he granted extensive privileges. Sweden, too, groaned under heavy 
taxation, and in 1464 recalled Karl Knutsson to the throne. He 
was soon banished, but in 1467 recalled a third time, and in 1470 
he died as king of Sweden. In 1471 Sten Sture, the Elder, a 
nephew of Knutsson, and the guardian of his son, was appointed 
administrator, and the same year Christian was defeated at Stock- 
holm, after which he made no farther attempt to regain his autho- 
rity in Sweden. He died in 1481 and was succeeded in Denmark 

X. HISTORY. lxi 

by his son Hans, who was not recognised in Norway till 1483. 
Sten Sture sought to delay his election in Sweden, but as he had 
rendered himself unpopular by an unsuccessful campaign against 
the Russians in Finland, Hans took the opportunity of invading 
Sweden with a large army and succeeded in establishing his au- 
thority (1497). The king having been signally defeated at Hem- 
mingstadt in 1500 in the course of his attempt to subdue the 
Ditmarschers, Sture was recalled, but Hans still retained Norway. 
Sture died in 1503 and was succeeded by Svante Nielsson Sture 
(d. 1512), whose successor was his son Sten Sture the Younger 
(d. 1520). 

King Hans died in 1513, and was succeeded in Denmark and 
Norway by his son Christian II., whom the Swedes declined to 
recognise. He was a man of considerable ability and learning, 
but self-willed, passionate, and cruel. In Norway and Denmark 
he effected several social reforms, protected the commercial, min- 
ing, and fishing interests, and sought to restrict the privileges of 
the Hanseatic merchants. Notwithstanding his strength of will, 
Christian was ruled by Sigbritt, a Dutchwoman, the mother of his 
mistress DiXweke (d. 1517), even after the death of the latter, and 
the hatred of the aristocracy for this woman, who treated them 
with studied contempt, proved disastrous to Christian. In Swe- 
den the family of Trolle had long been hostile to the Sture family, 
and when Gustaf Trolle was created archbishop of Upsala in 1515 
he invited the Danes to aid him in deposing the administrator. 
Christian sent troops to the aid of the prelate, who was besieged 
in his castle of Staket (p. 333), but the castle was taken and Trolle 
deprived of his dignities and confined in a monastery. In 1518 
Christian himself undertook a campaign against Sweden without 
success , and perfidiously imprisoned Gustaf Eriksson Vasa and 
other Swedish hostages who had been sent to him. A third cam- 
paign in 1519 was more successful, and Sten Sture was defeated 
and mortally wounded at Bogesund in West Gotland. The same 
year Christian gained possession of Stockholm , but his atrocious 
cruelty and injustice proved his ruin. After his coronation by 
Trolle he permitted that prelate and two others to prosecute their 
enemies before an arbitrarily formed ecclesiastical tribunal. They 
were found guilty of heresy, and on 8th Nov., 1520, executed 
along with several other persons. The 82 victims included two 
bishops, 13 royal counsellors and knights, and Erik Johansson, 
the father of Vasa. On the following day many similar executions 
of so-called rebels and heretics took place in other parts of Sweden, 
though on a smaller scale than the 'Blood-bath of Stockholm'. 

The exasperation of the Swedes was aggravated by the impo- 
sition of a new tax and an attempt to disarm the peasantry, and 
the discontented populace soon found an able leader. This was 
the famous Gustaf Vasa (probably so surnamed from vase, 'a beam', 

lxii X. HISTORY. 

■which the fascine in his armorial bearings resembled), who had 
been unjustly imprisoned by Christian, but escaped to Lubeck in 
1519. In May, 1520, he returned to Sweden, and on hearing of 
the death of his father at the Stockholm Blood-bath he betook 
himself to Dalecarlia, where on former occasions Engelbrekt and 
the Stures had been supported by the peasantry. The rising began 
in 1521 and soon extended over the whole of Sweden. In August 
of that year Gustavus was appointed administrator at Vadstena, 
and in June 1523 he was proclaimed king at Strengnas. 

Sweden thus finally withdrew from the union, and Christian 
soon afterwards lost his two other kingdoms. His favour to the 
Reformation aroused the enmity of the church, and at the same 
time he attacked the privileges of the nobility. From the tenor 
of several provincial and municipal laws framed by the king in 
1521-22 it is obvious that he proposed to counteract the influence 
of the clergy and aristocracy by improving the condition of the 
lower classes. Among several excellent provisions were the abol- 
ition of compulsory celibacy in the church and a prohibition 
against the sale of serfs. A war with the Lubeckers , who even 
threatened Copenhagen (1522), next added to Christian's difficul- 
ties, soon after which the Danes elected his uncle Frederick, Duke 
of Slesvig-Holstein, as his successor and renounced their allegiance 
to Christian. At length, after fruitless negociations , Christian 
quitted Copenhagen in 1523 and sought an asylum in Holland. 
Nine years later, after an unsuccessful attempt to regain his throne, 
he was thrown into prison, where he languished for 27 years. 

The condition of the Constitution during the union was far 
from satisfactory. The union existed in little more than the name. 
Each nation continued to be governed by its own laws, neither 
the troops nor the revenue of one could be employed for the pur- 
poses of either of the others, and no one could be summoned be- 
fore any tribunal out of his own country. The supreme authority, 
next to that of the king, was vested in his council, which con- 
sisted of the prelates , a number of the superior clergy, and a 
fluctuating number of nobles nominated by the king , but not 
removable at his pleasure. In matters of importance the king 
could only act with the consent of his counsellors, and they were 
even entitled to use violence in opposing unauthorised measures. 
Nominally the church continued to enjoy all its early privileges, 
and the concessions made at Tensberg in 1277 were expressly 
confirmed by Christian I. in 1458, but invasions of its rights were 
not unfrequent, and with its increasing solicitude for temporal 
power its hold over the people decreased. The church was most 
powerful in Norway and least so in Sweden, while with the in- 
fluence of the nobility the reverse was the case. In Sweden the 
estates of the nobility enjoyed immunity from taxation, but Chris- 
tian I. and his successors were obliged to relax this privilege. 

X. HISTORY. lxiii 

The nobles also enjoyed jurisdiction over their peasantry, levying 
tines and imposing punishments at discretion (1483). The Nor- 
wegian nobles were less favoured ; they had no power of levying 
fines from their tenantry, and their manor houses (Scedegaarde) 
alone were exempt from taxation. The position of the townspeople 
and the peasantry in Sweden gradually improved , and in 1471 
Sten Sture ordained that the municipal authorities should thence- 
forward consist of natives of the country instead of Germans. In 
Norway, notwithstanding the opposition of several of the kings, 
the Hanse merchants still held oppressive sway in the chief towns ; 
but the peasantry were never, as in Denmark, subjected to serf- 
dom and compulsory services. They were generally owners of the 
soil they cultivated, while those who were merely tenants enjoyed 
entire liberty and were not ascripti glebae as in many other coun- 
tries. In Sweden the compulsory services exigible from the pea- 
santry by the lord of the soil were limited in the 15th cent, to 
8-1*2 days, and those exigible by the king to 8 days. "While this 
class enjoyed less independence than in Norway, it attained polit- 
ical importance and even admission to the supreme council at an 
earlier period, owing to the influence of Engelbrekt, the Stures, 
and other popular chiefs. 

During the union Literature made considerable progress in 
Sweden, while in Norway it languished and became well-nigh ex- 
tinct. In both countries the education of the clergy continued to 
be carried on in the monasteries and cathedral schools, but towards 
the close of this period universities were founded at Vpsala (147?) 
and Copenhagen (1479), and gave rise to the publication of various 
learned treatises in Latin. Among the religious works of this per- 
iod may be mentioned the revelations of St. Birgitta (d. 1373) 
and the 'Cronica Regni Gothorum' of Ericus Olai (d. 1486), both 
showing a tendency towards the principles of the Reformation. 
Whilst about the beginning of the 14th cent, the native literature 
of Norway became extinct, that of Sweden began to increase, 
consisting chiefly of religious writings, rhyming chronicles, ballads 
and compilations of laws. In Sweden, moreover, the national lan- 
guage, though not without difficulty , held its own against the 
Danish, while in Norway the 'Old Norsk' was gradually displaced 
by the tongue of the dominant race, and continued to be spoken 
in several impure and uncultured dialects by the peasantry alone. 

Sweden after the Dissolution of the Kalmar Union. 

The necessity of making common cause against Christian II., 
the deposed monarch of the three kingdoms, led to an alliance be- 
tween Oustavus Vasa and Frederick I. of Denmark. Christian at- 
tempted an invasion of Norway in 1531-32, but was taken pri- 
soner, and after Frederick's death (1533) the Liibeckers made an 
ineffectual attempt to restore the deposed king (1534-36). At 

lxiv X. HISTORY. 

home Gustavus also succeeded in consolidating his power. The 
nobility had been much weakened by the cruel proceedings of 
Christian, while the Reformation deprived the church both of its 
power and its temporal possessions , most of which fell to the 
crown. By the diet of Vesteras (1527) and the synod of Orebro 
(1529) great changes in the tenure of church property and in eccle- 
siastical dogmas and ritual were introduced, and in 1531 Lau- 
rentius Petri became the first Protestant archbishop of Upsala. 
Lastly, at another diet held at Vesteras (1544), the Roman Catho- 
lic Church was declared abolished. At the same diet the succes- 
sion to the throne was declared hereditary. Gustavus effected 
many other wise reforms, but had to contend against seveial in- 
surrections of the peasantry , caused partly by his ecclesiastical 
innovations, and partly by the heaviness of the taxation imposed 
for the support of his army and fleet. Shortly before his death (in 
1560), he unwisely bestowed dukedoms on his younger sons, a 
step which laid the foundation for future troubles. 

His eldest son Erik XIV. (the number being in accordance 
with the computation of Johannes Magnus, but without the slight- 
est historical foundation) soon quarrelled with his younger brother 
John, Duke of Finland, whom he kept imprisoned for four years. 
He was ruled by an unworthy favourite, named Goran Persson, 
and committed many acts of violence and cruelty. He persuaded 
his brother Duke Magnus to sign John's death-warrant, whereupon 
Magnus became insane. After the failure of several matrimonial 
schemes, of one of which Queen Elizabeth of England was the 
object, and after several outbursts of insanity, Eric married his 
mistress Katharine Mansdatter (1567). The following year he was 
deposed by his brother, who ascended the throne as John III., 
and after a cruel captivity of nine years was poisoned by his order 
in 1577 (see p. 340). John ingratiated himself with the nobility 
by rich grants of hereditary fiefs, and he concluded the peace at 
Stettin which terminated a seven years' war in the north (1563-70) 
and definitively severed Sweden from Denmark and Norway. Less 
successful was his war against Russia for the purpose of securing 
to Sweden the province of Esthland, but the province was after- 
wards secured to his successor by the Peace of Tensina (1595). 
John was married to a Polish princess and betrayed a leaning to- 
wards the Romish church which much displeased his subjects. 
After his death (1592) the religious difficulty became more serious, 
as his son and successor Sigismund had been brought up as a Ro- 
man Catholic in Poland, where he had been proclaimed king in 
1587. Duke Charles of Sodermanland, the youngest son of Gus- 
tavus Vasa , thereupon assumed the regency on behalf of the ab- 
sent Sigismund, caused the Augsburg Confession to be pro- 
claimed anew by a synod at Upsala (1593), and abolished Romish 
practices introduced by John. After confirming these proceedings, 

X. HISTORY. ixv 

Sigismund was crowned in 1594 ; but on his failure to keep Ms 
promises, his uncle was recalled to the regency (1595), and when 
Sigismund invaded Sweden in 1598 he was defeated by Charles 
and compelled to enter into a compromise at Linkoping. Again 
breaking faith , he was formally deposed (1599), while Charles 
was appointed regent for life. After having prosecuted Sigis- 
mund's adherents with great harshness, and succeeded in prevent- 
ing the recognition of Ladislaus, Sigismund's son, Charles IX., 
assumed the title of king in 1604. His administration was bene- 
ficial to the country, and he was a zealous promoter of commerce, 
mining, and agriculture, but his wars with Russia and Denmark, 
which were unfinished at his death (1611), caused much misery. 

His son and successor was Gustavus II. , better known as 
Gustavus Adolphus, the most able and famous of the Swedish 
kings. Though seventeen years of age only , he was at once de- 
clared major by the Estates. In 1613 he terminated the 'Kalmar 
War with Denmark by the Peace of Knarod , and in 1617 that 
with Russia by the Peace of Stolbova , which secured Kexholm, 
Karelen, and Ingermanland to Sweden. By the Treaty of Altmark 
in 1629 he obtained from Poland the cession of Livonia and four 
Prussian seaports for six years. At the same time he bestowed 
much attention on his home affairs. With the aid of his chancellor 
and friend Axel Oxenstjerna he passed codes of judicial procedure 
and founded a supreme court at Stockholm (1614-15), and afterwards 
erected appeal courts at Abo, Dorpat, and Jonkoping. In 1617 he 
reorganised the national assembly, dividing it into the four estates 
of Nobles, Clergy, Burghers, and Peasants, and giving it the sole 
power of passing laws and levying taxes. He founded several new 
towns, favoured the mining and commercial industries, extended 
the university of Upsala, and established another at Dorpat. At 
the same time he strengthened his army and navy, which he soon 
had occasion to use. In 1630 he went to Germany to support the 
Protestant cause in the Thirty Years' War, and after several bril- 
liant victories and a glorious career, which raised Sweden to the 
proudest position she has ever occupied in history, he fell on 6th 
Nov., 1632, at the Battle of Liitzen. The war was continued under 
his daughter and successor Christina , under the able regency of 
Oxenstjerna. In 1635 , by another treaty with Poland , Livonia 
was secured to Sweden for 26 years more. War broke out with Den- 
mark in 1643 , but was terminated by the Peace of Bromsebro 
in 1645. At length, in 1648, the Thirty Years' War was ended by 
the Peace of Westphalia. These treaties secured to Sweden Jemt- 
land and Herjedalen, the island of Gotland, the principalities of 
Bremen and Verden , part of Pomerania with Stettin and the is- 
lands of Riigen , Usedom, and Wollin , and the town of Wismar, 
besides a considerable war indemnity and other advantages. Dur- 
ing the regency it was arranged that the royal council or cabinet 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. P 

lxvi X. HISTORY. 

should consist of representatives of the supreme court of appeal, 
the council of -war, the admiralty , the ministry of the interior, 
and the exchequer , presided over by the chief ministers of each 
department. The country was divided into 23 Lane and 14 Lag- 
sagor, governed by Landshofdinge and Lagmdn respectively, which 
officials were to be appointed from the nobility. For these and many 
other reforms and useful institutions the country was indebted 
to the energy and enlightenment of Oxenstjerna. On the other 
hand , in order to fill the empty coffers of the state , it was found 
necessary to sell many of the crown domains , and to levy new 
taxes, and the evil was aggravated by the lavish extravagance 
of Christina and her favourites. Refusing to marry, and being 
unable to redress the grievances of her justly disaffected sub- 
jects, the queen in 1649 procured the election of Charles Gustavus 
or Charles X., son of the Count Palatine John Casimir of Zwei- 
brucken and a sister of Gustavus Adolphus, as her successor. By 
her desire he was crowned in 1654, whereupon she abdicated, 
quitted Sweden, and embraced the Romish faith. She terminated 
her eccentric career at Rome in 1689. Her successor endeavoured 
to practise economy, and in 1655 obtained the sanction of the 
Estates to revoke her alienations of crown property. War, however, 
interfered with his plans. John Casimir, king of Poland , son of 
Sigismund, now claimed the throne of Sweden , and compelled 
Charles to declare war against him (1655). After a time Russia, 
Austria, and Denmark espoused the cause of Poland, but Charles 
succeeded in gaining possession of Jutland and the Danish islands, 
and the Peace of Roeskilde (1658) secured to him Skane, Halland, 
and Blekingen , but obliged him to cede the districts of Bohus 
and Throndhjem to Norway. On a renewal of the war with Den- 
mark , the Danes were aided by the Dutch, the Brandenburgers, 
the Poles, and the Austrians , who compelled Charles to raise the 
siege of Copenhagen, and on his sudden death in 1662 the Peace 
of Copenhagen was concluded , whereby the island of Bornholm 
was lost to Sweden. 

Charles X. was succeeded by his son Charles XI. , a boy of 
four years , whose guardians endeavoured to make peace with 
foreign enemies. By the Peace of Oliva with Poland , Branden- 
burg, and Austria in 1660 the king of Poland finally ceded Li- 
vonia to Sweden and renounced his claim to the throne of Sweden, 
and by the Peace of Kardis with Russia in 1661 the Swedish con- 
quests in Bsthonia and Livonia were restored to Sweden ; but 
little was done to remedy the internal disorders of the country. 
One of the few events worthy of record at this period was the 
foundation of the university of Lund in 1668. Meanwhile the 
excesses and arrogance of the nobility , the squandering of the 
crown revenues , and the imposition of heavy taxes threatened to 
ruin the country , and the regency even accepted subsidies from 

A. HISTORY. lxvii 

foreign countries and hired out troops to serve abroad. At the 
age of seventeen Charles assumed the reins of government (1672). 
In 1674 he was called upon as the ally of France to take part in 
the war against Holland , Spain , and Germany, but the Swedish 
army was signally defeated at Fehrbellin by the Elector of Bran- 
denburg. Hereupon the Danes declared war against Sweden, 
causing new disasters , but by the intervention of the French 
peace was again declared at Lund in 1679. The distress occasioned 
by these defeats and popular indignation against the nobility, 
who were now in possession of five-sevenths of the land in Swe- 
den, and who did their utmost to reduce the peasantry to the con- 
dition of mere serfs, eventually served greatly to strengthen the 
king's position. At the diet of Stockholm in 1680, after stormy 
debates, it was determined to call the regency to account for their 
gross mismanagement of affairs , and the king was empowered to 
revoke the alienations made during his minority. The king was 
told that he was not bound to consult his cabinet, but to obey the 
laws , and that he was responsible to God alone. Another diet 
(1682) entrusted the king with the sole legislative power, merely 
expressing a hope that he would graciously consult the Estates. 
Charles was thus declared an absolute monarch , the sole right 
reserved to the diet being that of levying taxes. The king there- 
upon exacted large payments from his former guardians and exer- 
cised his right of revocation so rigidly that he obtained possession 
of about one-third of the landed estates in Sweden. The money 
thus acquired he employed in paying the debts of the crown , in 
re-organising his army and fleet, and for other useful purposes, 
while he proceeded to amend the law and to remedy ecclesiastical 
abuses. On his death in 1697 he left his kingdom in a strong and 
prosperous condition, and highly respected among nations. 

Under Charles XII., the son and successor of Charles XL, this 
absolutism was fraught with disastrous consequences. Able, care- 
fully educated, energetic, and conscientious, but self-willed and 
eccentric , Charles was called to the throne at the age of fifteen 
and at once declared major. In 1699 Denmark, Russia, and Poland 
concluded an alliance against Sweden , which led to the great 
northern war. Aided by England, Holland, and the Duke of 
Gottorp and Hanover, Charles speedily compelled the Danes to 
conclude the Peace of Travendal (1700), defeated the Russians 
at Naiva, took Curland from the Poles (1701), and forced Elector 
Augustus of Saxony to make peace at Altranstadt , whereby the 
elector was obliged to renounce the Polish crown. Meanwhile 
Peter the Great of Russia had gained possession of Kexholm, 
Ingermanland , and Esthonia. Instead of attempting to regain 
these provinces, Charles , tempted by a promise of help from Ma- 
zeppa , a Cossack chief , determined to attack the enemy in an- 
other quarter and marched into the Ukraine , but was signally 

lxviii X. HISTORY. 

defeated by the Russians at Pultava (1709), and lost nearly the 
■whole of his army. He escaped into Turkey, where he was hospi- 
tably received by the Sultan Achmed III. and supplied with 
money. Here he resided at Bender, and induced the Sultan to 
make war against Russia ; but when the grand vizier had defeated 
the Czar he was bribed by Katherine, the courageous wife of Peter, 
to allow him to escape. This exasperated Charles and led to a 
quarrel with the Sultan , who placed him in confinement. Mean- 
while Denmark and Saxony again declared war against Sweden. 
Skane was successfully defended against the Danes , but Elector 
Augustus reconquered Poland , and the Czar took possession of 
Finland. The resources of Sweden were now exhausted , and the 
higher nobility began to plot against the king. At length Charles 
effected his escape and returned to Sweden (1715), to find that 
England, Hanover, and Prussia had also declared war against him 
owing to differences regarding Stettin and the principalities of 
Bremen and Verden. Having succeeded with the utmost difficulty 
in raising money , Charles now invaded Norway with an army of 
raw recruits and laid siege to Frederikshald , where he fell at the 
early age of thirty-six (1718), just at the time when his favourite 
minister Gortz was about to conclude a favourable peace with 
Russia. Brave, chivalrous, and at the same time simple in his 
manners and irreproachable in conduct, the memory «of Charles 
is still fondly cherished by the Swedes. The short reign of abso- 
lutism (Envaldstiden) was now at an end , and we reach a period 
of greater independence (Frihetstiden ; 1719-92). 

Charles XII. was succeeded by his sister Ulrika Eleonora, who 
with the consent of the Estates resigned in favour of her husband 
Frederick I. , crown-prince of Hessen-Cassel. At the same time 
(1720) a new constitution was framed by the Estates. The supreme 
power was vested in the Estates , a secret committee consisting 
of members of the three upper chambers, and a council or cabinet 
of nine members of the committee , three from each estate, to be 
nominated by the king himself. The king's authority was limited 
to two votes at the diet and a casting vote in case of an equally 
divided assembly , and the cabinet was declared responsible to 
the diet. In 1719 peace was concluded with England , upon the 
abandonment of Bremen and Verden, and in 1720 with Prussia, 
to which Stettin and part of Pomerania were ceded ; then with 
Poland and Denmark; and in 1721 with Russia, to which Li- 
vonia, Esthonia, Ingermanland, and the districts of Kexholm and 
Viborg in Finland had to be made over. The kingdom now enjoyed 
an interval of repose , a new code of laws was drawn up (1734), 
and efforts were made to revive commerce. The peace party was 
derisively called 'Nightcaps' (nattmossor), or simply 'Caps', while 
a warlike party which now arose was known as 'Hats' (hattar). In 
accordance with the counsels of the latter , war was proclaimed 

X. HISTORY. lxix 

with Russia, which soon led to the loss of Finland (1741). On the 
death of the queen without issue, Adolphus Frederick of Holstein- 
Gottorp , a relation of the crown-prince of Russia, was elected as 
Frederick's successor, ;on condition (Peace of Abo; 1743J that the 
greater part of Finland should be restored. The remainder of 
Frederick's reign was tranquil, and he died in 1751. 

The prerogatives of his successor , Adolphus Frederick, were 
farther limited by the Estates. An attempt on the part of the 
king to emancipate himself led to a confirmation of the existing 
constitution , and to a resolution that a stamp bearing the king's 
name should be impressed without his consent on documents ap- 
proved by the Estates (1756). The court vainly attempted to 
rebel, and the king was bluntly reminded that the Estates had 
power to depose him. In 1757 the 'Hats' recklessly plunged into 
the Seven Years' War, and after an ignoble campaign peace was 
concluded at Hamburg in 1762. The 'Caps' were next in the 
ascendant , but the party disputes of this period were not con- 
ducive to national progress. 

In 1771 Adolphus was succeeded by his son Gustavus III., 
who by means of a preconcerted military revolution or coup-d'etat 
(1772) succeeded in regaining several of the most valuable prero- 
gatives of the crown, including the sole executive power, whereby 
the government was converted from a mere republic into a limited 
monarchy. The king used his victory with moderation, abolished 
torture , introduced liberty of the press , promoted commerce, 
science , and art, and strengthened the army. On the other hand 
he was extravagant and injudicious , and in 178b committed the 
error of declaring war against Russia without the consent of the 
Estates. His officers refused to obey him, and his difficulties 
were aggravated by a declaration of war and invasion of Sweden 
by the Danes. Gustavus now succeeded, with the aid of the 
middle and lower classes, in effecting a farther change in the 
constitution (1798), which gave him the sole prerogative of mak- 
ing war and concluding peace, while the right of acquiring pri- 
vileged landed estates (fralsegods) was bestowed on the peasantry. 
An armistice was concluded with Denmark, and the not unsuc- 
cessful hostilities with Russia led to the Peace of Variila (1790), 
which precluded Russia from future interference with Swedish 
affairs. Shortly afterwards, on the outbreak of the French Revo- 
lution, the king proposed to intervene , together with Russia and 
Austria, in favour of Louis XVI. and proceeded to levy new taxes, 
whereupon the disaffected nobles entered into a new conspiracy 
against him, and in 1792 this chivalrous and enlightened, though 
sometimes ill-advised monarch, fell by the dagger of Captain 

His son Oustaous Adolphus succeeded him as Gustavus IV., 
under the regency of his uncle Duke Charles of Sodermanland, 

lxx X. HISTORY. 

who avoided all participation in the wars of the Revolution. In 
1800 Gustavus , in accordance with a scheme of his father, and 
in conjunction with Russia and Denmark , took up a position of 
aimed neutrality, but Denmark having been coerced by England 
to abandon this position, and Russia having dissolved the alliance, 
Sweden was also obliged to yield to the demands of England. The 
king's futile dreams of the restoration of absolutism and his ill- 
judged and disastrous participation in the Napoleonic wars led to 
the loss of Wismar, Pomerania, and Finland, and to his defeat in 
Norway (1803-8). The country being now on the brink of ruin, 
the Estates caused Gustavus to be arrested, and formally deposed 
him and his heirs (1809). He died in poverty at St. Gallen in 
1837. His uncle was now elected king as Charles XIII., and a 
new constitution framed, mainly on the basis of that of 1772. 
Peace was now concluded at Frederikshamn with Russia (1809), 
to which the whole of Finland and the Aland Islands were ceded, 
with Denmark, and with France (1810), whereby Sweden recovered 
part of Pomerania. The king being old and childless, Prince 
Christian Augustus of Augustenburg, stadtholder of Norway, was 
elected crown-prince, but on his sudden death in 1810 the Estates 
elected Marshal Bernadotte, one of Napoleon's generals, who was 
adopted by Charles, assumed the name of Charles John, and em- 
braced the Protestant faith. The crown-prince's influence was 
directed to military organisation. The lukewarmness of Sweden 
in maintaining the continental blockade led to a rupture with 
France, and during the war with Napoleon the Swedes concluded 
a treaty with the Russians at Abo on the footing that the crown 
of Norway should be secured to Sweden (1812). England and 
Prussia having given the same assurance, Charles John marched 
with a Swedish contingent into Germany and assumed the com- 
mand of the combined northern army which took part in the de- 
cisive struggle against Napoleon (1813). The crown prince's par- 
ticipation in the war was a somewhat reluctant one , but by the 
Peace of Kiel (1814) he succeeded in compelling Denmark to cede 
Norway to Sweden, while Denmark obtained possession of Swedish 
Pomerania and retained Iceland. Greenland, and the Faroes. 

The frequent changes which took place during this period in 
the Constitution of Sweden have already been mentioned. 

The Intellectual Progress of the country was greatly furthered 
by the Reformation. Peder Mansson (d. 1534), bishop of Vesteras, 
wrote works on the army, the navy, medicine, and other subjects 
in the mediaeval style, while Laurentius Petri (d. 1573), Lauren- 
tius Andrea (d. 1552), and others translated the Bible into Swedish 
and wrote Protestant theological works in their native tongue. 
L. Petri and his brother Olaus(A. 1552) also wrote Swedish chron- 
icles; Archbishop Johannes Magni was the author of a history of 
the kings in Latin, with a large admixture of the fabulous ele- 

X. HISTORY. lxxi 

ment ; and his brother Olaus wrote the often quoted 'Historia de 
Gentibus Septentrionalibus'. An equally indiscriminate writer of 
history, and an author of dramatic and other works, was Johan 
Messenius (d. 1637). Even Gustavus Vasa had been anxious to 
preserve the purity of his native language, but it was not till the 
17th cent, that scholars interested themselves in it. Queen Chris- 
tina, a talented and learned princess, was a great patroness of 
literature. She invited foreign savants to her court (Descartes, 
Orotius, and others), as well as native authors, including Johan 
Bureus (d. 1652) and the versatile and distinguished Gijran Lilje 
(ennobled as George Stjernhjelm; d. 1672). At this period, too 
(1658), Jon Rugman first called attention to the treasures of 
Icelandic literature, and antiquarian and historical research now 
came into vogue. StjernhoSk, the jurist (d. 1675), and Widekindi 
(d.1678), Verelius (d. 1682), Verving (&. 1697), Budbeck(i. 1702), 
and Peringskiold (d. 1720), the historians, were meritorious writers 
of this school. Hitherto German influence had preponderated in 
Sweden, hut about the middle of the 18th cent, a preference 
began to be shown for the French style. To this school belong 
Olof von Dalin(A. 1763), the poet and historian, and Count Tessin 
(d. 1770), a meritorious art-collector, and among the scholars of 
the same period were Lagerbring , the historian (d. 1787), Johan 
Ihre, the philologist (d. 1780), and above all Karl von Linne (d. 
1778), the famous botanist. The 'Vitterhets Akademi' or 'acad- 
emy of belles lettres' founded in 1753 was extended by Gusta- 
vus III. so as to embrace history and antiquities , and he also 
founded the Swedish Academy. To the academic school belonged 
Kellgren (d. 1795) and Leopold (d. 1829), hut a far more popu- 
lar poet, and one who repudiated all the traditions of French taste, 
was Bellman (d. 1795), the singer of sweet and simple ballads, 
whose 'Fredmans Epistlar' was deemed worthy of a prize even by 
the Academy, and whose memory is still fondly cherished. 

The Continued Union of Norway with Denmark. 

When Sweden withdrew from the Kalmar Union (1523) Nor- 
way at first remained faithful to Christian II., but Vincentius 
Lunge procured the election of Frederick I. (1524). This king's 
Protestant tendencies induced the Norwegians to re-elect Chris- 
tian II. in 1531 , when the deposed king appeared in Norway 
with an army, but he was treacherously arrested the following 
year and ended his life iu captivity (see p. lxii). Frederick thus 
regained Norway and continued to prosecute the objects of the 
Reformation till his death (1533). The nobility and the Pro- 
testant party in Denmark elected his eldest son Christian III. 
as his successor, and the southern half of Norway under Lunge 
acquiesced. A rebellion of the northern provinces , which cost 
Lunge his life, was quelled, and the archbishop who had headed 

Ixxii X. HISTORY. 

it was obliged to quit the country. In 1536 Christian III. had 
promised the Danes to convert Norway into a Danish province, 
and he now abolished the council of state and otherwise partially 
kept his word. The doctrines of the Reformation permeated the 
country very slowly, but the dissolution of the monasteries and 
confiscation of church property were prosecuted with great zeal. 
The Norwegian towns now began to prosper and the trade of the 
country to improve , while the tyranny of the Hanse merchants at 
Bergen was checked by Christopher Valkendorff (1536). In 1559 
Christian was succeeded by his son Frederick II., in whose reign 
occurred the calamitous seven years' war with Sweden (1563-70), 
which sowed the seeds of national hatred between the countries, 
and caused the destruction of Oslo , Sarpsborg, and Hamar, the 
devastation of several agricultural districts, and the military oc- 
cupation of others. At the same time the country was terribly 
oppressed by Frederick's officials , and he himself visited it once 
only. The sole benefit conferred by him on Norway was the foun- 
dation of Frederiksstad near the ruined town of Sarpsborg. 

His son Christian IV. (1588-1648), on the other hand, visited 
Norway very frequently and was indefatigable in his reforms. He 
refused to grant fiefs in future to nobles who were not natives of 
Norway (1596), and he promulgated a Norwegian code (1604), 
which was a revised edition of the laws of 1'274 translated into 
Danish. He also published an ecclesiastical code (1607), and took 
energetic measures to exclude Jesuits from the country. At the 
same time the army was improved, trade was favoured, the silver- 
mines at Kongsberg (1624) and the copper-mines of Reros (1645) 
were established, the towns of Christiania (1624) and Christian- 
sand (1641) founded anew, and the Hanse factory at Bergen strictly 
controlled. All these benefits were outweighed by the disasters of 
the Kalmar War with Sweden (1611-13), during which the peas- 
antry gained their famous victory over the Scottish auxiliaries 
under Col. Sinclair at Kringlen (p. 137), and particularly those 
of the Thirty Years' AVar in which Christian participated (1625- 
1629). A second war with Sweden (1643-45) terminated with the 
severance of Jemtland and Herjedalen from Norway. 

New disasters befell Norway in the reign of his son Frede- 
rick II. (1648-70). The result of the participation of Denmark 
and Norway in the Swedish-Polish war was that Norway finally 
lost Bahus-Lan, Idre, and Sarna. During this war Haldeu earned 
for itself the new name of Frederikshald by the bravery of its de- 
fenders. These misfortunes, however, led to a rupture with the 
existing system of government. On ascending the throne Fred- 
erick had signed a pledge which placed him in the power of the 
nobility, but during the wars the incompetency of the council of 
state, and the energy of the king and citizens in defending Copen- 
hagen, had greatly raised him in the public estimation. At a diet 

X. HISTORY. lxxiii 

held at Copenhagen in 1660 the indignation of the clergy and 
burghers against the nobility burst forth , and they demanded the 
abolition of its oppressive privileges. It was next dicovered that 
the pledge given by the king was subversive of all liberty and 
progress , the king and the lower Estates proceeded to declare the 
succession to the throne hereditary, and Frederick was empowered 
to revise the constitution. The result was that he declared the 
king alone to be invested with sovereign and absolute power, and 
to this document he succeeded privately in procuring the signa- 
tures of most of the members of the diet. This declaration became 
law in 1661, but was not actually promulgated till 1709. These 
great changes were on the whole beneficial to Norway. The 
country was at least now placed on an equality with Denmark, and 
the strict bureaucratic administration was preferable to the old 
evils of local tyranny and individual caprice. The supreme 
authority now consisted of the heads of the five government de- 
partments , presided over by the king, and the feudal lords with 
their local jurisdictions were replaced by crown officials. 

Frederick's son Christian V. (1670-99) was not unsuccessful 
in the Skane war against Sweden (1675-79), but his chief merit 
as regards Norway was the promulgation of a code (1687), based 
on the Danish code of 1683, and of a church ritual for both coun- 
tries. The erection of the new counties or earldoms of Laurvig and 
Tflnsberg, afterwards called Jarlsberg, and of the barony of Rosen- 
dal were unproductive of benefit to Norway. The unjust treat- 
ment of his minister Oriffenfeld, who for a trivial offence suffered 
a cruel imprisonment for 22 years , forms a blot on this king's 

Christian V. was succeeded by his son Frederick IV. (1699- 
1730), in whose reign was waged the great northern war in which 
the Norwegian naval hero Peter Vessel (ennobled under the name 
of Tordenskjold) took a prominent part. The sole gain to Den- 
mark by the Peace of Frederiksborg (1720) was the renunciation 
by Sweden of its immunity from Sound dues. The King husbanded 
his finances , but often procured money by discreditable means. 
He hired out mercenary troops , sold most of the crown-property 
in Norway , and granted a monopoly of the trade of Finmarken. 
These abuses, maladministration, and an attempt to alter the land 
laws so embittered the Norwegians that a union with Russia was 
actually proposed. In this reign a mission to Lapland was organised 
(1714), Th. v. Vesten being one of its chief promoters , and Hans 
Egede went as a missionary to Greenland (1721). 

Under Frederick's son Christian VI. (1730-46) Norway was 
injuriously infected with German Puritanism, which enjoined the 
utmost rigidity of church observances and abstention from all 
worldly amusements. Among the expedients used for reviving 
trade in Denmark was an oppressive enactment that >S. Norway 

lxxiv X. HISTORY. 

should draw its sole corn supplies from that country. The fleet, 
however, was strengthened , an efficient militia organised , and 
education promoted. A long peace favoured the growth of com- 
merce and navigation, and the 'Black Company' formed in 1739 
furthered manufacturing industry. 

In the reign of Frederick V. (1746-66) the grievous sway of 
Puritanism came to an end , and art and science were zealously 
cultivated. A mining school was founded atKongsberg, and a 
mathematical school at Christiania, and at Throndhjem a useful 
scientific society was established by Ounnerus , Scheming , and 
Suhm, a learned Dane (1760-67). The frontier between Norway 
and Sweden was measured and defined (1759), facilities were 
afforded to commerce , and skilled miners introduced from Ger- 
many. Complications with Russia connected with the affairs of 
Slesvig caused severe financial losses to Denmark and Norway, 
and the increased taxation provoked a revolt at Bergen , which, 
however, was soon quelled (1763). Notwithstanding these draw- 
backs, Norway prospered under the absolute monarchy, while Den- 
mark languished. The king in Denmark , being separated from 
the lower classes by a wealthy and influential aristocracy, was 
unable effectually to redress their grievances, and they still groan- 
ed under the evils of serfdom and compulsory service. With the 
exception of Copenhagen, the towns were almost equally oppressed, 
and in 1769 the whole population of Denmark did not exceed 
800,000 souls. In Norway, on the other hand, the peasantry en- 
joyed freedom, the towns had thrown off the oppressive Hanseatic 
yoke, and feudal jurisdictions were abolished , while complaints 
against officials were addressed to the king in person. A class of 
native officials had also sprung up, affording an additional element 
of security. While the population had numbered 450,000 only in 
1664, it rose to 723,000 in 1769. Within the same period the 
number of Norwegian ships had increased from 50 to 1150. 
The peasantry had benefited greatly by the sale of the crown 
estates, and the trade of Norway now far surpassed that of Den- 
mark. At the same time frequent intercourse with England and 
other foreign countries served to expand the Norwegian mind 
and to prepare the way for a period of still greater enlightenment 
and prosperity. 

During the long reign of the imbecile Christian VII. (1766- 
1808) his authority was wielded by his ministers. Struensee, his 
German physician, was the first of these. His measures were those 
of an enlightened absolutism. He simplified judicial procedure, 
abolished torture, excluded the lackeys of noblemen from public 
offices, deprived the aristocracy of their privileges, bestowed lib- 
erty on the press, and husbanded the finances. The peremptory 
manner in which these and other reforms were introduced gave 
great offence, particularly as Struensee took no pains to conceal 

X. HISTORY. lxxv 

his contempt for the Danes. Christian's stepmother accordingly 
organised a conspiracy against him, and he was executed in 1772. 
His successor was Ove Ouldberg, a Dane, who passed a law that 
Danes, Norwegians, and Holsteiners alone should be eligible for 
the government service, and rescinded Struensee's reforms (177(3). 
In 1780 an attitude of armed neutrality introduced by the able 
Count Bemstorff gave a great impulse to the shipping trade, but 
the finances of the country were ruined. In 1784 the Crown- 
prince Frederick assumed the conduct of affairs with Bemstorff as 
his minister, whereupon a more liberal, and for Norway in partic- 
ular a more favourable era began. The corn-trade of S. Norway 
was relieved from its fetters, the trade of Finmarken was set free, 
and the towns of Tromsa, Hammerfest, and Varde were founded. 
On a renewal of the armed neutrality (1800-1) , England refused 
to recognise it, attacked Copenhagen, and compelled the Danes to 
abandon it. Six years later Napoleon's scheme of using Denmark's 
fleet against England led to a second attack on Constantinople and 
its bombardment by the English fleet, which resulted in the sur- 
render of the whole Danish and Norwegian fleet to England (1807). 
Denmark , allied with France , then declared war both against 
England and Sweden (1808) , and almost at the same period 
Christian died. 

On the accession of Frederick VI. (1808-36) the affairs of the 
kingdom were in a desperate condition. The English did not 
attack the country, but contented themselves with capturing as 
many Danish and Norwegian vessels as possible and ruining the 
trade of the country by blockading all its seaports. Owing to an 
overissue of paper money the government was soon unable to meet 
its liabilities and declared itself bankrupt (1813). Meanwhile 
Norway was governed by a separate commission, presided over by 
Prince Christian Augustus of Augustenburg (1807), and was so 
well defended that it lost nothing by the peace of Jbnkoping 
(1809). The independence of the peasantry, the wealth of the 
burghers, and the success of their country in the war against Swe- 
den naturally created in the minds of the Norwegians a proud 
sense of superiority over the unhappy Danes, while the liberality 
of their views widened the breach with a country still groaning 
under absolutism. A 'Society for the Welfare of Norway' was 
founded in 1810, and a Union with Sweden was warmly advocated, 
particularly by the talented Count Herman AVedel-Jarlsberg. The 
Danish government made some vain attempts to conciliate the 
Norwegians, as for example by the foundation of a university at 
Christiania (1811), which had been proposed so far back as 1661, 
but the Norwegians themselves provided the necessary funds. In 
concluding a treaty with the Russians in 1812, Sweden obtained 
their consent to its future annexation of Norway, and at the Peace 
of Kiel in 1814 the Danes were compelled to make the cession. 

lxxvi X. HISTORY. 

Frederick thereupon released the Norwegians from their allegiance 
to him, and the union of Norway with Denmark, which had sub- 
sisted for more than four centuries, was thus dissolved. 

The Literature of Norway from the Reformation to the end of 
the union is inseparable from that of Denmark. As translators 
of old northern laws and sagas may be mentioned L. Hanssen 
(d. 1596) and P. C. Frits (d. 1614), of whom the latter also wrote 
interesting works on Norwegian topography and natural history in 
his native dialect. A. Pedersen (d. 1574), of Bergen, was the 
author of a description of Norway and of the 'Chapter-book of 
Bergen'. The historian and topographer J. Ramus (d. 1718) and 
the poet Peter Dass (d. 1708), the still popular author of 'Nord- 
lands Trompet', were also natives of Norway, while T. Torfazus 
(A. 1719), a famous historian of Norway, was an Icelander. By 
far the most important author of this period was Ludvig Holberg 
of Bergen (d. 1754), the poet and historian, whose 'Peder Paars', 
the 'Subterranean Journey ofNilsKlim', and comedies have gained 
him a European reputation. Among later poets and authors C. B. 
Tullin (A. 1765), J. H. Vessel (A. 1785), C. Fasting (A. 1791), 
E. Storm (d. 1794), T. de Stock fleth (d. 1808), J. N. Brun (A. 1816), 
J. Zetlitz (A. 1821), and C. Friman (A. 1829) are noted for the 
national character and individuality of their writings , which are 
uninfluenced by the French and German taste then prevalent in 
Denmark. This national school was partly indebted for its origin 
to the foundation of the 'Norske Selskab' at Copenhagen in 1772, 
while the 'Lserde Selskab' of Throndhjem , founded by Gunnerus, 
the naturalist (d. 1773), and Schening, the historian (d. 1780), 
promoted scientific research. On the whole , notwithstanding 
the want of good national schools, the Norwegian literature of this 
period ranks at least as high as the Danish. 

Union of Sweden and Norway. 

After the Peace of Jonkoping in 1809 Norway was governed by 
Prince Frederick of Hessen and afterwards by Christian Frederick, 
cousin of King Frederick and heir to his throne. Christian was a 
popular prince, and even after the terms of the Peace of Kiel had 
been adjusted he made an effort to secure the sovereignty of the 
country for himself. He summoned an assembly of notables to 
Eidsvold (Feb. 1814), stated the terms of the Peace of Kiel, which 
had not yet been published, and declared that he would assert his 
claim in spite of it. The assembly denied the right of the king 
of Denmark to hand over Norway to Sweden , but also declined to 
recognise the prince's hereditary claim. They, however, appointed 
him regent until a national diet should be summoned to consider 
the state of affairs. The king of Sweden promised the Norwegians 
a liberal constitution if they would submit to his authority; but 
his offer met with no response, the country eagerly prepared to 

X. HISTORY. lxxvii 

assert its independence , and a temporary government -was con- 
stituted. On 10th April, 1814, the representatives of the country 
met at Eidsvold , a constitution framed chiefly by K. M. Falsen 
(d. 1830) was adopted on 17th May, and on the same day Christian 
Frederick was proclaimed king. Count Wedel-Jarlsberg, the most 
far-seeing of the Norwegian statesmen , who had urged, a union 
with Sweden, was overruled on this occasion , but his object was 
soon afterwards attained. About the end of June ambassadors of 
the guaranteeing powers, Russia, England , Austria, and Prussia, 
arrived at Christiania to demand fulfilment of the Peace of Kiel 
and to recall the regent in the name of the king of Denmark. 
After fruitless negociations and the outbreak of a war with Swe- 
den , which was terminated by the Convention of Moss on 14th 
August, the Swedish regent temporarily recognised the new Nor- 
wegian constitution, and Christian summoned a Storthing to meet 
at Christiania in October, to which he tendered his resignation, 
and immediately afterwards set sail for Denmark. He afterwards 
reigned over Denmark as Christian VIII. (1839-48). During the 
same month the Storthing, though not without reluctance, affirmed 
the principle of union with Sweden, and several modifications were 
made in the Eidsvold constitution, and on 4th November Charles 
(XIII. of Sweden) was unanimously proclaimed king. On 10th 
November the crown-prince Charles John solemnly ratified the 
constitution at Christiania. With pardonable national pride, how- 
ever, the Norwegians still observe the 17th of May, 1814, as the 
true date of their political regeneration. 

At first as regent, and after the death of Charles XIII. (1818) 
as king of Norway (1818-44), Charles John or Charles XIV. had a 
difficult task to perform in governing two kingdoms to which a 
few years previously he had been an entire stranger, and with 
whose languages he was imperfectly acquainted. The internal 
affairs of both countries were, moreover, in an abnormally unsettled 
condition, and their finances were well-nigh ruined, while foreign 
states looked askance at the parvenu king and his almost repub- 
lican kingdom of Norway. In 1815, however, the legislative au- 
thorities of the two kingdoms drew up a formal Act of Union, 
placing the connection of the countries on a satisfactory basis. By 
the sale of the island of Guadeloupe to England the king was 
enabled to pay part of the national debt of Sweden, and he adopted 
other wise financial measures. Among other serious difficulties 
was that of calling in the unsecured Danish banknotes still cir- 
culating in Norway, a task which occasioned heavy sacrifices, and 
at the same time a bank was founded at Throndhjem (1816). In 
1821 a new burden was imposed by the unlooked for liability of 
Norway for part of the national debt of Denmark, while the intro- 
duction of a new educational system and other reforms was attended 
with great expense. About this period the king displeased his 

lxxviii X. HISTORY. 

democratic Norwegian subjects by opposing their abolition of titles 
of nobility (1821), by attempts to enlarge the prerogatives of the 
crown and to obtain for it the absolute right to veto the resolutions 
of the Storthing (1824), by appointing Swedish governors of Nor- 
way, and by yielding to what were considered the unjust demands 
of England in consequence of a fracas at Bod». On the other hand, 
by dint of rigid economy, sound administration, and the legalised 
sale of church property for educational purposes (1821), and owing 
to good harvests and successful fisheries , the prosperity of the 
country rapidly improved, while the king's firmness of character 
and his self-denial in renouncing his civil list for a period often 
years in order to assist in paying the national debt justly gained 
for him the respect and admiration of his people. From 1836 on- 
wards the highest offices in Norway were filled with Norwegians 
exclusively, and a new communal code (1837), penal code (1842), 
and other useful laws were passed. — In Sweden the French re- 
volution of 1830 caused a great sensation and led to a fruitless 
demand for the abolition of the existing constitution. A conspiracy 
in favour of Prince Vasa (1832) and several riots in Stockholm 
(1838) were also unsuccessful. On the other hand the king earned 
the gratitude of his Swedish subjects by the zeal with which he 
promoted the construction of new roads and canals , particularly 
that of the Gota Canal , and furthered the interests of commerce 
and agriculture, and at the time of his death the internal affairs 
of both kingdoms rested on a sound and satisfactory constitutional 

The administration of his son Oscar I. (1844-59) was of a still 
more liberal and enlightened tendency. This gifted and highly 
educated monarch thoroughly remodelled the law of succession 
(1845) and the criminal code (1854) of Sweden, and abolished the 
monopolies of guilds, but he was unsuccessful in his attempts to 
procure a reform of the constitution (1845 and 1850-51). On his 
accession the king rendered himself popular in Norway by present- 
ing it with an appropriate national flag, and he was afterwards a 
scrupulous observer of the constitution of that country. At the same 
time the population and wealth of Norway now increased rapidly. 
His temporary interposition in the German and Danish war re- 
garding Slesvig, which led to the Armistice of Malmo (1848) and 
afterwards to the occupation of Northern Slesvig by Swedish and 
Norwegian troops, was regarded with favour in both of his king- 
doms , where patriotic Scandinavian views were then in the 

Oscar's eldest son Charles (XV. of Sweden; 1859-72), a highly 
popular, though pleasure-loving monarch, who was endowed with 
considerable artistic and poetical talent , inaugurated the present 
representative constitution of Sweden in 1865, while in Norway 
the triennial Storthing was made annual (1869). In both countries 

X. HISTORY. lxxix 

the principle of religious equality was extended , new railways 
and roads constructed, and other reforms introduced. A threatened 
conflict between the representatives of the two countries was 
averted through the king's influence, and to his wisdom was due 
the neutrality observed during the German and Danish war of 
1863 and the Franco-German war of 1870-71 , although his sub- 
jects warmly sympathised with the Danes in the one case and with 
the French in the other. 

In 1872 Charles was succeeded by his brother, the present 
king Oscar II., a gifted prince, endowed like his father and elder 
brother with considerable taste for science , poetry, and music. 
Materially and intellectually his kingdoms have recently made 
rapid strides, and though, like many other countries, their progress 
has of late been somewhat checked by the failure of crops and 
stagnation of trade, it is hoped that these evils are transient. 

In both kingdoms the field of Literature has been most sedu- 
lously cultivated during the present century. In Sweden there 
existed an academic and a neutral school, both of which , as for 
example Franzen (d. 1847), were more or less influenced by 
French taste , while a romantic school with German proclivities, 
called 'Phosphorists' from their 'Phosphorus' periodical , was re- 
presented by Hammarskold (A. 1827), Atterbom (A. 1855), and 
Palmblad (A. 1852). Akin to the latter, but of more realistic and 
far more national tendency , is the so-called 'Gotisk' school, to 
which belong the eminent historian E. 6. Oeijer (A. 1847) , the 
gTeat poet Esaias Tegner (A. 1846), and the poet, and inventor of 
the Swedish system of sanitary gymnastics, P. H. Ling (d. 1839). 
An isolated position , on the other hand , is occupied by K, J. L. 
Almqvist [A. 1866), an author of fertile imagination, but perni- 
cious moral tendencies. To the highest class of modern Swedish 
authors belongs the patriotic Finn , J. L. Runeberg (A. 1877) , of 
whose noble and genial poetry 'Faurik Stal's Sagner' afford an 
admirable example. As popular authoresses , though inferior to 
some of their above-mentioned contemporaries , we may mention 
Frederica Bremer (A. 1865) and Emilie Flygare-Carlen. Pre-emi- 
nent among scientific men are J. J. Berzelius , the chemist (d. 
1848), E. Fries, the botanist (d. 1878), A'. A. Agardh, the bota- 
nist and statistician (d. 1859), and Sven Nilsson, the venerable 
zoologist and antiquarian (b. 1787). Among modern historians 
may be mentioned A. M. Strinnholm (A. 1862), A. Fryxell, F. F. 
Carlson , K. G. Malmstrbm, C. 1. Odhner , H. Reuterdal (church 
history ; d. 1870) , and C. J. Slyter (legal history) ; and to this 
period also belong B. E. Hildebrand and R. Dybeck , the anti- 
quarians , J. E, Rietz , the philologist, and C. J. Bostrom, the 
philosopher. — In Norway , whose literature since 1814 has as- 
sumed a distinct national individuality , and though written in 
Danish has adopted a considerable number of words and idioms 


peculiar to the country , the poets H. Wergeland (d. 1845) and 
J. Velhaven (d. 1873) occupy the foremost rank. Of the still liv- 
ing poets and novelists Bjernstjerne Bjernson , H. Ibsen . and 
J. Lie, the two former in particular have earned, a well-merited 
reputation far beyond the confines of Norway. Of high rank among 
scientific men are N. H. Abel, the mathematician (d. 1829), C. 
Hansteen, the astronomer (d. 1873), and M. Sars (d. 1869) and 
his son O. Sars, the naturalists. Eminent historians are R. Keyser 
(d. 1864), P. A. Munch (A. 1863), C. C. A. Lange (d. 1861), and 
the still living O. Rygh, E. Sars, L. Daae, and 6. Storm; distin- 
guished jurists, A. M, Schweigaard (A. 1870), F. Brandt, and T. 
H. Aschehoug ; philologists, 8. Bugge, C. R. linger, J. Storm, and 
the lexicographer Ivar Aasen ; meritorious collectors of national 
traditions , M. B. Landstad , J. Mot , and particularly P. C. As- 
bjernsen. H. Steffens , the philosopher and poet (d. 1845), and 
C. Lassen, the Sanscrit scholar (d. 1876), were Norwegians who 
spent the greater part of their lives in Germany. 

Lastly, in the province of Art, we may mention the Norwegian 
painters Tidemand (d. 1877) and Oude (Jo. 1825) , and the Swe- 
dish sculptors Bystrom (1848) and Fogelberg (d. 1854) , but a 
glance at the galleries of Stockholm and Christiania will show that 
the list might easily be extended. 

Chronological Table. 

Norway. I Sweden. 

Ynglingar Line. ! Ragnar Lodbrok's Line. 

Harald Haarfagre . (7)860-933 j 
Erik Blodaks . . 930 

Haakon Adelstensfostre, ! 

'the Good' .... 935 
Harald Graafeld . . (?)961-975 : 
Haakon Jarl .... (?)975 

Olaf Tryggvessen . . 995 Erik 'VII.' Sejersal . (d.)995 

Olaf Sketkonung . . 995 
Erik and Svejn, Jarler . 1000 
Olaf Haraldssen , 'the 

Saint' 1015 Anund (Onund) Jakob 1021 

Svejn Knutssern . . . 1030 
Magnus Olafssen, 'the j 

Good' 1035 

Harald Sigurdssen Hard- 

raade 1046 Emund Slemme . . . (?)1050 

Stenkil's Line. 

Olaf Haraldssen Kyrre . 1066 \ Stenkil (?)1056 

Magnus OlafssanBarfod 1093 Inge I. Stenkilsson . . 1066 
Olaf Magnussen . . 1103-16 



0ystejn Magimssem . 1103-22 
SigurdJorsalafarer . 1103-30 

Magnus Sigurdssen 

Blinde .... 1130-35 
HaraldMagnusstm Gille 1130-36 
SigurdHaraldssenMund 1136-55 
IngeHaraldssenKrokryg 1136-61 
0ystejn Haraldssen . -1142 
Haakon Sigurdsscn 

Herdebred . . . 1157 
Magnus Erlingssen . . 1161 

Sverre Sigurdssan . . 1177 

Haakon Sverressen . . 1202 

Guttorm Sigurdssan . . 1204 

Inge Baardssen . . . 1204 
Haakon HaakonssOTi, 

'the Old' .... 1217 

Magnus Haakonssan La- 

gaboter 1263 

Erik Magnussen . . 1280 

Haakon V., Magnussen 1299 

Magnus Erikssen, \Smek' 1319 

Haakon VI. , Magnussen 1355 
Olaf Haakonssen, 'the 

Young' 1381 

Margaret, 'Valdemarsdatter'1387 

Denmark and Norway. 
Erik of Pomerania . . 1389 

Christopher of Bavaria . 1442 
Karl Knutssen . . . 1449 
Christian 1 1450 



Philip Hallstensson . 1111-19 
Inge Hallstensson . (?Jllll-28 

Sverker' s Line. 
Sverker Kolsson . . . 1132 

Erik IX. Jedvardsson, 

'the Saint'. . . . H50 

Karl VII., Sverkevsson 1100 

Knut Eriksson . . . 1167 

Sverker Karlsson . . . 1195 

Erik X. Knutsson . . 1210 

Johan Sverkersson . . 1216 

Erik XL, Eriksson Laspe 1222 

Folkungar Line. 

Valdemar Birgersson . 1250 

Magnus Ladulas . . . 1276 

Birger Magnussoii . . 1290 

Magnus Eriksson, 'Smek' 1319 

Other Lines, and Admi- 

Albert of Mecklenburg . 1363 

Sweden with Denmark 
and Norway. 

Margaret' 1387 


Erik XIII. of Pomerania 1396 
Karl Knutsson, Adminis- 

strator 1436 

Christopher of Bavaria . 1441 

Karl VIII. , Knutsson . 1448 

Christian 1 1457 

Karl VIII. , Knutsson . 1464 

Sten Sture, Administrator 1471 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 





Christian II 1513 

Frederick I. 
Christian III. 
Frederick II. 



Svante Nilsson . . . 
Sten Sture the Younger 
Christian II 

The Yam Line. 
Gustavus Vasa 

Christian IV 15S8 

Frederick III. 


Christian V 1670 

Frederick IV 1699 

Christian VI 1730 

Frederick V 1746 

Christian VII. 


Frederick VI 1808 

Christian Frederick . . 1814 

Charles (XIII.) . . . 1814 

Charles (XIV.) John . . 1818 

Oscar 1 1844 

Charles (XV.). . . . 1859 

Oscar II 1872 

Erik XIV 

John III 

Sigisniund .... 
Charles IX. ... 
Gustavus Adolphus . 
Christina .... 

Palatinate Line. 

Charles X 

Charles XI. 




Charles XII. . 
Frederick of Hessen . 

Holstein Line. 
Adolphus Frederick . 

Gustavus III. 
Gustavus IV. 
Charles XIII. 

Bernadotte Family. 
Charles XIV. . 

Oscar I 

Charles XV. 

Oscar II. . , . . 








1. Chriatiania and Environs. 

Arrival. The large steamers from London , Hull , Hamburg . etc. 
usually land their passengers at the Toldbodbrygge or the Jernbanebrygge, 
the two principal quays near the Custom House (PI. D, E, 7). Porterage from 
the steamer, on board of which luggage is slightly examined, to the quay : 
30 0. for 601bs. or under, 40 0. for 60-1401bs., and as much more from 
the quay to one of the principal hotels. Cab with one horse from 
the quay to one of the hotels 40, 60, 80 0., or 1 kr. for 1, 2, 3, or 4 per- 
sons respectively, with 501bs. of luggage free; with two horses 80 0., 
1 kr., or 1 kr. 20 0. for 1-2, 3, or 4 persons, with lOOlbs. of luggage free. 
At night (11 p.m. to 8 a.m.) the fares are 80 0., 1 kr., 1 kr. 20, or 1 kr. 40, 
and 1 kr. 20, 1 kr. 50, or 1 kr. 80 0. respectively. To prevent disputes, 
a party of 3-4 persons , with heavy luggage , will find it preferable to 
engage one vehicle for themselves and another for their boxes. — Tra- 
vellers by railway from Sweden arrive at the 0stbanegaard (PI. D, 6), 
where luggage is slightly examined, and from Drammen at the Vestbane- 
gaard (PI. B, 7). Porterage and cabs thence to the hotels, see above. 

Hotels. "Grand Hotel (PI. B, C, 6), Karl-Johans-Gade, pleasantly situat- 
ed, at the E. end of the Eidsvolds-Plads; Victoria (PI. h: C, D,7), at the 
corner of the Raadhus-Gade and Dronningens-Gade, a large, old-established 
house; "Hotel Skandinavie (PI. f : C, D,6), at the corner of the Karl-Johans- 
Gade and the Dronningens-Gade, very central; Britannia (PI. a: D,7), at 
the corner of the Toldbod-Gade and Store Strand-Gade , smaller , the 
nearest to the quay. Charges at these about the same: R. from 2, B. 1-2, 
D. 3-3V2, L. and A. 1 kr. — *Rotal Hotel (PI. e: D,6), conveniently 
situated in the Jernbane-Torv, moderate; Angleterre (PI. b: C, 7), at 
the corner of the Raadhus-Gade and the Kongens-Gade; Stockholm 
(PI. g: D,6), opposite the J^stbanegaard; Kong Karl (PI. d: D, 6), Jern- 
bane-Torv; Kong Oscar, near the Vestbanegaard. Charges at these: R. l'/s, 
B. 1, D. 2-2V-2 kr. 

Restaurants at the hotels; Chrislojfersen , corner of Bankplads and 
Kirke-Gade; another at the Tivoli (see below). — Cafes. Baumann, Kongens 
Gade 8; Cafi Central, Storthings-Plads 7; Giinther, Kirke-Gade 16. 

Cabs. (The proprietors are called ' Vognmwnd"). Per drive within 
the town, with one horse, 40, 60, 80 C, or 1 kr. for 1, 2, 3, or 4 persons; 
with two horses 80 0., 1 kr., 1 kr. 20 0. for 1-2, 3. or 4 persons. At night 
(11 p.m. to 8 a.m. from 1st May to 30th Sept. ; 10 p.m. to 9 a.m. during 
the rest of the (year) , the fares are higher (see above). Half-fare is 
charged for the return - drive to the passenger's starting-point. To 
Oscarskall and back, with one horse 5-6, with two horses 8 kr. ; to 
Frognersaiter and back, with one horse (1-2 persons) 10, with two horses 
14 kr. — By time, within the town and immediate environs: with one 
horse, 1 kr. 20, 1 kr. 50, 1 kr. 80, or 2 kr. 10 0. for 1, 2, 3, or 4 persons 
per hour; with two horses, 2 kr., 2 kr. 50 0., or 3 kr. per hour. — The 
posting-station C Skydsstation 1 ) is kept by A. Hansen, M0llergade. 

Tramway. From the Stortorv, or principal market-place adjoining Vor 
Frelsers Kirke , to the Vestbanegaard (W.) , Homansby (N.W.), Qrilner- 
lekken (N.E.), and Oslo (S.E.), every 5 or 10 min. from about 8 a.m. to 
10 p.m. on week-days, and from about noon to 10 p.m. on Sundays. Fare 
for each of these trips 10 0. — As there are no conductors, each passenger 
drops his fare into an ingenious box placed near the driver. The coins 
fall on a slide where they are seen through a pane of glass by the driver, 
who then tilts them into the box below. The drivers give change, but 
have no access to the money-box. This system , the success of which 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 1 

2 Route 1. CHRISTIANIA. Baths. 

depends to some extent on the honesty of the passengers, works well 
where the traffic is inconsiderable. It is used at Stockholm also. 

Porterage. From the stations or quays to any part of the town 30 0. 
for luggage under 601bs., and 40 0. for 60-1401bs. — Bybud , or commis- 
sionnaires, may also be employed at a moderate tariff. 

Post and Telegraph Offices , at the corner of the Kirke-Gade and 
Karl-Johans-Gade (PI. C, 6). Post-Office (PI. 27) open from 8 a.m. to 7.30 
p.m.; Sundays 8-10 a.m. and 5-8 p.m. — Telegraph Office (PI. 32), open 
daily from 7 a.m. to 9 p.m. ; open at night also for foreign telegrams. 

Banks (open 10-2). Norske Credit -Bank, at the corner of the Kirke- 
Gade and Prindsens-Gade; Christian ia Credit- Kasse, Torvet , W. side; 
Norges Bank, Bank-Plads ; at any of which circular notes may be changed. 

Consulates. American : Prindsens - Gade ; Mr. Gerhard Gade, consul ; 
Mr. G. E. R. Christophersen, vice. British: Skipper-Gade 28; Capt. H. M. 
Jones, consul general; Mr. Septimus Crowe, vice. 

Railway Stations. 0stbanegaard, or Hovedbanegaard (PI. D,6), on the 
E. side of the Karl-Johans-Gade, for Eidsvold (Throndhjem), Kongsvinger, 
Sweden, and Frederikshald. Vestbanegaard (P1.B,7), on the Pipervik, on 
the W. side of the town, forDrammen, Randsfjord, Kr0deren, and Kongsberg. 

Shops. Booksellers : Cammermeyer , Karl-Johans-Gade 4 (publisher of 
'Norges Communicationer', p. vi); Dybwad, adjacent, No. 2; Aschenhoug, 
in the same street, near the J&vre Slots-Gade (publisher of a good map 
of Christiania and Environs); J. W. Cappelen , Kirke-Gade, publisher of 
the best maps of Norway; Grendal , corner of the 0vre Slots-Gade and 
the Toldbod-Gade (depot of the Bible Society, and for official and statis- 
tical publications). — Jewellers (noted for filigree work) : Thune , Karl- 
Johans-Gade, S. side, near the J&vre Slots-Gade; Tostrup, Kirke-Gade 20; 
D. Andersen, opposite, Kirke-Gade 19, cheaper. — Antiquities: Oram, 
Torvet lib. — Bazaar (Travelling Requisites): Vollmann , Kongens-Gade 
22; IF. Schmidt, agent of the Turist-Forening, Kirke-Gade 21. — Stationery, 
Photographs, etc. : Olsen, Karl-Johans-Gade , near the Hotel Skandinavie ; 
R. Andvord, No. 3, and A. Paulten, No. 16, in the same street. — Preserved 
meats, etc.: E. Lexow <k Co., Toldbod-Gade 8; C. J. Christophers en it Co., 
under the Hotel Skandinavie; Bergwitz, 0vre Slots-Gade. — Shoemaker: 
Solberg, Karl-Johans-Gade, near the Skandinavie. — Travelling requisites 
of all kinds may also be purchased of Mr. T. Bennet, Store Strand-Gade 17. 

Turist-Forening (see Indrod. iv.). Secretary, Mr. N. O. Diedrtchson, 
Armee-Commando, Christiania. 

Newspapers at the principal hotels, and at the Athene/sum (p. 6), Akers- 
gaden, at the back of the Storthings Building, a reading -club to which 
travellers are admitted for a fortnight when introduced by a member. 

Baths. Badeanstalt (PI. C, D,5), Torv-Gaden, a large building on the 
N.W.side of the street, with hot (50 0.), cold, and shower (30 0.) baths for 
both sexes. Vapour and other baths at the Rigshospital (PI. C, 6). — Baths 
in the Fjord: Hygaia (20 0.) and Selyst (15 0.), for swimmers. Also a 
Badehus for Darner. These three establishments are situated at the S. 
extremity of the town, near the fortress. The water is almost entirely 
fresh. The rise and fall of the tide averages 1-2 ft. onlv. 

Theatres. Kristiania-Theater (PI. 33), at the S. end of the Kirke- 
Gade. Performances usually four times weekly, except in summer. Boxes 
2'/2 kr., pit 1 kr. 60 0. — Mellergadens-Theater, in the street of that name, 
No. 3. — At the Tivoli (formerly Klingenberg ; with a restaurant), in the 
Eidsvolds Plads, nearly opposite the University, concerts and theatrical per- 
formances take place daily; admission 1 kr. — Militaru Music in the 
fortress at 1 o'clock daily, and generally in front of the Storthings Build- 
ing at 12.30 also. A band also plays frequently on summer evenings in 
the Studenterlunden, the promenades opposite the University (p. 8). 

Steamers to London, on Thursdays; to Hull on Fridays; to Gothen- 
burg three or four times, and to Copenhagen twice weekly; to Christian- 
sand daily; to Bergen five times weekly; to Throndhjem four times 
weekly; to Tromse twice weekly; to Hammerfest once weekly; to the 
North Cape and Vadse once weekly via Christiansand, where passengers 
disembark and wait for the steamer from Hamburg, which usually touches 

History. CHRISTIANIA. 1. Route. 3 

at Christiansand, on its northward voyage, on Mondays. All these vessels 
start from the Toldbodbrygge or the Jernbanebrygge, near the 0stbane- 
gaard. — Small steamers ply from the Jernbanebrygge (and sometimes 
from the Pipervik) to Onnsund , the Malme , and other islands in the 
Bundefjord, and also to FredeHksborg on the Ladegaards#, once or oftener 
daily , affording pleasant excursions. — For these, besides a number of 
other steamers to places on the fjord, Drammen , etc., see 'Norges Com- 

Small Boats may be hired of the ' Fcergemwnd'' on the Pipervik and 
at the Baadforening by the fortress for I kr. 20 0. per hour. An excursion 
may be made by boat to the Hoveder , with its scanty monastery ruins, 
to visit which (strictly speaking) permission from the commandant of 
the fortress is required (p. 11). 

English Church Service in the Festsal of the University, S.E. wing. 
Resident chaplain (Rev. Austin West). 

Principal Attractions. View from St. Hanshaugen, about '/» M. to the 
N. of the Storthings Building (see p. 8). Walk or drive from the 0st- 
banegaard across the Jernbane-Torv, and through the Karl-Johans-Gade, 
passing the Storthings Building on the left and the University on the right, 
to the Slot, or Palace (see pp. 5-9). Excursion to Oscarsliall (p. 10). 

Christiania, the capital of Norway, with 113,000 inhab. (almost 
exclusively Protestants), beautifully situated at the N. end of the 
Christiania Fjord and on the W. bank of the small Akers-Elv, in 
59° 54' N. lat. and 10° 50' E. long., was founded by Christian IV. 
in 1624 on the plain to the N. of the fortress of Akershus, and 
named after him, being intended as a substitute for the older town 
of Oslo, on theE. bank of the stream, which had been almost entirely 
burned down in that year. Oslo, founded by Harald Hardraade about 
the year 1058 , afterwards became a depot of the Hanseatic League 
and the capital of Norway, but was burned down by its inhabitants 
in 1567 to prevent its falling into the hands of Swedish besiegers, 
and was again destroyed in 1624. It once possessed a richly endowed 
cathedral, dedicated to St. Halvard, where several of the Norwegian 
kings were interred, and where James I. of England married Anne 
of Denmark in 1589. Christiania is the seat of government and of 
the supreme court of Norway, and the headquarters of the Storthing 
or parliament. It also boasts of a University , containing several 
scientific collections , a National Picture Gallery , an Observatory, a 
Royal Palace , and a number of charitable and other institutions. 
The chief exports are timber, fish, beer, and various manufactured 
goods, and the imports wheat, wine, etc., the former being valued 
at about 12, and the latter at 27 million kroner per annum. The 
town now possesses about 190 vessels , of an aggregate burden of 
55,000 tons, ten of which are steamers, of an aggregate burden of 
about 1600 tons. In the neighbourhood are several considerable 
engine-works , breweries , cotton-mills , and paper-manufactories, 
most of which lie on the Akers-Elv. 

Owing to its comparatively recent origin, as well as to destructive 
fires by which it was visited in 1686, 1708, and 1858, Christiania 
now presents a substantial modern appearance , most of the old 
timber-built houses having disappeared. Beyond the beauty of the 
situation at the foot of gently sloping, grassy, and pine-clad hills, 

^ * 

4 Route 1. CHRISTIAN1A. Vor-Frelsers-Kirke. 

with the picturesque fjord stretching into the distance , studded 
with islands, and enlivened with occasional steamboats and sailing 
vessels, the town offers few inducements for a prolonged stay. Our 
walk or drive through the principal streets includes the chief points 
of interest, all of which may be visited in half-a-day, if the traveller 
is pressed for time. A couple of hours should also, if possible, be 
devoted to the excursion to Oscarshall (p. 10). 

Starting from the Toldbodbrygge , or Custom House Quay 
(PI. D, 7), situated on the Bjervik, the bay which bounds the town 
on the S.E., and proceeding to the N., we come in 4 min. to the 
0stbanegaard, or Eastern Railway Station (PI. D 6), which is also 
known as the Hoved-Banegaard ('principal railway-station'), the 
terminus of the lines to Eidsvold , Sweden , and Frederikshald 
(Smaalens-Bane), a handsome building erected by Schirmer and 
v. Hanno in 1854. On the N. side of the adjoining Jernbane-Torv 
is the Royal Hotel (p. 1). Leaving the railway - station , we cross 
the market-place to the W. and ascend the Karl-Johans-Oade, the 
most important street in the town. On the left (2 min.), at the 
corner of the Dronningens-Gade, is the Hotel Skandinavie (p. 1), 
opposite to which is a handsome building containing the Brandvagt 
(PI. 3 : C, 6), or fire-station, and the Basarer ('bazaars'), occupied 
by butchers, poulterers, etc. Adjoining the Hotel Skandinavie, in 
the Karl-Johans-Gade , is the small picture-gallery of the Kunst- 
forening ('art-union'; cross the court-yard and ascend the staircase 
to the 2nd floor ; admission daily, 12-2, except Sat. andSund., 20».), 
where a number of creditable specimens of modern Norwegian art 
are always on view. On the right, a few paces farther on, and 
adjoining the Brandvagt , lies the Stor-Torv (PI. C, 6; 'great 
market'), usually known simply as Torvet ('the market'). On the 
E. side of the market-place rises — 

Vor-Frelsers-Kirke (PI. 16), or Church of Our Saviour, a large 
cruciform edifice with a conspicuous tower, consecrated in 1697, 
and restored by Chateauneuf in 1849-56. The altaT-piece, re- 
presenting Christ in Gethsemane, is by the German artist E. 
Steinle , and the marble font by Fladager. Fine view from the 
dwelling of the fire-watchman in the tower. The Torv-Oade leads 
hence to the N., passing on the left the Dampkjeikken ('steam 
kitchen), a large establishment for the benefit of the poorer classes, 
where about 2000 persons are daily provided with dinners for 25- 
45 0. each. Some of the customers carry away their food, while 
others dine at large marble tables provided for the purpose. A 
few paces farther on in the same direction is the Nytorv ('new 
market'), on the left(W.) side of which rise the Byret ('municipal 
court ) and the Politikammer (PI. 4), or police-office. Beyond this 
market-place, on the left side of the same street, is situated the 
Badeanstalt (PI. D, 5 ; p. 2), a handsome building, suitably fitted 
up. (The entrance to the ladies' baths is at the back.) The Akers- 

Akershus. CHRISTIANIA. 1. Route. 5 

Gade , leading to St. Hanshaugen (p. 8), is only 3 min. walk 
from this point. The Torv-Gade then leads to the N., past Anker- 
lekkens-Oravlund , to the Akerselv, which forms several -waterfalls 
higher up. Adjoining the falls are numerous manufactories, some 
of which are of considerable size. On the E. bank of the river 
lies the well-built suburb of Uriiner Lekken, with the Olaf Eye's 
Plads. — We retrace our steps to the Karl-Johans-Gade , cross it, 
passing the — 

Post Office (PI. 27) at the corner of that street and the Kirke- 
Gade, and follow the latter. After 3 min. we cross the Raadhus- 
Gade , in which the Victoria and Angleterre hotels (p. 1) are 
situated, and a little farther on reach the Theatre (PI. 33), erect- 
ed in 1637, opposite to which, on the W. side of the Bank-Plads, 
is situated Norges Bank (PI. 25). To the E. is Grev-Wedels-Plads, 
with pleasure-grounds, adjoining which is the Freemasons' Lodge. 
A little to the S. of the Bank, we next reach the fortress of — 

Akershus, or Agershus (PI. C, 8), situated on the E. bank of the 
Pipervik. The date of its foundation is unknown, but it is mention- 
ed as having been besieged by Duke Erik of Sweden in 1310. In 
1355-80 the works were extended by Haakon VI., and they were 
farther strengthened in the 16th-18th centuries, but have since 
been partially levelled, and are now of no military importance. The 
castle was besieged unsuccessfully by Christian II. in 1531-32, and 
by the Swedes in 1567 and 1716. CharlesXII., who conducted the 
siege on the latter occasion , was signally defeated a few months 
later near Frederikshald by Tordenskjold (d. 1720), the famous 
Norwegian naval hero, a native of Throndhjem (p. 196). The for- 
tress itself now contains nothing noteworthy , but those who have 
leisure may visit the Rustkammer, or armoury, on applying at the 
office of the Feltteimester ('master of the ordnance', in the 'Artilleri- 
gaard'), where permission to visit the monastery ruins on the Hovede 
(p. 11) is also granted. Adjoining the ramparts, which have been 
converted into pleasant promenades, affording beautiful views, are 
the Bath-houses (PI. C, D, 8) mentioned on p. 2, that for ladies 
being at the extremity of the promontory between the Pipervik and 
the BjOTvik. 

Retracing our steps to the Bank-Plads and the Raadhus-Gade, 
we turn to the left and soon reach the Johanskirke (PI. 13), built of 
yellow brick (Tlensburger Sten'), and completed in 1878, contain- 
ing a good altar-piece by Eilif Pedersen. The Raadhus-Gade now 
descends to the W. to the Pipervik , where we observe opposite to 
us the handsome Vestbanegaard , and obtain a line view of the 
tjord, with the rocks of Akershus rising on the left. We next 
proceed to the N. by the Tordenskjolds-Gade to the * Eidsvolds- 
Plads, a fine square, planted with trees, on the E. (right) side 
of which rises the — 

*Storthings-Bygning (PI. 30: C, 6), or assembly-hall of the 

6 Route 1. CHRISTIANIA. National Gallery. 

Norwegian Parliament, a handsome edifice, half Romanesque, 
half Byzantine, designed by Langlet, and completed in 1866. The 
facade, flanked with two lions in granite by Borck, overlooks the 
Plads, and the N. side adjoins the Karl-Johans-Gade. The Interior 
(shown by the 'Vagtmester' or custodian, who is to be found at the 
entrance from the Storthings-Gade, on the S. side of the building, 
fee t /o-i kr.), which is handsomely fitted up, comprises the Storthings- 
Sal, with accommodation for about 150 deputies and an audience 
of 300 persons, and the smaller Lagthings-Sal, with seats for about 
40 members and 130 visitors, besides which there are several com- 
mittee-rooms, a library, secretary's office, archives room, and other 
apartments. Prior to 1866 the Storthing met in the Departements- 
Gaard, in the Dronningens-Gade, which is now occupied by various 
government offices. The Storthing sits annually in February and 
March, but not longer without permission from the king, to whom 
also belongs the prerogative of summoning it to meet at other times 
if necessary. The usual summer-session , held by royal per- 
mission, lasts till the middle of June. 

In the adjacent Storthings-Plads (No. 7), to the N., is the Kunst- 
industri- Museum (PI. 21 ; Sund. 3-5, Mond. 7-9, Wed. 12-2, 20 ».; 
Sat. 7-9, gratis) , containing interesting specimens of Norwegian 
workmanship of various kinds. In the Akers-Gade, at the back 
of the Storthings-Hus , is the Athenaeum (PI. 1; see p. 2), the 
finest modern building in the town. ■ — Crossing the Karl-Johans- 
Gade, and continuing to follow the Akers-Gade towards the N., we 
soon reach the Apotheker-Gade , on the left, on the right side of 
which, a few paces from the Akers-Gade, is the — 

National Gallery (PI. 24; open to the public Sund. and Thurs., 
12-2 ; at other times apply to the 'Vagtmester' on the ground-floor, 
fee 72-1 kr.), founded in 1837, and supported by an annual sub- 
sidy of 10,360 kr. from government. It contains 261 pictures of 
various schools, and 122 sculptures and casts, arranged in six rooms. 

Turning to the left at the top of the staircase, we first enter — 

I. Boom. Norwegian School. Beginning on the left: J. C. Dahl (d. 
1857), 205. Laurvik by moonlight, 206. TheHaugfos; T. Fearnley (d. 1845), 
209. The Labrofos, 210. Glaciers in Bavaria. 

II. Room. 1st Division: without a number , A. Tidemand (d. 1876), 
Sick man attended by a clergyman; above it, 207. J. C. Dahl, Winter 
scene on the Elbe. — 2nd Div. : 236. K. Baade (b. 1803), Norwegian coast 
scene by moonlight; 208. J. C. Dahl, View from J&resund by moonlight; 
"250. P. iV. Arbo (b. 1831), 'Asgaardsreien' (from Welhaven's famous poem). 

III. (Large) Room. Left: 1st Div.: A. Tidemand, 214. A solitary 
couple, '213. A 'Haugianer' preaching in a Norwegian cottage. — 2nd 
Div. : 235. K. Bergslien (b. 1827), Portrait of his father; H. (b. 1825), 
254. Approach to Christiania, 216. Norwegian landscape; 221. H. A. Cappelen 
(A. 1853), Forest-scene in Thelemarken ; in the centre, 251. P. N. Arbo, 
Walkyries , the battle- maidens of Scandinavian mythology, a bold and 
ambitious work ; 224. Bodom (d. 1879) , Scene from Nordmarken , very 
characteristic of Norwegian scenery; without a number, A. Askevold, Sum- 
mer day by a mountain-tarn ; 256. V. St. Lerche, Tithe day in a Dominican 
monastery. — 3rd Div.: Swedish School: 260. Prof. Berg, Cattle in a birch 
forest; 200. F. Fagerlin (b. 1825), Discomforts of celibacy; above it, 198. 

Trefoldiyheds-Kirke. CHRISTIANIA. 1. Route. 7 

Amalie Lindegren (b. 1814), Old man and two children ; 199. B. Nordenberg 
(b. 1822), Administration of the Sacrament. 

IV. Room. 1st Div. : Danish School. Right: 191. N. Simonsen, Cara- 
van overtaken by a storm in the desert. German School: Unknown masters, 
247. Tycho Brahe (?); 135. Female head; 146. Scholar with his hand on 
a skull ; 238. Two children playing with a candle. — 2nd Div. : 134. B. 
Denner, Portrait of himself; 136. Clir. Seibold, Portrait of a peasant in a 
fur cloak ; 172. G. Sohn, Young man playing the guitar to two ladies ; 
127, 128. Beham, Portraits ; 165. C. Hvbner, German emigrants paying a 
farewell visit to the graves of their relations ; 170. C. F. Lessing , Land- 
scape. — 3rd Div. : 163. A. Achenbach, Coast-scene at Scheveningen ; 167. 
A. Leu, Norwegian landscape with waterfall resembling the Rjukanfos. 
Then several unimportant French works. — Netherlandish Schools: 53. 
Bauch, Prince Maurice of Nassau; 23. Unknown, Portrait of an officer; 
244. G. Lunders, Portraits of a Dutchman and his wife ; 103. J. van Raven- 
stein, Portrait of a Dutchwoman; *74. M. J. Mierevelt, Portrait of a man. — 
4th Div. : 87. F. van Mieris, Portrait of a man with landscape ; 67, /. /. 
Spreuw , Schoolmaster mending a pen; 120, 119. J. Toorenvliet, Jewish 
scholars searching the Scriptures; 60. M. Hondekoeter, Poultry and fruit, 
with a cat and dog; 77. D. de Heem, Wine, oysters, and fruit. — 5th Div. : 
44. J. Jordaens, Study of a head; 72. A. Bloemaert, St. Ambrose in a 
grotto ; 123. Hellemanns, Forest-scene , with accessories by J. Verboeck- 
hoven; 122. J. Fyl, Conflict between dogs and wolves; 21. P. Claeis, Por- 
trait of himself. 

V. Room. 1st Div. : right, 49, 50. P. van Bloemen, Cavalry skirmish, 
Cattle escorted by armed horsemen ; 38. C. Molenaer, Dutch winter-land- 
scape; 45. /. Moucheron, Landscape with a robber- scene. — 2nd Div.: 
Italian School: 15. After Raphael, Princess Joanna of Arragon ; 1. B. Luini 
(after Leonardo), Mona Lisa, a copy of the famous picture in the Louvre; 
7. B. Stvozzi, The tribute-money; 4. Tintoretto, Massacre of the Innocents; 
14. Caravaggio, Study of a head; 2. Bassano, Adoration of the shepherd?. 

VI. Room : Sculpture, chiefly reliefs by Thorvaldsen and copies from 
the antique. Nos. 3, 4 are copies, and 96, 97, 98 original works by H. 
Michelsen (d. 1859) , one of the best Norwegian sculptors ; Hansen (d. 1858) 
and Borck (b. 1817), two other native sculptors, are represented by Nos. 
105, 106, and 108, 109 respectively. Nos. 113, 116 are portrait- busts of 
the eminent painters J. C. Dahl and A. Tidemand. 

Returning to the Akers-Gade, and following it to the N., we 
next reach the Trefoldigheds-Kirke (PI. 15 : C, 5, 6), or Church of 
the Trinity, on the right, a Gothic edifice, designed by Chateau- 
neuf, and erected in 1853-58. The interior forms a handsome oc- 
tagon. It contains an altar-piece (Baptism of Christ) by Tide- 
mand and a font with an angel by Middelthun. A few paces beyond 
it is the Roman Catholic St. Olafs-Kirke(¥\. 14), erected in 1853, 
with a school at the back, where the road divides. The Akersvei, 
to the right, leads past the E. side of Vor Frelsers Cemetery in 6 min. 
to the Gamle Akers Kirke (PI. B, 4), the oldest church in Christia- 
nia, which was founded in the 11th cent , and restored in the ori- 
ginal style by Schirmer and v. Hanno in 1861 (interior uninter- 
esting). The Ullevoldsoei, to the left of St. Olafs-Kirke, leads past 
the W. side of *Vor-Frelsers-Gravlund, a well-shaded cemetery, 
embellished with flower-beds, and provided with numerous benches 
for the use of mourners. The N. part forms a pleasant park, and 
commands fine views. On an eminence near the entrance is the 
monument of Henrik Wergeland (d. 1845), the most famous of 
Norwegian poets, erected by 'grateful Jews' in recognition of his 

8 Route I. CHRISTIAN! A. university. 

successful efforts in obtaining liberty for them to settle in Nor- 
way. In 5 min. more we reach *St. Hanshaugen ('St. John's Hill' ; 
PI. A, 3, 4; cab from the Stor-Torv 40 ». and upwards, and half- 
fare returning , see p. 1), an eminence about 150 ft. above the 
sea-level, on the summit of which there is a reservoir belonging to 
the city waterworks. This point commands an excellent survey of 
the town, the fjord and islands beyond it, the Egeberg (p. 11) to 
the left , Oscarshall (p. 10) to the right, and Frognersseter on the 
hill to the N.W. (see p. 11). The view is rather more extensive 
from the building at the N. end of the reservoir, but permission to 
enter it must be obtained at the waterworks-office in the town. 
The attendant names the chief points, and lends a telescope (fee 
40 ». or upwards). We now return by the same route, or by the 
St. Olafs-Plads, to the W. of the church of that name, to the Karl- 
Johans-Gade, where we next visit the — 

University (PI. B, 6), a handsome edifice in the classical style. 
with two wings at right angles to it. The establishment was found- 
ed by Frederick VI. in 1811 , but as the various lecture-rooms 
were scattered throughout the town , the present building was 
erected in 1841-53 by Grosch, whose design was partly suggested 
by Schinkel of Berlin. There are five faculties with a staff of 46 
professors, who lecture gratis to upwards of 1000 students. In 
front of the building extends that part of the Eidsvolds-Plads known 
as Studenterlunden , and at the back is a pleasant, shady garden. 
The E. wing, containing the Festsal (English service, p. 3), is 
known as the Domus Academica, and the W. wing is occupied by 
the Library, consisting of 250,000 vols., and Teading-room (open 
the first five days of the week, 12-2). 

The University possesses several Collections of considerable value, 
which may be visited if time permits. 

Collection of Northern Antiquities (in the E. wing, Mon. and 
Frid. 12-2). Ascending the staircase, we turn to the left and follow a 
passage leading to the Cabinet of Coins (see below) and the Antiquities. 
The latter are arranged in seven rooms. Room I. (that farthest to the 
right): relics of the flint and bronze ages. Rooms II., III., and IV. are 
devoted to the earlier and later parts of the iron period. Room V. con- 
tains mediaeval relics (A.D. 1(XX)-1500), the chief of which have their 
names and dates attached. Among them are three *Church-portals carved 
in wood, dating from the 12th-13th centuries. Room VI. contains several 
other interesting doorposts and portals of the same period. Room VII. 
is occupied with curiosities of later date than 1500 , including tankards 
in wood and metal, bridal crowns, trinkets, firearms, and tools. — The — 

Cabinet of Coins (E. wing, adjoining the Antiquities; Mon. and 
Frid., 1-2) is a valuable collection, numbering 40,000 specimens. — The — 

Zoological Museum (central building, Sun., Mon., Frid., 12-2) is 
reached by ascending the staircase, turning to the left, and entering the 
last door on the left. In the 1st (Reading) Room, birds, etc. ; in the 2nd 
R. is a well-arranged zoological collection; in the 3rd R., fish and rep- 
tiles. — We now pass a staircase on the left descending to the Zootomic 
Museum (see below), and enter the 4th and 5th Rooms, which contain an 
extensive and valuable collection of birds. — The staircase above men- 
tioned descends to the — 

Zootomic Museum (central building; Mon. and Frid., 12-2), a care- 

Palace. CHRISTIANIA. 1. Route. 9 

fully arranged collection of skeletons and anatomical preparations. The 
adjoining Anthropological Collection is generally closed. 

The Botanical Museum (central building; passage to the right at the 
top of the staircase; Mon., 12-2) and the adjacent Mineral Cabinet 
(Frid., 12-1) will interest scientific travellers only. 

Ethnographical Museum (central building, reached by a staircase in 
the N.W. corner, from the garden at the back; Mon. and Frid., 1-2). 
1st Room: Scandinavian costumes, furniture, and implements. 2nd R.: 
Laplander's tent, reindeer, and pulk. Another staircase now ascends to 
a series of small rooms containing articles of dress, implements, utensils, 
armour, weapons, manufactures, etc. from other parts of the world. 

Collections op Models (central building; Mond., 12-1), uninteresting. 

The Anatomical, Pathological, and Pharmacological Museums and the 
collections of Physical, Surgical, and Obstetrical Instruments (all in the 
central building) are shown on application to the medical authorities. 

Connected with the University — 

Collection of Chemical Preparations (in the adjacent Laboratory, 
in the Frederiks-Gade ; Mond., 12-1). 

Metali.urgic Laboratory (in the Laboratory just mentioned ; daily, 9-2). 

Observatory (PI. A, 8), Drammens-Vei, about •/« M. to the W. of the 
University (shown on application). 

Botanic Garden (PI. E, F, 4), with its library, y 4 M. to the N.E. of 
the Stortorv , and reached by the Stor-Gade and the Throndhjems Vei 
(open daily). 

On days when the above collections are not open to the public, visi- 
tors may usually obtain access to them by applying to one of the pro- 

If the traveller's time is limited, he will content himself with 
seeing the outside of the University, and will hasten thence to ob- 
tain a glimpse at the Palace, or Slot (PI. A, 6), a large, plain edifice 
with a classical portico in the centre, finely situated on an eminence 
in the beautiful *Slot$park, at theW. extremity of the town. It was 
erected in 1822-48 as a royal residence at the comparatively small 
cost of about 22,700i., while the grounds in which it stands cost 
about 10,700i. more, these sums having been voted by the Storthing 
for the purpose. The Interior is shown by the 'Vagtmester', or 
custodian, who lives on the sunk floor of the S. wing (fee i/ 2 -l kr.). 
The Festsal is a handsome and lofty hall, adorned with Corinthian 
columns ; the large Dining-room is decorated in the Pompeian style ; 
the walls of the Throne Room, Coursal or drawing-room, and Au- 
dience Chamber are adorned with landscapes by Flinto. The Billiard 
Room contains two pictures by Tidemand, and another of his works 
adorns one of the Queen's Apartments. The roof commands an 
admirable * View of the town and environs. — In front of the 
palace rises an *Equestrian Statue of Charles XIV. (Bernadotte), 
by BrynjulfBergslien, inscribed with the king's motto 'The people's 
love is my reward'. 

Christiania also possesses a number of educational, charitable, 
and other institutions, which may be visited if time permits. Among 
these may be mentioned the Kongelige Tegneskole, a School of 
Design, with which the National Gallery (p. 6) is connected. It 
was founded in 1818, and is supported by subsidies of 16,000 kr. 
from government and 4800 kr. from the municipality. Deichmann's 
Library, Dronningens-Gade 11, founded in 1780, and consisting of 

10 Route 1. OSCAESHALL. Environs 

13,000 vols., is open to the public on Mondays and Saturdays, 
6-8 p.m., and on Wednesdays, 1-3. In the grounds of the Old 
Palace, Lille Strand-Gade, is the Palaishavens Pavilion, containing 
a collection of Engravings and Drawings, 5000 in number, founded 
in 1877, and open to the public on Sundays, Wednesdays, and 
Saturdays, 12-2. There are also several very useful and meritorious 
scientific, literary, antiquarian, and philanthropic societies, a list 
of which will be found in Norges Statskalender. The most im- 
portant of the numerous charitable institutions are the Rigshospital, 
Akersgaden , near the Trefoldigheds - Kirke , and Oslo Hospital, 
in Oslo, which was founded by Christian III. in 1538 and united, 
in 1790 with a lunatic asylum (revenues, 39,000 kr.). The 
Pampkj0kken has been already mentioned (p. 4). 

Environs. The finest point in the immediate environs of 
Christiania is *Oscarshall (tickets of admission gratis at the hotels, 
or on application to Hr. Kammerherre Hoist, at the University, E. 
wing, first floor), a visit to which need not occupy more than 
l l /2~1 hours. It lies on the peninsula of Ladegaardse, about '/ 4 M. 
to the W. of the Stor-Torv, and may be reached by carriage (one- 
horse 5-6, two-horse 8 kr., there and back), by small steamboat 
from the Pipervik (hourly from 1.30 to 9.30) to Frederiksborg (in 
] / t hr. , and 5 min. walk more, always keeping to the right), by 
railway (5 trains daily, 40 or 20».) from the Vestbanegaard to 
Bygde (in 8 min., and '/4 hr. walk more), or by ferry from Skarpsno, 
on the Drammensvei, V2M. to the W. of the Stor-Torv. The follow- 
ing plan is recommended to tolerable walkers : drive to Skillebcek 
on the Drammensvei (in 10 min., fare 40 0. or upwards), walk to 
the Skarpsno steamboat-pier in 10 min., take the ferry to the Lade- 
gaardser (in 4 min., fare 10 0.), and walk to the chateau in 5 min. 
more ; return by steamboat or train. The chateau, which stands on 
an eminence 80 ft. above the sea-level, surrounded by a pleasant 
park , was erected in the 'English Gothic' style by Nebelong for 
King Oscar in 1847-52, and adorned with paintings by eminent 
Norwegian artists. It was sold by Charles XV. to the government, 
but is still set apart for the use of the reigning monarch. The 
Interior (fee 1 /2"1 kr.) deserves inspection. The Dining Room, 
on the ground-floor of the smaller separate building, is adorned 
with six imposing Norwegian landscapes by J. Frich (d. 1858), the 
finest being the Ravndjuv, the Romsdalshorn, and the Norangsdal, 
above which are ten celebrated works by A. Tidemand (d. 1877), 
representing 'Norsk Bondeliv', or the different periods of Norwegian 
peasant life. The Drawing Room, on the ground-floor of the prin- 
cipal building, with its oak panelling, is embellished with statues 
of HaraldHaarfagre, Olaf Tryggvessen, St. Olaf, andSverre,in zinc, 
by Michelsen. A room on the 1st floor contains nine basreliefs from 
Frithjofs Saga, in marble, by Borck, and five fine landscapes by 
Oude (b. 1825). Several rooms on the 2nd floor contain works by 

of Christiania. FROGNERS.ETER. 1. Route. 11 

Swedish and Norwegian artists. We now ascend by a winding 
staircase of 28 steps to the flat roof of the chateau , beyond which 
43 steps more lead us to the summit of the tower, where we enjoy 
a charming *View of Christiania, its fjord, and environs. (Refresh- 
ments at the Sceterhytte on the Dronningsbjerg, between Oscarshall 
and the Bygde.) 

About Yg M. to the S. of Akershus lies the Hoved#, an island 
now belonging to the fortress (admission , see p. 5 ; boat there 
and back 1-1 '/o kr.), on which are situated the ruins of a Cistercian 
Monastery, founded by monks from Lincoln in 1147. In 1532, 
after the Reformed faith had already been embraced by Denmark, 
Mogens Gyldenstjeme , the Danish commandant of Akershus, 
ordered the monastery to be plundered and destroyed. In 1846-47 
the ruins were excavated by the Norwegian Antiquarian Society. 

The Egeberg, a wooded hill 400 ft. in height, to the S. of Oslo, 
commands several beautiful views , but the best points are not 
easily found. One of the finest is a rocky knoll, immediately to 
the left of the Liabro Road, which skirts the fjord, and l /gM. to the 
S. of the Oslo tramway terminus. Near this point is a station of 
the Ormsund steamboats (below the new railway to Frederiksstad), 
whence the Jernbanebrygge is reached in '/ 4 hour; or we may 
return by railway from the Bcekkelaget station (five trains daily). 
Another good point is reached thus :'beyond the tramway terminus 
follow the main road for 5 min., turn to the left, and after a few 
hundred paces ascend the stony old road to the right. Where the 
old and new roads unite at the top of the hill (20 min. from Oslo), 
we turn to the right, pass a farm, and follow a field-road to the 
(7 min.) wood on the N.W. slope of the Egeberg. A fine view of 
the town and harbour is obtained from the N. end of the hill (a 
little to the right, beyond the fence). We may now return by the 
same route, or (pleasanter) follow the fence on the top of the hill 
towards the S. for 3 min., descend a little to the right, passing the 
back of a small villa, and thus reach a road descending past the 
rocky knoll above mentioned to the (10 min.) Liabro Road. 

One of the most frequented points of view near Christiania is 
the *Frognersseter (1400 ft.), a rustic summer residence of Consul 
Heftye, situated on the S. slope of the Tryvandsheide, 3 / 4 M. to 
the N.W. of Christiania (carriage with one horse, for 1-2 persons, 
10 ; with two horses, for 3-4 persons, 14 kr. ; charges lower in the 
forenoon). The whole excursion (about 13 Engl. M. to the wooden 
tower and back) takes at least 3 hrs., or, on foot, 4'/ 2 hours. The 
route leads past the N. side of the Palace Grounds and traverses the 
suburb of Hcegdehougen, beyond which we observe the Vestre Alters 
Kirke on an eminence to the right. About V2 M. from the Stor- 
Torv , we next observe the Oaustad Lunatic Asylum (Sindssyge- 
Asyl), erected by Schirmer and v. Hanno in 1854, which accom- 
modates upwards of 300 patients. (Admission on application to the 

12 Route 1. OHRISTIANIA. Environs. 

director.) We now ascend by a narrow carriage-road, through wood, 
to the 'Saner 1 , a rustic timber-built villa, with a balcony command- 
ing a delightful view of Christiania, its fjord, and environs. 
(Coffee, milk, etc. at the adjoining cottage.) — While the horses 
are resting, travellers usually ascend on foot to the (20 min.) 
Tryvandshaide (1800 ft.), a wooden scaffolding on the summit of 
which commands a still more extensive view, including in clear 
weather some of the snowclad mountains of Thelemarken (the 
Gausta) to the W., and of Valders to the N.W. 

If time permits, pleasant drives may also be taken to the TJd- 
sigtstaarn on the Solhaug , on the Bogstad road (t/ 4 hr. from the 
Stor-Torv, or on foot 1 / 2 h I 0; to the Maridalsvand , a small lake 
which supplies Christiania with water, 8/4 M. to the N., with the 
ruined Marikirke at the N. end ; to Orefsens-Bad, a small water- 
cure establishment, prettily situated about 3 / 8 M. to the N.E.; and 
to Sarasbraaten, a summer residence of Consul Heftye, about 1 M. 
to the E. (Y2 M. from stat. Bryn on the Kongsvinger line). 

Longer Excursions. Travellers whose visit to Norway is 
limited to a few days only should endeavour to take one or other 
of the following short tours before leaving the country. 

(1) To Ojevik and Odnces (pp. 35-58), and back by the Rands- 
fjord and Henefos (pp. 47, 46), in 3-4 days. 

This round may be hurriedly accomplished in 2 days : (1) By train 
from Christiania to Eidsvold at 8 a.m., arriving at 10.46 a.m.; by steam- 
boat to Gjcrvik, arriving at 4.6 p.m. ; drive to Odnees (3 3 /s M.) in i'/t hrs. ; 
(2) By steamer at 8.30 a.m. from Odnses to Randsfjord, arriving at 1.45 p.m. ; 
thence by train at 3 p.m., passing Hxnefos and Skjserdal, and arriving at 
Christiania at 9.20 p.m. — It is, however, preferable to drive from Henefos 
(to which there are two trains daily from Randsfjord) to (l 5 /s M.) Sund- 
volden (or to take the train from Randsfjord to Skjaerdal, and cross the 
Tyrifjord by the evening steamer to Sundvolden) ; visit Krogkleven, drive 
to (2 3 /8 M.) Sandviken, and return thence by train to Christiania (six 
trains daily). — Or the traveller may prefer to make an excursion from 
Christiania to Sundvolden and Henefos, as above, and to return by rail- 
way, which may he easily done in two days. — See p. 13. 

(2) To the Rjukanfos via Kongsberg, and back, 4-5 days (R. 2). 
It is possible to accomplish this very interesting excursion in 3'/2 days : 

(1) By train from Christiania at 6.30 a.m. to Kongsberg, arriving at 11.12; 
drive to Tinoset, either via Lysthus in the Hitterdal, or via, Bolkesje, in 
9-10 hrs.; (2) Steamboat on Mon., Thurs., or Sat. at 8 a.m. to Strand, 
arriving about 11; drive to Vaar in 3 hrs., visit the Rjukanfos on foot in 
IV2 hr. (there and back) , and return to Strand in 2 , /t hrs. more ; (3) 
Steamer on Sun., Tues., or Wed. at 6 or 7 a.m. to Tinoset, and drive 
thence back to Kongsberg in 9-10 hrs. ; next morning take the 7.55 a.m. 
train for Christiania. See R. 2. 

(3) To Frederiksstad, the Sarpsfos, and Frederikshald, and back, 
in 2-3 days (R. 26); or there and back by railway in I1/2 day. 

A steamer leaves Christiania every morning at 7 or 8 o'clock for 
Frederiksstad and Frederikshald, and there are four weekly to Frederiksstad 
(arr. about 2 p.m.), where they unload, and Sarpsborg on the Qlommen 
i'/4 M. farther (arr. in the evening). Having slept at Sarpsborg the tra- 
veller may next day inspect the fall of the Glommen , take the' train to 
Frederikshald, and return thence to Christiania on the following day by 
steamboat in 7-9 hours. — Or the excursion may be made in two days: 

SANDVIKEN. 2. Route. 13 

(1) By train from Christiania to Sarpsborg; visit the fall the same day; 

(2) By steamer (4 times a week, at 7 a.m.) from Sarpsborg to Frederiksstad 
and Christiania. — By train the whole way there and (hack (IV2 day), 
not recommended. 

Travellers arriving at Christiania, or leaving it, by water will 

find a description of the beautiful fjord in RR. 8, 25. 

2. From Christiania to Drammen and Kongsberg. 

Excursion to the Rjukanfos. 

Railway to Drammen, 4,7 M., in 2'/4 hrs. (fares 2 kr. 80, 1 kr. 60 0.); 
thence to Kongsberg, 4 M. more, in 2'/2 hrs. (fares 2 kr. 40, 1 kr. 40 0.). 
The rails on this narrow-gauge line are only 3'/2 ft. apart. The carriages 
are of two classes only, corresponding to the second and third in most 
other countries. — Finest views to the left. 

The railway traverses beautiful scenery , particularly between 
Reken and Drammen. The train passes a number of pleasant country- 
houses , villages , and farms, interspersed with manufactories. To 
the left lies the beautiful Fjord of Christiania with its islands and 
indentations ('Kiler'), while to the right rise the imposing Aaser 
(a porphyry range of hills). The Silurian strata are here inter- 
sected by dykes of greenstone , the first of which , called '■Brand- 
skjcerene\ are immediately beyond the Pipervik. The most interest- 
ing dyke of this kind is to be seen near the Hevik station , where 
it forms a lofty wall, 2ft. in thickness, in the midst of the dis- 
integrated slate. 

0,3 M. Bygde (formerly called Tyskestrand) is the station for 
the Ladegaardsv , with its numerous country-houses. Beautiful 
walk to Oscarshall (Y4 hr. ; p. 10). The bay to the left is called 
Frognerkilen. Charming scenery. About l /% M. distant is the Kastel- 
bakke, where snow-shoe races ('Skirend' ; 'Skier', snow-shoes) take 
place in winter. 

0,5 M. Lysaker, at the mouth of the Serkedalselv , descending 
from the Bogstad-Vand, to which a beautiful route leads to the N. 
— From Bogstad, on the E. side of the lake , a steep path ascends 
to the FrognerssBter (p. 10). ■ — 0,g M. Hevik. The train skirts 
the Enger-Vand, and soon reaches — 

1,2 M. Sandviken, a beautifully situated village, the best 
starting-point for a visit to Ringerike. To the N. rises the Kolsaas 
(1212 ft.), commanding a view similar to that from the Frogner- 
saeter (guide advisable). 

The route from Sandviken through the picturesque district of Ringe- 
rike to (4 M.) Hmefos is well worthy of notice. The road, at first un- 
interesting, gradually ascends through the Krogskog to the first "station 
(l s /8 M., pay for 2 M., but not returning; 1 kr. 60 0. per M.), t Humledal, 
situated high above the picturesque Holsfjord , an arm of the Tyrifjord 
(230 ft.); striking view just below the station. We then descend by the 
beautiful 'Svangstrands-Vei' to the fjord, and follow its bank to the N. 
to ( 3 /4 M.) Sundvolden ("Inn; not now a posting station, but horses pro- 
curable), whence a small steamer runs twice daily to Skjmrdalen (in l>/ 2 
hr.), a railway - station on the opposite bank of the lake (p. 46). From 
Sundvolden we ascend to "" Krogkleven , a rocky height (Kiev, 'cliff'), 

1 4 Route 2. ASKKK. from Christiania 

i/ 4 31. from the inn and 1000 ft. above it, on the old road to Christiania 
(ascent through a romantic gorge, on foot or on horseback, l'^-l'/a hr.; 
horse 2 kr. 40 0.). We first come to the Klevstue , a poor inn , 5 min. 
below which, to the N.W., is Dronningens Udsigt (the Queen's View). 
Higher up (follow the track to the W., keeping to the right) is the 
Oh nr Kongens Udsigt (the King's View), the finer point of the two. 
The prospect from this point in clear weather is superb, embracing the 
Tyrifjord with its islands , the district of Ringerike , the .Tonsknut near 
Kongsberg , the Norefjeld to the N.W., and the Gausta and other snow- 
mountains to the W. in the distance. — As the steamer to Skjserdal does 
not correspond with the trains to Hunefos , we follow the road from 
Sundvolden to Honefos, which is less interesting than that just travers- 
ed. It crosses the mouth of the Stensfjord , a branch of the lake. The 
numerous islands in this bay and the Rock Bridge in the Kroksund are 
said to be stones once thrown by a giantess of the Gyrihaug, a hill on the 
E. bank of the Stensfjord, for the purpose of destroying the church of 
Norderhov, which missiles, however, including even one of her own legs, 
all fell short of their aim and fell into the lake. Like the battle of the 
giants against Odin and Thor in the Edda, this legend is symbolical of 
the fruitless wrath of the powers of nature against the advance of human 
culture. The next station, 5 /s M. beyond Sundvolden, is f Vik, beyond which 
the road passes JVorderhovs Kirke, in which Anna Kolbj0rnsdatter is in- 
terred. She was the wife of the pastor of the place, and in 1716, while 
her husband was ill, succeeded by a stratagem in betraying 600 of the 
Swedish invaders into the hands of her countrymen. A picture shown 
at the parsonage represents the heroine obtaining permission to set fire 
to a heap of wood for the pretended purpose of warming the Swedish 
soldiers , but in reality to attract the Norwegian troops who were en- 
camped at the neighbouring village of Sten. Meanwhile she plied the 
invaders so liberally with spirits that they fell an easy prey to the 
Norsemen. 1 M. Henefos, see p. 47. 

The train now ascends to (1,4 M.J Slabende and (1, 7 M.) Hval- 
stad, whence the picturesque Skogumsaas (1142 ft.) to the W. 
may be ascended , and crosses the wooden Viaduct of Hualstad. 
Passing through a tunnel, it next stops at (2M.)Asker, from which 
the * VardekoUe (1132 ft.), a massive hill of granite, serving to ma- 
riners as a landmark , may be ascended for the sake of the ad- 
mirable view it commands. In former times, on the breaking out 
of a war, beacon -fires were lighted • this hill to summon the 
people to arms. 

'The hill commands an incomparable and most extensive view. The 
spectator surveys the whole of Christiania, with the surrounding country- 
houses , hills, and mountains; then all the valleys of Drammen; the re- 
gion of Kongsberg, Holmestrand , Dr0bak, and the Christiania Fjord. 
Standing in the centre of this mountainous and so curiously furrowed 
district , we survey at a glance the whole of it , spread out like a relief- 
map'. L. v. Buck, 'Norwegen'. 

The train skirts the foot of the Vardekolle and passes the small 
lakes Bondivand (the property of an English ice-exporting com- 
pany) and Ojellumvand. At the S. end of the latter (at the bottom 
of which a bell is traditionally said to lie) is (2, 5 M.) Heggedal, 
beyond which we pass the base of the barren Brejmaas. 

Beyond (3 M.) Iteken (440ft.) the train turns abruptly to the 
W., traversing an uninteresting region; but immediately beyond 
a tunnel, 240 yds. long, a most picturesque and imposing *Vibw, 
of the Drummeris- Fjord, the town of Drammen, and the fertile 

to Drammen. DRAMMEN. 2. Route. 15 

valley of the Lier is suddenly disclosed to the left, rivalling the 
famous views from Chexbres above Vevey or from Optschina above 
Trieste. The road from Rflken to Drammen descends at once to the 
fjord, while the railway passes through another tunnel and de- 
scribes a long curve towards the N., descending gradually to the 
valley of Lier and the (4 M.) station of that name. 

From Lier a pleasant route leads to the N., on the E. side of the 
valley, past the Engerfjeld, to ( 7 /s M.) \Kitilsrud at the S. end of the Hols- 
fjord, a branch of the Tyrifjord (p. 13). The road, now called the "Svang- 
slrands-Vei, and famed for its picturesqueness, next ascends the Burderaas 
and skirts the Holsfjord at a giddy height above it. From (l'/4 M.) \Hum- 
ledal to ( 3 /4 M.) Sundvolden , see p. 13. The country between Kitilsrud 
and Humledal is entirely unpeopled. — If time permit, this route to 
Sundvolden is preferable to that from Sandviken, already described. 

At Lier the train turns towards the S. , traversing a fertile 
tract, and next stops at (4, 5 M.) Bragere, the E. end of Drammen 
(Bragemas) ; it then crosses the Drammenselv, and the island of 
'Holmeri 1 with its timber-yards, to the Tangen and quar- 
ters, and reaches the principal station of (4, 7 M.) Drammen, 
situated at the W. end of Stremse, close to the bridge across the 

Drammen. — In Stremse: 'Central Hotel, opposite the station, en- 
trance in a side-street, D. 2, S. l'/2 kr. ; Hotel St. Olaf, also opposite 
the station ; Britannia , in the Fremgade , leading E. to Tangen. — In 
Bragernces : "Hotel Kong Carl, in the Stor-Gade. 

Cab with one horse , for 1 person 40 0. per drive ; with two horses 
for 2 persons 60 0. — Omnibus from Bragernses-Torv to Tangen. 

Sommerfryd-Badeanstalt , on the E. side of Bragernses, at the end of 
Erik-B#rresens-Gaden, near the fire-engine station. 

Consuls. British vice-consul, F. W. Melhuus. A German and a French 
consul also reside here, but no American. 

Steamboats to Holmestrand, TtJnsberg, and Sandefjord once weekly; 
to Liverpool once monthly. 

Drammen, with 18,838 inhab., situated on both banks of the 
Drammenselv, consists of Bragernais on the N. bank, containing 
about 11,000 inhab. ,.Stuimse on the S. side, and Tangen to the 
S.E. , which originally formed three distinct communities. Bra- 
gernaes , the principal quarter , has been rebuilt since its almost 
entire destruction by lire in 1866 and a great part of Strems» and 
Tangen since a lire in 1870. The situation of Drammen on the 
estuary of the river, between hills of considerable height, is pictur- 
esque, and not without pretensions to grandeur. The pretty fjord 
extends down to Holmestrand, whence a steamer runs to Ghristiania 
daily. The trade of the place is very considerable, consisting chiefly 
in the export of about 110,000 tons of wood annually to England 
and Holland , and of a quantity of zinc and nickel from Skouger 
and Ringerike. The commercial fleet of Drammen , numbering 
more than 300 vessels, is one of the largest in Norway, vying in 
importance with those of Christiania and Arendal , and having 
an aggregate burden of 7'2,000 tons. The town also possesses a 
number of saw -mills, iron works, and manufactories. Little 
is known of its history , but it was much frequented as a harbour 

1 6 Route 2. DRAMMEN. From Christiania 

as early as the 16th century. Its chief resources are the exten- 
sive forests of Hadeland, Valders , the Hallingdal, and part of the 
Numedal. For the purposes of trade its situation is at least as fa- 
vourable as that of Christiania. Vessels of considerable tonnage 
can load and discharge on both banks , on which stone quays have 
been constructed, partly for the purpose of protecting Bragernajs 
from inundation. Bragernss is connected -with Stramse by means 
of a long * Timber Bridge , which affords a pleasant promenade in 
hot weather ; charming prospect in every direction ; the Brand- 
station (see below), with its two flagstaffs , is conspicuous on the 
hill-side to the right. The railway-station at Str0ms«r is close to 
the S. end of this bridge. 

The bridge leads from the station to the Bragernces-Torv, the 
chief market-place, in which, on the right, are the Exchange (with 
the Post and Telegraph Offices, entrance in aside-street), and 
facing us the Raadhus and Byret (court-house), with the inscription 
Ret og Sandhed ('justice and truth'). On an eminence to the N. 
rises *Bragern^:s Church , a handsome Gothic brick edifice by 
Nordgren, built after the Are of 1866, and consecrated in 1871. 
The interior, which deserves a visit, is embellished with an *Altar- 
piece by Tidemand (d.1876), representing the Resurrection, and 
an *Angel over the font by Borck , presented by his brother, a 
merchant of Drammen. (The 'Klokker', or sacristan, lives at the 
back of the church, to the left ; fee Wg-l kr.) 

Following the road on the hill-side above Bragernees Church, 
which ascends slightly to the right, or proceeding by the Cappelens- 
Gade below the church to the W. as far as Erik Berresen's Gade, 
and then ascending to the left, we reach after 1*2-15 min. the 
*Brandstation , one of the finest points of view near Drammen, 
affording an extensive prospect of Tangen, Strains* 1 , and Bragernajs, 
of 'Holmen' (p. 15), the valley of the Drammenselv, and the fjord. 
The veranda of the watchman's house is always accessible. Can- 
nons are fired here whenever a fire is observed in the town. 

The road proceeds hence, turning to the left after 10 min., to 
the (35-40 min.) *Kloptja>rn, a sequestered lake in the midst of 
wood , whence the town derives its water-supply. To the left are 
pleasant grounds, and on the right is a small house where refresh- 
ments are sold. From the latter a footpath ascends to the right in 
5 min. to Prins Oscars Vdsigt, which affords a good survey of the 
Lierdal and the fjord. The mountains to the left are the Vardeaas 
and the Skogumsaas. (From the small house above mentioned the 
traveller may ascend to the Varde, a much higher point, com- 
manding a very extensive view.) ■ — In returning avoid the very 
steep and stony short-cuts. 

Another good point of view is the hill of *Bragerna>saas, easily 
reached in 35-40 min. by a new zigzag road, provided with numer- 
ous benches, which ascends above the churchyard to the W. of the 

to Kongsberg. "KT7NGSBERG. 2. Route. 1 7 

Bragermcs Church. The view embraces the town and fjord, and 
the valley up to Hougsund and Kongsberg. From the top the tra- 
veller may proceed (no path) to the Kloptj:crn and return by the, 
Brandstation (see above). 

A longer excursion may be taken by the old Christiania road to the 
-JStudenternes Udsigt on the Bejstad-Aas, near which is the Gaard ftjctleba'k 
with a wood-girt lake and a fine echo. The road formerly lay farther to 
the N., crossing the Paradisbakker (about 900ft.), the marble quarries of 
which supplied the materials for the marble church at Copenhagen. 

Railway to Holmestrand and Laurvik (p. 69) in course of construction. 

Railway to Kongsberg (4 M.). Leaving Drammen, the train 
ascends the broad valley of the Drammenselv to (0, 2 M.) Guls- 
kogen, (i M.) Mjendalen, and — 

1,5 M. Hougsund (^Restaurant), the junction of the Randsfjord 
(p. 46) and Kongsberg lines, where passengers for the latter change 
carriages. To the W- rises the Jonsknut (3000 ft.). In the vicinity 
is the Hellfos, a fall of the Drammenselv, where boxes are placed 
for the purpose of catching the salmon as they ascend the fall. — 
The Kongsberg train (finest views on the left) next stops at — 

2 M. Vestfossen , on the beautiful Ekervand or Fiskumvand, 
bounded by lofty mountains on the E. side (usually traversed by a 
steamboat twice weekly to Jernfoi). 2, 4 M. Ddbro also lies on 
this lake. 2, 8 M. Krekling, where the slate-formation predominates. 
Farther on we obtain a fine view of the mountains towards the S. — 
3,4 M. Skollenborg, where sandstone makes its appearance, and the 
country becomes sterile. The train crosses the Laagen , which de- 
scends from the Numedal and forms a waterfall, and stops at — 

4 M. Kongsberg (* Victoria , formerly Hotel des Mines; Bri- 
tannia) , an uninviting , but not unpicturesque town , situated on 
the Laagen, Lougen, or Numedalslaagen, 500 ft. above the sea, with 
4311 inhab., who are almost all supported by the neighbouring 
mines. Most of the houses are timber-built, but the large Church 
and the Raadhus are substantial stone edifices. The former was 
erected in the middle of last century, when the population of the 
town was about double the present number. The town owes its 
origin to the Silver Mines in the vicinity, which are said to have 
been discovered by goatherds, and was founded in 1624 in the reign 
of Christian IV. In the town itself are situated the Smeltehytte, or 
smelting-works, where specimens of the ore may be purchased, the 
Mynt (mint), and a government Vaabenfabrik (weapon-factory), the 
last of which is near the Hammerfos. The rapid Laagen is crossed 
by two bridges. 

The Silver Mines of Kongsbeeg, the property of the government, 
now yielding an annual profit of about 22,000^., were discovered early in 
the 17th cent, and have been worked with varying success. Of more than 
a hundred mings opened since the first discovery of the ore, three only 
are now of any importance. The principal of these is Kongens - Grube, 
about V2 M. to the S.W.W. of the town, which is nearly 2000 ft. in depth, 
and a little to the N. of this mine are the 'Gottes-Hiilfe* and the 'Ilaus- 
Sachsen' mines. Besides the perpendicular shafts descending to these mines, 
there are two level shafts or adits, the Frederiks-Stollen and the Christians- 

Baedekek's Norway and Sweden. '2 

18 Route 2. SKJ0NNE. From Kongsberg 

Slollen, entering them from the hill-side, the latter being 300 ft. below the 
other and connecting all the mines, the aggregate length of which is up- 
wards of >/s M. — Permission to visit the mines is obtained at the offices 
in the market-place, but the expedition is a laborious one, which hardly 
repays the fatigue. The veins of native silver which the mines contain 
are mingled with sulphuret of silver and copper pyrites, occurring gener- 
ally in layers of calcareous spar. Beautiful argentiferous crystals are also 
frequently found. The finest yet discovered is now in the University 
Museum of Natural History at Copenhagen. 

The Jonsknut (3000 ft.), which rises a short distance beyond the Gottes- 
Hulfe and Hans-Sachsen mines, commands an admirable view of the Gausta 
and other mountains of Thelemarken to the W. Near the Jonsknut rises 
the somewhat lower Sk vims fj eld, about l'/a M. to the S. of the town, and 
also commanding a beautiful view. 

About '/ 2 31. to the S.S.E. of the town the Laagen forms a very fine 
waterfall called the Labrofos , 140 ft. in height, which is well worthy of 
a visit. — Another fall of the same river of equal grandeur is the Jlvi- 
tingfos, 3 M. from Kongsberg, on the Laurvik road. 

From Kongsbekg to the Hardanger Fjokd (4-5 days). Travellers 
who have already visited Thelemarken may prefer this route for the sake 
of variety to that via the Rjukanfos (p. 19), or to the direct route (p. 22) by 
Mogen, Botten, and the Haukelid-Seeter to Odde, though it is less inter- 
esting. Fine scenery, however, is by no means lacking, while the in- 
habitants have retained more of their primitive characteristics than those 
of Valders or the Hallingdal, and the interest of their country is enhanced 
by numerous traditions. A carriage-road with fast stations (horse 1 kr. 
60 0. per 31.) leads through the Numedal to Bresterud (ll'A M.), from 
which driving is also practicable to Floten, 1 M. farther, whence the traveller 
must ride or walk to Eidfjord on the Hardanger, 9 31. more. 

As far as Vceglid the road follows the right bank of the Laagen, which 
descends from the Nordmands-Laagen in Hardanger (1500 ft. ; p. 21). As 
far as Skjenne, where Laagen and Opdalselv unite, the scenery is some- 
what monotonous. 

l'/2 M. fSvennesund. Farther on we puss the church of Flesberg, situated 
on the left bank of the Laagen. The next stations are (l>/4 M.) \ Heimyr, 
(l'/2 M-) tAlfstad, and (l 1 /* M.) t Belle, l /-> M. beyond which is Skajem, 
at the S. end of the Kravik-Fjord (863 ft.). The district between the church 
of Vwglid and Skajem is picturesque. The road runs for 2 31. along the bank 
of the Kravikfjord and Nove-Fjord, which had better be traversed by boat, 
and passes many thriving farm-houses. One of the old buildings of Gaarden 
Kravik is said to date from the 12th century. The Nore-Kirke, on the W. 
bank of the Nore-Fjord, an old timber-built church now doomed to demo- 
lition, contains interesting paintings and inscriptions in a kind of hiero- 
glyphics, the objects (eyes, ears, animals, the devil, etc.) themselves being 
represented. — The Eidsfjeld (4300 ft.), rising to theW., may be ascended 
from Nore in one day. 

2'/4 3I. t Sevli lies at the N. end of the Nore-Fjord, and >/ 4 M. farther 
is Skjanne (920 ft.), an ancient 'Tingsted', or place of assize, now belong- 
ing to the brothers Torsten, Torgil, and Ketlil, who accommodate visitors 
at their farm. 

[From Skjcrnne across the Fjeld to Sol in the Hallingdal, l'/2-2 days. 
The bridle-path ascends rather steeply, skirting the Laagen, which rushes 
through its channel far below, and passing the 0ygaarde, to the (1 M.) 
S. end of the Tunhevd- Fjord (2550 ft.). At Huga we take a boat and 
ascend the lake, being towed through several rapids, to the (2 31.) N. end. 
Then a steep ascent to Tunhevd, a hill-farm, where good quarters for the 
night are obtained. Kext day we cross monotonous 'Heier' (barren heights), 
skirting the Rednngsvand (2790 ft.) and the base of the Sangerfjeld (3755 ft.), 
and passing several sitters, and at length reach Hoi (Hammersbeen) in 
the Hallingdal (p. 32).] 

A little beyond Skjjzfnne the road enters the Opdal , and the scenery 
becomes very picturesque. Within the next 3 /< 31. the road ascends 600 ft. 

to the Tijukanfof. HITTERDAL. 2. Route. 19 

to the Fennebufjvrd (1525 ft.), at the W. end of which is (l>/ 4 M.) jLirerud. 
Thence to (211.) t Bresterud (2550 ft.; good quarters) a continuous ascent 
through a somewhat monotonous region. 

[From Brusterud to Hoi in the Hallingdal a mountain -path leads in 
I-IV2 days. It crosses a hill (3800 ft.) whence the Hallingskarv to the 
N.W. and the whole of the Jotunheim chain are visible, and then descends 
past the Vass and Heifde soeters to Kjensaas in Dagalid (2750 ft.). We 
again cross the mountain to the Skurdal (2740 ft. ; poor quarters) , and 
then another height to the Ustadal, pass several farms, and reach Hammer.i- 
beien and Hoi (p. 32).] 

For the journey across the mountain 'Viddev" (widths', or 'expanses') 
to the Hardanger (9 M., a walk of two days at least) a guide should be 
engaged either at Br0sterud, or, if possible, lower down the valley, and 
a supply of provisions obtained. The route starts from the Floten (Flaalen, 
or Nerstebo) farm, ly 4 M. to the N. of BrfJsterud, at first follows the 
sseter-path, and then traverses a lofty plateau (4000 ft.) commanding an 
extensive view in every direction. It passes the S. side of the Solheims- 
fjeld, the Skarsvand, and the Ylgelidsceter ; it then leads round the Hetlje- 
bretefjeld to the Ojetsjei (Langvand), where the Laagen is crossed by boat, 
and to Hansbu (3880 ft.), a fisherman's hut at the E. end of the Latigesje, 
which affords poor quarters for the night (4 M. from Brtfsterud). — Next 
morning our route leads round the Redhellerfjeld to the N.W. to the Hol- 
metjcern , and then, crossing the boundary between the Numedal and the 
Hallingdal Fogderi, and skirting the Svinta, reaches the Nybuswtre (3600 ft.), 
the first on the W. side of the mountain (Veslen/jeldske Norge). Beyond 
this we generally follow the course of the Bjoreia , which lower down 
forms the Vetringsfos, and cross snow-fields , brooks , and marshes. The 
path is marked by 'Varder', or signals, as far as Storlien, and thence to 
Maursal (2370 ft.) and Hel it cannot be mistaken (comp. R. 11). 

From Kongsberg to the Rjukanfos there are several practi- 
cable routes, of which the two following, each about 11 74 M. in 
length, are the principal. 

(1) Via Hitterdal (HI/4M.). This is the less picturesque, 
but easier route, and fresh horses are procurable at Lysthus i Hitter- 
dal, a fast station about halfway to (5 3 /4 M. ; 1 kr. 60 0. per M.) 
Tinoset. The road is tolerably level as far as Kongens Orube 
(p. 17), beyond which it ascends the steep Meheia, a wooded hill 
1450 ft. in height, separating the valley of the Laagen from the Hitter- 
dal. Nearly halfway to Lysthus , we stop, after 2 1 / 4 hours' drive, 
at Jerngruben (tolerable inn), where , though not a station , horses 
are sometimes procurable. The horses are usually rested here for an 
hour. Farther on , the road descends rapidly, and we next reach 
*Thomassen's Hotel, near the pier from which a steamboat plying 
on the Hitterdals- Vand and Nordsje starts almost daily for Skien 
(p. 25 ; see 'Norges Cominunicationer'). The road now crosses the 
Tin-Elv by a bridge which affords a view of the *Tinfos, a beautiful 
waterfall formed by the river here. 

The traveller may either reach this point from Christiania, or return 
hence to Christiania, by the Hitterdal and Skien steamboat mentioned 
above. Other steamers ply between Skien and Christiania four times a 
week, while others again run down the Skien-Fjord to Langesund (p. 69), 
where they correspond with the larger coasting steamers to Christiania. 

About ^2 M. beyond the Tinfos we reach — 
2 3 / 4 M. (pay for 3y 2 ) fLysthus i Hitterdal {Station Inn, Hoist's, 
and Juul's, all good), the drive to which from Kongsberg cannot well 


20 Route 2. TINOSET. From Kongsberg 

be accomplished in less than 5l/ 2 hrs., while in the reverse direction 
6 hrs. should be allowed, although the distance is 19'/2 Engl. M. 
only. Shortly after leaving this station we pass *Hitterdals Kirke 
(keys at the pastor's), a grotesque looking timber-built church ('Sta- 
vekirke'), dating from the 12th cent., resembling the ancient church 
of Borgund (p. 44), and one of the greatest architectural curiosities 
of Norway. Most of the original carving has unfortunately disap- 
peared, the church having been lately restored , but some relics of 
it are shown in the sacristy. The old episcopal chair at the back of 
the altar should also be noticed. The costumes of the peasantry 
who attend service here on Sundays are very picturesque. The road 
from this point to Tinoset is tolerably level the whole way. About 
3 /4 M. from Lysthus we diverge to the right from the main road to 
Hjertdal (p. 23), and proceed towards the N. to — 

3 M. -j-Tinoset (Station, fair, but frequently full), whence the 
steamer 'Rjukan', plying on the Tinsje (600 ft.), usually starts for 
Sigurdsrud at the head of the lake, calling at the intervening stations, 
on Mondays, Thursdays, and Saturdays at 8 a.m., and on Tuesdays 
at 1 p.m. (returning from Sigurdsrud on Sundays and Tuesdays at 
6 a.m., on Wednesdays at 5 a.m., and on Fridays at 3 p.m.). The 
lake , which is about 4 M. long and '/ 8 M. in width , is enclosed by 
barren and precipitous mountains , and its banks are very thinly 

(2) From Kongsbekg to Tinoset via Bolkbsj», 6 M. (a drive 
of 9-10 hrs.). The stages on this route, the scenery on which is 
superior to that of the Hitterdal route, are (3 M.) Bolkesje (*Inn), 
with magnificent views, near which is the Folsje, abounding in 
trout, and (IV4 M.) Tinoset; but these places are not stations, so 
that a bargain must be made for horses at each. Or horses may be 
hired at Kongsberg for the whole journey. The usual charges are : 
horse and carriole 16, horse and kjaerre for two persons ('halvanden 
Skyds') 24, carriage-and-pair for two persons 32, for three 40 kr. 

Passing (l'/2 M.) Sand (tolerable station), and Hovin on the 
opposite bank, the steamboat reaches (1% M.) Strand (tolerable 
station), near i&rnas i Male, in about 3 hrs., where we hire saddle- 
horses (about 6 kr. each) or a 'stolkjjerre' (for 1 person 6, for 2 per- 
sons 8 kr.) for the journey to Vaar Q-fe hr. from the Rjukanfos) and 
back. A drive of 1 hr. on a tolerable road ascending the picturesque 
valley of the Maan-Elv (Vestfjorddal), brings us to — 

1 M. (from Strand) Dale (poor inn), a prettily situated hamlet, 
near the foot of the imposing wedge-shaped Gausta Fjeld (6000 ft.), 
which commands a magnificent view, and may be ascended hence 
without difficulty in 6 hrs. (there and back, 10-12 hrs.). The road 
now ascends more steeply, and we take about 2 hrs. more to reach — 

1 M. Vaar, where we alight in order to walk to (Y2 hr.) Krokan 
(*Inn, belonging to the 'Turistforening'), and in a few minutes 

Oograph. Anstalt -von 

to the Rjukanfos. IUUKANFOS. 2. Route. 21 

more to the ** Rjukanfos ('reeking' or 'foaming fall'), a magnificent 
fall of the large Maan-Elv, about 800 ft. in height, with remarkably 
picturesque adjuncts. This waterfall is one of the finest in Eu- 
rope. The scene is stupendous in the early summer, when the 
river is swollen with melted snow, but less picturesque than when 
there is less water , as the fall is partially concealed by the spray 
and foam. The imposing Gausta, which when approached from the 
N.E. presents the appearance of a long ridge, looks like a sharp 
cone when seen from this N.W. side. 

From the Rjukanfos to the Hardanger Fjord. There are two 
practicable routes for pedestrians and riders from the Rjukanfos to the 
Hardanger Fjord, one to Odde, and one to Eidfjord, of which the former 
is the easier. 

To Odde, 4-5 days. 1st Day. From Krokan to (174 M.) Holvik (tolerable 
inn), on the Mjesvand (2800 ft.) , a walk or ride of 4 hrs. by a fatiguing 
path, on which snow sometimes lies early in the season. This dreary- 
looking lake, 3'/4 M. long, and '/s-'/s 31. broad, is then crossed by boat, 
passing Mjesstranden , situated on the promontory between the E. and 
S. arms of the lake, to (S'/a hrs.) the W. bank, whence a path, very 
rough and marshy at places , leads across the Bitdalselv (3090 ft.) , which 
has to be forded, in 6 hrs. to (2 M.) Rauland (Inn, tolerable), on the 
N. bank of the Totakvand (2080 ft.) , or to Berge (Inn, fair) , also on the 
lake, '/« 31. farther. This journey may be accomplished by good walkers 
in one day by starting from Krokan at 5 a.m., but a boat at Holvik 
cannot be reckoned upon with certainty. A night had therefore better 
be spent at Holvik, as no tolerable accommodation is obtainable between 
that place and Rauland. — 2nd Day. Row from Rauland or from Berge 
to 0/2 M.) Kosthveit in 1 hr., and drive thence by a rough road to (l'/4 M.) 
Jamsgaard i Vtnje (poor station) in 2 1 /'* hrs., and from Jamsgaard via 
Mule and Nyland to (4>/4 M.) Batten (p. 24) in 8 hrs. — 3rd Day : from 
Botten to the (l'/2 M.) Haukelidswter a drive of 3 hrs., thence to &/■! 31.) 
Reldal, a ride or walk of 8-9 hrs. — 4th Day : from Rtfldal to (2'/2 M.) 
Seljestad, a ride or drive of 7-8 hrs., and thence to (2'/4 31.) Odde, a drive 
of 4-5 hrs. — Comp. pp. 24, 25. 

The above route from the Rjukanfos to Odde may be varied as follows. 
Ride from Holvik by a rough and often marshy path all the way to 
(2'/2 M.) Berge (see above) in 7-8 hrs. — Or row from Holvik to Erlandsgaar- 
den in 1 hr., walk to Gibeen in 2 hrs., cross the S. arm of the Mj0svand in 
'/a hr., and walk to Berge in 5 hrs. — From Berge or Rauland we may 
row to (1 31.) Brunelid , walk over a steep hill commanding a fine view 
to O/2 31.) Grungedalsbygden in iy 2 hr., walk or ride thence to (l'/a 31.) 
Gugaarden in 4 hrs., and drive thence in 3'/2 hrs. more to (l 3 Ai 31.) 
Botten (p. 24). 

To the Veringsfos and Eidfjord, 4-5 days, for pedestrians only. 1st Day. 
From Krokan to Holvik (see above) in 4 hrs. -, row thence in 3'/2 hrs. to 
Mjesslrand, and in 3'/2-4 hrs. more to the upper end of the lake, about 
3'/ 2 JI. in all; walk in '/a hr. to Mogen (poor quarters). Or, better, sleep 
at Holvik on the first and at Mogen on the second night. — 2nd Day 
(file Mogen, or his brother, recommended as a guide to Eidfjord, 16 kr.). 
The path ascends towards the N.W. to the 0/2 31.) Gjusje, a lake V2 31. 
long, abounding in fish, passes several small tarns on the left, and crosses 
(l 5 /s 31.) the Gjuvaa, a stream l'/2-2 ft. deep. It next passes the 0/2 31.) 
Skarvand, and then three mountain-lakes on the left, where the soil is 
boggy and the scenery very desolate. Farther on we pass several more 
tarns on the left, and the Lagtjcern and Nordmandslaagen on the right, the 
latter of which is well stocked with fish. Just beyond this lake we have 
to cross the Bessaelv , a considerable stream which falls into the lake, 
and here, after a laborious walk of 12-13 hrs., we spend the night in the 
Bessabu a small stone hut which affords no accommodation of any kind. 
(It is however, preferable, if possible, to spend the night in a fisherman \s 

22 Route 3. THELEMARKEN. From Christiania 

hut on the neck of land between the Lagtjtern and Nordmandslaagen, 
erected by Ole Vik, a reindeer-hunter and guide residing at Eidfjord). — 
3rd Day. Our route continues to traverse wild and bleak mountain 
scenery, occasionally crossing snow, to (2'/4 M.) Bcerrastelen , a walk of 
5-6 hrs., whence a good path leads in 2 hrs. to the ( 3 /i M.) Veringsfos, 
near which is the farmhouse of Hal , where if necessary the night may 
be spent. From H#l to Eidfjord 3'/2-4 hrs. (see p. 94). 

3. From Christiania to Odde. 

Comp. Map, p. 20. 

35 3 /4 M. (250 Engl. M.). Railway to Kongsberg, 8 3 /4 M.; carriage-road 
thence to the IJ auk elid- Salter, 19 3 /4 M. ; road for part of the way, and 
then bridle-path, to Reldal, 2'/2 M. (8 hrs. walk); carriage-road to Odde 
4 3 /4 M. ■ — This fine route may be accomplished with tolerable ease in 
5 days , but 8-10 days should , if possible , be devoted to the journey and 
the points of interest on the way. Travellers by this route desirous of 
seeing the Rjukanfos and of avoiding the rough route thence to Holvik, 
the Totakvand , and Jamsgaard (p. 21) may visit the waterfall from 
Lysthus, returning thither by the same route, in 2-3 days. The direct 
route may be conveniently divided into the following stages: — 1st Day. 
Railway to Kongsberg (dep. 6.30, arr. 11.12 a.m.); drive to Landsvark 
(l'/2 M. beyond Lysthus, the station for the digression to the Rjukanfos) 
in 8-9 hrs. — 2nd Day. Drive to Mogen in 10-12 hrs. — 3rd Day. Drive 
to Bolten in 10-12 hrs.' — 4th Day. Drive to Haukelid-Sceter in 2'/2-3 hrs.; 
walk or ride to Reldal in 7-8 hrs. — 5th Day. Row to Horre , and drive 
thence to Odde in 9-10 hrs. — More than half of the land-journey may 
be avoided by taking the — 

Steamer from Christiania to Skien (4 times weekly, in 11-12 hrs.), 
another steamer thence to Ulefos on the Nordsj0 (daily except Sundays, 
in 2 l /2 hrs.), driving from TJlefos to Strcengen in 3 hrs., taking the steamboat 
on the Flaa, Hvideseid, and Bandak Lakes (daily except Sundays and 
Tuesdays) to Trisect (in 5 hrs.) , and driving thence in l 3 /4 hr. to Mogen, 
on the above-mentioned road,*\vhich it is possible to reach on the evening 
of the second day (comp. p. 25). 

Thelemarken , one of the most picturesque districts in Norway, 
extending from the vicinity of Kongsberg on the E. to the Haukelid-Sseter 
on the W., and from KragerU on the S. to the Fjeldsj0 and the Gavten- 
Fjeld on the N., boasts of several beautiful lakes, a number of remarkably 
fine waterfalls, and much wild mountain scenery, but is traversed by 
very few good roads, and is therefore comparatively little visited. The 
inns are almost everywhere of the poorest description except on the two 
main routes indicated above, but they have improved considerably of 
late years , and in some cases are really clean and comfortable. Many 
of the lakes afford excellent trout -fishing, so that, if the pursuit of 
angling be combined with the exploration of the scenery, several weeks 
might most pleasantly be devoted to this district alone. Some of the 
mountains and forests also afford good shooting. Owing to the absence 
of great thoroughfares, the inhabitants are generally somewhat primitive 
in character, and their costumes and dwellings are often highly picturesque. 
Besides the two chief routes through the district, there is another of 
some importance, leading from Moen i Siljord to the S., past the "Nisservand, 
to the Nedenses Fogderi, which it enters a little to the S. of the lake, 
and then running S.S.E. to Tvedestrand on the S.E. coast (R. 8). 

a. Via Kongsberg. From Christiania to Kongsberg , and 
thence to f Lysthus i Hitterdal, see R. 2. The usual charge on this 
route for a horse is 1 kr. 60 e. and carriole 20 0. per mile. 

Pedestrians will be repaid by leaving the high-road '/2 M- beyond 
HitUrdals- Kirke (p. 20), crossing the river, ascending the '-' Himingen 

to Odde. MOEN. 3. Route. 23 

(3440ft.), an isolated, pyramidal hill which commands an admirable view 
in every direction , and descending thence to Mosebet (see below) , a walk 
of 7-8 hrs. (guide desirable). 

About 1 M. beyond Lysthus the road to the Tinsje (p. 20) di- 
verges to the right (N.), while our route leads to the "W. to — 

l l fe M. fLandsvserk i Sauland (fair station), V4 M. short of 
the old station Mosebe. Picturesque scenery. 

From Moseb0 to Dale in the Vestfjorddal, or Maanelv Valley (p. 20), 
3'/a M. — Carriage-road to Been in the Tudal 2 M. ; thence by a sseter- 
path across the spurs of the Gausta and past the Langefondsceler to Bale 
in 4-5 hours. A long, but in many respects interesting day's journey. 
By sleeping at Bizren and starting very early next morning , the Gausta 
may be ascended on the way. 

Pedestrians may effect a considerable saving by going direct from 
Moseb# through the Grutidingsdal to Moen (see below), a walk of 6-7 hours, 
but it is preferable to follow the high-road, as the scenery is finer. 

As we ascend the valley the scenery becomes wilder and more 
imposing. Passing a small lake on the left, we next stop at — 

l'/ 2 M. fSkeje i Hjcerdal (poor station) 

From this station the traveller may ascend the * Vindegg (4890 ft.), 
which commands a magnificent survey of the Gausta and other mountains. 
The route ascends in 2-3 hrs. past several picturesque waterfalls , the 
parsonage, the Fyrebevatn, and a number of sfeters, to the Pi'costegaards- 
Sceter, from which the summit is reached in 2-3 hrs. more (guide desirable). 

The road now ascends to the watershed between the Hjierdal 
and the Flatdal. Near the top of the hill a road diverges to the 
N.W. to (2 M.) Aamotsdal, whence paths lead to the Totakvand and 
Mjesvand (p. 21), the former being about 3y 2 M., the latter 4 M. 
from our present route. From Aamotsdal another path leads via 
(V2 M.) Rcekelid to (2 M.) Vaar (p. 20). Our road turns towards 
the S. and descends by zigzags, commanding very striking views, 
to Flatdal , with its little church and sprinkling of farms , beyond 
which is the lake of that name , with the Skorvefjeld (4440 ft.) 
rising in the background. Adjoining the lake is the Spaadomsnut, 
the falling of which into the water , according to local tradition, 
will be the prelude to the end of the world. The next station is — 

2y 4 M. f Moen i Siljord (good station), prettily situated on the 
Siljordsvand(400ft.), a picturesque lake, l^ length, travers- 
ed 4-5 times weekly by a steamboat. On the N.E. side of the 
lake rises the Lifjeld , on which two French aeronauts descended 
in 1870, having arrived in their balloon from Paris in 15 hrs. 

From Moen to Skien, 7 3 /4 M. (1 kr. 60 0. per mile). The first stage 
may be performed by steamer. l'/4 M. f Telnces, l 3 /t II. f Kleppen , 5 /s M. 
(pay for l 3 /,|) f Seiboden , where the Nordsjef steamer for Skien mav be 
taken; l 3 / 8 M. + Ulefos, 1M. t Holtcm, l'/sM. (pay for l 3 / 8 ) fKloveland, »/ 8 JI. 
(pay for i/t) f Skien (p. 69). 

About 1 M. from Siljord we pass Brunkebergs-Kirke, near which 
a road diverges to the S. to ( 7 /s M.) Hvideseid , about 8 min. walk 
beyond which is the pier of the steamer plying on the Hvidesa and 
Bandaksvand (p. 26). Our route passes near several considerable 
lakes, abounding in trout. We next stop at ( 7 /8 M, from the 
church) — 

24 Route 3. VINJE. From Christiania 

l 7 /8 M. y Berge i Brunkeberg (poor station), and then cross a 
range of hills of considerable height to — 

1 1/4 f Mogen i Heidalsmo (good station) , near which a road 
diverges to the S. to (l'/4 M.) Triscet on the Bandaksvand (p. 26). 
In the vicinity are several lakes which are said to afford good fishing. 
A hilly but very picturesque bye-road leads hence towards the N. 
to (3'/4 M.) Eauland on the imposing Totakvand (p. 21). Our 
route continues to traverse a fine mountainous region , and crosses 
a hill of considerable height to Jamsgaard, whence another rough 
bye-road leads to (1 >1.) Kosthveit on the Totakvand, nearly opposite 
Rauland, which may be reached by boat in % hr. (see p. 21). 

If time permit , the pedestrian may make an interesting digression 
from the high-road by quitting it at Mogen, proceeding to Eauland by 
the road above mentioned , crossing the Totakvand to Kosthveit , and 
taking the road thence which rejoins the high road at Jamsgaard, a 
circuit of 5 M. in all, to which a whole day must be devoted. Or a boat 
may be taken from Rauland to Brunelid (about f/4 M.), whence a 
mountain-path crosses the hills to Lillestuen (about '/2 M.) , on the high 
road. l 3 /4 M. beyond Mule. 

2M. y Mule i Vinje(1500ft. ; poor station), prettily situated near 
the N.W. end of a small lake. Bridle-path hence towards the S. 
to the Bmtevand and (1 3 / 4 M.) Mo, whence a road leads to (IV2 M.) 
Dale on the Bandaksvand (p. 26). Near Lillestuen our road reaches 
the Tveitvand, and we soon arrive at — 

2 M. y Nyland (poor station), where the scenery becomes wilder 
and bleaker. About 3 / s M. farther are the former stations Midi veil 
and Gugaard (poor quarters), whence a bridle-path diverges to the 
N. through the Gravdal to (iy 2 M-) &degaard at the N.W. end of 
the Totakvand, on which a boat may be taken to (2 M.) Eauland 
(p. 21). Another path leads from Gugaard to the S.W. to C/2 M.) 
Flaathel and (4'/'2 M.) Jordbrcekke (see below), a very long and 
fatiguing walk (15 hrs.). The long stage from Nyland to Botten 
is usually broken by a halt of '/» h r - a ' Flaathel. 

2 3 /g M. y Botten i Grungedal (2590 ft. ; good station) lies on a 
small lake in a bleak region. 

From Botten to Stavanger. Good walkers (for the path is almost 
too rough for riding) may here diverge to the S.W. to (4 M.) Jordbrcekke, 
a walk of 10-12 hrs., and ( 5 /s M.) Roaldkvam on the Suledalsvand. Rowing 
thence, past Nws, whence a path leads to (2 M.) Botten on the Reldalsvand 
(p. 25), we land at (I'/j M.) Vaage, and walk or ride thence to C/2 M.) 
Hylen on the Hylsfjord , whence a steamer usually runs every alternate 
Thursday to Stavanger. Or a boat may be taken from Vaage to (l'A 31.) 
Suledal, at the S.W. end of the lake, whence a road leads to (2 M.) Sand, 
from which a steamer runs to Stavanger every Thursday (see p. 81). 

The road ascends continuously, passing the base of the Nups-Egg, 
where the boundary between the Thelemarken and Hardanger 
districts is crossed, to the — • 

IV2 M. (pay for 2) yHaukelid-Sseter (3720ft. ; good accommo- 
dation), situated on the wild and desolate plateau of the Dyrskar, 
at the E. end of the small Staavand. Considerable fields of snow 
lie in the neighbourhood, even in the height of summer. The road 

to ULEFOS. 3. Route. 25 

is completed to a point about V2 M. beyond the Sffiter, but it is 
usual to walk or engage a saddle-horse (6 kr.) for the next stage, 
which occupies 8-9 his., passing the Midtlager and one of the Rel- 
dals-Satre. Imposing mountain-views during the descent. 

2'/2 M. -\Berge i Reldal (poor quarters at the station, or at 
Juvet's , the Lensmand) lies on the small Reldalsvand (12B0 ft.), 
surrounded by precipitous mountains. From Botten, at the (1 M.) 
opposite (S.) end of the lake, a bridle-path leads to (2 M.) lioald- 
kvam, on the Suledalsvand (see above), whence the traveller may 
proceed to Stavanger by Vaage and Hylen. Leaving Itoldal, we 
walk, ride, or row to C/4 M.) Horre, where we reach the carriage- 
road to Odde, for the drive to which the charge is 3 kr. 20 0. for 
each horse. The route crosses the Reldalsfjeld to — 

2'/.2 M. -fSeljestad i Odde (poor station), commanding a series of 
splendid views, and leads thence to(l 3 / 8 M.) y Hildal and ( 7 /s M.) 
y Bustetun i Odde, usually known as Odde (see p. 97). 

6. Via Skien. As already mentioned, more than half of the 
route from Christiania to Odde may be performed by water, and the 
whole journey will in that case occupy 5 days at least, but 8-10 days 
should, if possible, be devoted to it. 

By leaving Christiania on a Sunday, a Tuesday, or a Friday at 7 a.m. 
(according to the present time-tables), starting from Skien at 7 a.m. on 
the following day, and arriving at Ulefos about 9. 30 a.m., the traveller 
may drive to JStrccngen in time for the steamer on the Flaa, Hvideseid, and 
Bandak Lakes, which will convey him to Tritcet in about 5 hrs., whence 
he may drive to Mogen in l 3 /4 hr., and sleep there on the second night. 
One day at least, however, should be devoted to the beautiful Bandaks- 
vand. Or the traveller may prefer to take the Nordsju and Hitterdalsvand 
steamer all the way to Hitterdal (about 7 hrs.), whence he may eilher 
make a digression to the Rjukanfos (p. 21), or follow the direct route 
to Odde. 

From Christiania to Skien, see R. 8. The steamer traverses part 
of the Skienselv, which is conducted through an artificial channel, 
passes through the three curious locks of Leveid, and enters the 
Nordsj«, a picturesque lake about 4 M. in length. 

2'/2 M. y Ulefos (*Station), a prettily situated village, with iron- 
works of some importance, derives its name from the fine waterfall 
of that name. 

Instead of landing here, the traveller may go on by steamer to (l'/j M.) 
f Sebodeti in 1 hr. more, and drive thence (1 kr. 60 0. per mile) to ( 5 /s 51.) 
+ Kleppen and (l 3 /4 M.) f Telnces, whence a small steamboat plies on the Sil- 
jordsvand (4 times a week) to the (f/4 M.) upper end of the lake (1 hr.), 
near which is ^Moen, a good station on the main route through Thele- 
marken (p. 23). 

From Sgboden the steamer proceeds to the N. end of the Nordsjer, 
where the scenery is finer than at the S. end, and enters the Sauerelv, a 
river connecting the Nordsjo with the Hitterdalsvand, another pictur- 
esque lake, I'/k M. in length, at the upper end of which the traveller lands 
at " Thomassen's Hotel in the Hitterdal , about 1 M. from Lysthus (see 
p. 19). 

Landing at Ulefos, we now drive (1 kr. 60 0. per mile) to (1 M.) 
f Lundefaret and (1 M.) 7 Strcengen (tolerable station) on the Flaa- 
vand(220ft.), the steamer on which conveys us to (l'/2 ^0 fj aa ff e ~ 

26 Route 3. HVIDES0. 

sund at the upper end of the lake, where it enters the river connect- 
ing the Flaavand with the Hvides«. At the tipper end of this 
fine lake lies (l^M.) f Hvideseid or Kirkebe (fair station, about 
7 min. walk from the pier), very prettily situated, and boasting of 
one of the oldest churches in Norway. 

From Hvideseid to Tvedestkand (13 3 /s M.) ok Akendal (14'/4 M.). 
This is the least interesting of the three principal routes by which Thele- 
marken may be entered or quitted, hut is by no means devoid of attrac- 
tion. The road ascends rapidly (1 kr. 60 ft. per mile), and then descends 
to (l'/4 W.) \ Strand i Vraadal, a little to the W. of which lies the Vraavand 
(830 ft.), another of the picturesque lakes in which Thelemarken abounds. 
Our route now turns to the S. and skirts the E. bank of the Nisservand 
(825 ft.) , a fine sheet of water, 3V2 M. long , affording good trout-fishing. 
The next two stages may be performed by the small steamer which plies 
on the lake. The following stations are (2 M.) Tvet , (2 M.) Tvedtsund i 
Nissedal, a little beyond which the 'Fogderi' of Thelemarken is quitted 
and that of Jfedences entered, (2 M.) 0i. (i 3 /s M.) Neergaarden (fair station), 
(l'/4 M.) Simonstad i Aamlid, (l 5 /s M.) Uberg, (l 3 / 8 M.) Tvede, (i/ 2 M.) Tvede- 
strand (p. 70). From Tvedestrand one steamer weekly runs direct to 
Christiania (Fridays, in 15 hrs.), and one weekly to Christiansand (Wed- 
nesdays, in 7 hrs.), while small steamers ply almost daily to the Dynge 
and the Borst in correspondence with the larger coasting steamers to 
Christiania, Christiansand, and Bergen. The traveller bound for Christian- 
sand will . however, find it preferable to drive direct from TJberg (see 
above) to (i 3 / 4 M.) Brcekke and f/ 8 M., pay for l'/s) Arendal (p. 70), 
whence a small steamer runs daily, except Mondays, at 8 a.m. to Christian- 
sand (in G hrs.). while the larger coasting steamers also touch here, con- 
veying passengers daily to Christiansand and to Christiania. 

Beyond Hvideseid the steamer passes through the narrow chan- 
nel connecting the Hvidese with the highly picturesque *Bandaks- 
vand(225ft.), a lake upwards of 2M. in length, enclosed by impos- 
ing mountains of considerable height, and well stocked with trout 
and other fish. Among the rocks on the N. bank, with their sharply 
defined outlines, two are known as St. Olafs Ship and the Monk 
and Lady respectively. The latter bears a fanciful resemblance to 
a hooded friar blessing a lady kneeling before him. On the N. 
bank, a little more than halfway up the lake, lies Trisset i Laurdal 
(*Station; Sanatorium), beautifully situated amidst rich vegetation 
which contrasts admirably with the frowning mountains we have 
just passed. Landing here about V/ t hr. after leaving Hvideseid. 
we now drive (1 kr. 60 0. per mile) through fine scenery to (l'^M.) 
Moen i Siljord (p. 23), where we join the high road from Kongs- 
berg to the Hardanger. 

Before quitting the beautiful Bandaksvand, on the banks of which 
several days may be very pleasantly spent, the traveller should if possible 
go on by the steamer to Dale {"Inn), situated at the head of the lake, 
about ! /(M. beyond Trisffit, which affords good headquarters for angling 
and excursions. A favourite excursion from Dale is to the hamlet of 
Eidsborg. lying 2000 ft. above it, where a manganese quarry and an an- 
cient timber-built church are objects of interest, and thence to "Ravne- 
juvet, or Ravnedjupet, 1 M. from Dalen. a perpendicular rock, about 1100 ft. 
in height, overhanging the turbulent Tokeelv, and commanding a fine view 
of the district of Nsesland. From Eidsborg roads lead to (t'/a M.) Mogeti 
on the main road through Thelemarken (p. 24), and to (i 3 /* M.) another 
point on the same road a little to the E. of the Vinje Lake. On the 
latter road lies Gjellms i JYwsland, where there is a very old timber-built 

BANDAKSVAND. 3. Route. 27 

'Stabbur' or store-house, bearing the date 1115. About 3/4 M. to the W. 
of Kavnejuvet (bridle-path) is Mo on the Berlevand, a lake 3 j\ M. long, 
from the N. end of which (reached by boat) a forest- path leads across 
the hills to Vinje (p. 24) in about an hour. — From Mo a mountain-path 
leads to Breive in the Ssetersdal (p. 74), about 5 M. distant. 

On the Bandaksvand , opposite to Trisset, and l /t M. distant from it, 
is Bandakslid, whence the hill is crossed by a series of very remark- 
able zigzags to the ( 3 /> M.) Vraavand, which is connected by a river with 
the Skvedvand, a lake lying several hundred feet higher. Not far from 
the road this river forms a picturesque fall, known as the ~Lille lijukanfos. 
Farther on (17a M. from Bandakslid) is Haugene, beyond which are Veum 
and (2 M.) Moland, 1 /sW. from the Fyrisvand, on which a small steamboat 
plies. Between Veum and Moland the Bispevei diverges to the W. to (5 M.) 
Valle in the Ssetersdal (p. 73) , a very rough walk of 12-13 hrs. — From 
the S. end of the Fyrisvand, a lake upwards of 2'/2 M. long, a path leads 
in about 3 hrs. to the S. end of the Nisservand (p. 26). 

4. From Christiania to Lserdalsjaxen. 

The chief land-routes from Christiania to Bergen are three in num- 
ber. One of these, via Kongsberg, or via Skien , and Odde on the Har; 
danger Fjord, has been already described. The two others lead through 
the Hallingdal and Valders respectively to Lserdals#ren on the Sognefjord. 
The route via Odde, although exceedingly attractive, is comparatively rarely 
selected, as one of the stages has still to be performed on horseback or 
on foot. By either of the two others the traveller is conveyed the whole 
way to Bergen by train, steamer, and carriole. By the Hallingdal route 
it is possible to perform the whole journey to Bergen in 5-6 days, but 
for any of the other routes 6-7 days at least are required. 

To the N. and N.W. of Christiania lie the four important lakes 
Mjosen, Randsfjord, Spirillen, and Kr0deren, running from N. to S., and 
nearly parallel with one another. The S. end of each of these lakes is 
reached from Christiania by railway. The steamer on Lake Kruderen 
then conveys us to the beginning of the Hallingdal route, while steam- 
boats on the other lakes take us to different points of the Valders route. 
The Hallingdal route, being the more direct (3-4 days to Lserdalserren), is 
described first, but the Valders route, whether begun via Lake Spirillen, 
the Randsfjord, or Lake Mj0sen (4-5 days to LserdalsUren), is by far the 
more attractive, and the stations are more comfortable. In each case 
the journey is divided into days of 10-12 hrs. each, but an additional day 
or two should, if possible, be devoted to it. If, however, the traveller 
is much pressed for time, it is possible, by travelling 14-18 hrs. a day, 
to reach Lserdals/Jren from Christiania via the Hallingdal in 2 days (spend- 
ing the night at Rolfshus), or via the Randsfjord and through Valders in 
3 days (spending the first night at Tomlevolden or at Sveen , and the se- 
cond at Tune or at Skogstad). As to the 'diligence', see Route 4, ii, a ; p. 35). 
The Spirillen and Randsfjord routes are, on the whole, the most inter- 
esting, owing to the additional attractions of the pretty Tyrifjord and the 
imposing Hjgfnefos. If time permit, the traveller may become acquainted 
with all the attractions of the Valders route by proceeding from Chris- 
tiania to Gj0vik on Lake Mj#sen, driving to Odnses, taking the steam- 
boat to the Randsfjord railway-station, visiting Hjzrnefos and Krogkleven, 
and then continuing his journey by the Spirillen route. As almost all 
the stations on these different routes are either comfortable or at least 
very tolerable, the traveller may divide the journey as best suits his con- 
venience. The stations to be avoided as affording little or no accommo- 
dation on the Hallingdal route are Aavestrud, Bortnees, and Kleven, and 
on the Valders route Stee and Blaaflaten. In the height of the travelling 
season an early start should always be made in order that the station 
where the night is to be spent may be reached as early as possible, with 
a view to secure rooms, or, if necessary, to go on to the next station. Among 

28 Route 4. HALLINGDAL. From Christiania 

the pedestrians who traverse the favourite Valders route a considerable 
number of Norwegian ladies will be observed. 

The grandeur of the scenery increases as the traveller proceeds from 
E. to W., so that one of the following routes should be selected in going 
to Bergen, while the return-journey may be either made by way of the 
Romsdal, or by Throndhjem and the railway, or by sea round the S. coast. 

i. Hallingdal Route. 

By Lake Krederen, through the Hallingdal and Hemsedal, and over 
the Hemsedalsfjeld. 

31 31. Railway to (10 3 /4 31.) Krederen in 5 3 /4 hrs. (two trains daily; 
fares 6 kr. 40, 3 kr. 75 0.). Steamek thence to (3% M.) Gulsvik daily in 
2'/2-3 hrs. (fare by the new steamer 'Krjrderen' 2 kr. 60 #.). The Gulsvik 
station is '/s M- from the pier. Thence by a good, but at places very 
hilly road to (16 3 /4 31.) Lcerdalseren, in 2-3 days. The pleasantest way of 
dividing the journey is as follows: (1st Day) From Christiania to Gulsvik. 
(2nd) From Gulsvik to Rolfshus. (3rd) From Rolfshus to Breistelen or 
Hseg. (4th) Thence to Lferdal. Or the first night may be spent at Nses, 
the second at Bjoberg, and the third at Lffirdal. The charge for a horse 
and carriole is 1 kr. 80 0. per mile at all the stations on this route. Adding 
to this the usual gratuity of 15-20 0. per mile, the total cost of horses and 
carrioles from Gulsvik to Lserdal is about 35 kr. for each person. For a 
carriage with a hood, and a pair of horses ('Caleschvogn'), for two persons, 
100 kr. is the usual fare, to which must be added a gratuity of 5-6 kr. 

The most direct route from Christiania to the Sognefjord is through 
the Hallingdal, and the new Bergen and Vossevangen railway is to be 
continued through this valley ; but the scenery is inferior to that on the 
Valders route. The lower part of the Hallingdal is somewhat monotonous 
in character, while the greater part of the Hemsedal is very bleak and 
dreary. From the upper ramifications of the Hallingdal diverge several 
wild mountain-passes to the Sognefjord and Hardanger Fjord, but the 
traveller who crosses them must be prepared for privations. The name 
of Hallingdal is applied not merely to the valley itself, but to all the 
numerous lateral valleys from which streams descend to the Hallingdalselv., 
that is, to the entire district which is bounded on the N. and E. by 
Valders, on the S. by the Numedal, and on the W. by the Hardanger region. 

Owing to the long isolation of this district, and especially of its side 
valleys, from the rest of the world, many of its old Norwegian charac- 
teristics have survived; and the traveller will often meet with curious old 
buildings, carved wooden tankards and furniture, and picturesque costumes. 
The people are remarkable for the tenacity with which they adhere to 
their ancient customs and numerous traditions, many of which may here 
be traced to their historical origin. Of this district it has been said that 
'the knife lies loosely in its sheath', and the inhabitants unfortunately 
still sometimes betray the irascible and passionate disposition which used 
to find vent in the 'girdle duel', where the combatants C£ccW«sp«»de»0 
were bound together with their belts and fought with their knives. As 
an outcome of this excitable temperament may be mentioned the wild 
Hallingdans or Springdans, accompanied by a weird kind of music CFarti- 
tuHeri) which has been ascribed to Satanic influence. — In connection with 
this subject the reader is referred to the following works: 'Norsk Lyrik', 
Christiania, 1874, containing 'Asgaardsrejen', a poem by Welhaven, and 
'Fanitullen', another by Moe; 'S0gnir fra Hallingdal' by E. Nielsen; and 
'Norske Bygdesagn' by L. Daae. 

Railway from Christiania to (6,2 M.) Hougsund, see R. 2. The 
train continues to ascend the Drammenselv, which forms a number 
of picturesque waterfalls and cataracts, and we enjoy a succession 
of beautiful views. The river is crossed several times. 6, 7 M. 
Burud. At (7,i At.) Skotseloen the train crosses the Drammenselv, 

to Lardalseren. KR0DEREN. 4. Route. 29 

which here forms the Deviksfos, and next stops at (7, 6 M.) Aamot, 
on the left bank of the river. On the opposite bank are seen the 
waterfall of the Simoa, a tributary of the Drammenselv, and the 
Nykirke. The scenery at this point is remarkably fine. A little 
farther on is the influx of the Snarumselv, the river descending 
from Lake Krederen and the Hallingdal. Recrossing to the right 
bank, the train next stops at (8,1 M.) Ojethus, near which is the 
Oravfos, and then at (8,5 M.) Vikersund, situated at the point where 
the' river issues from the Tyrifjord (p. 46). A bridge crosses the 
river here to the church of Heggen, from which a road leads along the 
S. bank of the Tyrifjord to the Holsfjord, the S.E. arm of the lake. 
A pleasant drive may be taken from Vikersund (carriages at the station, 
or at the neighbouring posting station Krona) to ( 3 /s M.) St. Olafs-Bad 
at Modum, now the most frequented watering-place in Norway, with a 
chalybeate spring, mud-baths, inhaling apparatus, and other appliances. 
The beautiful forests in the environs, the picturesque views of Ringerike 
and the Tyrifjord, and the Kaggefos and other falls of the Snarumselv 
are among the chief attractions of the place. This district is moreover 
the scene of many traditions connected with St. Olaf. About '/s 31. to the 
W. are the Cobalt Mines of Modum, worked by a German company. 

From Vikersund , where we change carriages , a branch-line 
conveys us to (9, 6 M.) Snarum and (10, 8 M.J Krederen (Restau- 
rant ; *Inn, opposite the station, clean and comfortable), prettily 
situated near the Sundvolden posting station at the S. end of Lake 
Krederen (430 ft.), and near the efflux of the Snarumselv, which 
falls into the Drammenselv near Aamot. The steamboat-pier is 
10 min. walk from the station and inn. The new steamer 'Kre- 
deren' (with restaurant on board) usually starts at 1 p.m. daily, 
reaching Gulsvik at 3.30, while the older 'Haakon Adelsteen' starts 
at 9.15 p.m. and takes 3 l / 2 hrs. to reach Gulsvik. The lower part 
of the lake is narrow and shallow, and its banks are smiling and 
tolerably well cultivated ; but it afterwards expands , and the 
scenery assumes a more mountainous character, especially beyond 
Nces, where the imposing Norefjeld rises on the left, nearly 5000 ft. 
above the lake. Seen from Krogkleven (p. 13), this mountain 
forms a conspicuous object in the N.W. horizon. The district 
traversed between Drammen and this point is that of Buskerud, 
and shortly before reaching Gulsvik we enter the Hallingdal Fogderi, 
which includes the Hemsedal and extends to a point between Bj»- 
berg and Breistelen. On arriving at — 

f Gulsvik (Mt/g M. from Christiania) travellers walk or drive up 
to the *Station, nearly */§ M. from the lake , and prettily situated 
50 ft. above it. The 'Krederen' usually returns hence at 9 a.m., 
and the 'Haakon Adelsteen' at 11.15 a.m. daily. In the neigh- 
bourhood are the Monsastue, a fine old timber-built house ('Bjel- 
kestue') , and several other buildings of the 16th and 17th cen- 
turies. Gulsvik, though presenting no particular attraction, is a 
good place for spending the night. The next suitable station, to 
which travellers arriving at 3.30 p.m. may drive the same evening 

30 Route 4. Ny£S. From Christiania 

(in about 5 hrs.), is Nas (see below). The road follows the W. 
side of the valley of the Hallingdalselv. It is nearly level all the 
way to Naes, and the greater part of it is new and well constructed 
as far as Tuf. 

I74M. fAavestrud. The scenery is pleasing, though somewhat 
monotonous. The road passes several lake-like expansions of the 
Hallingdalselv, on one of which, known as the Brummavand 
(575 ft.), upwards of 1 M. long, is situated — 

1 5 / 8 M. fB0rtnas. At the upper end of the lake we next reach — 

1 M. fNaes (*Station), a considerable village, with a handsome 
church, a jail, and a number of shops. 

Fkom N^s to Lake Spirillen, about 4 M., a walk of 10-11 hrs. (guide 
unnecessary). A well-defined seeter-path ascends to the E. to Lake Streen, 
which affords good fishing (quarters for the night at one of the sseters) 
in 3-4 hrs., and by Djupedal in 3-4 hrs. more to Ildjei'nstad (p. 49), whence 
Nces in the Aadal , at the head of Lake Spirillen , is about 2 M. distant 
(eomp. p. 49). 

Another seeter-path ascends the mountains to the W. of Naes to (2 M.) 
the Tunhevdfjord in about 6 hrs. (p. 18). 

Travellers and goods were formerly often conveyed down the river 
by boat to Gulsvik, in order to avoid the excessively hilly old road; 
but the trip is now very rarely made, as the drive on the excellent and 
nearly level new road takes a much shorter time. The channel of the 
river is stony, and the stream very rapid at places, the greatest fall being 
at Sevre, and it is not easy to find, experienced boatmen; but the journey 
is unattended with danger when the river is moderately full, and to some 
travellers will be an enjoyable novelty. The trip takes about 6 hrs. (boat 
8-10 kr.). 

Above Naes the scenery continues to be of a pleasing character. 
About halfway between Nibs and Viko the road crosses to the left 
bank of the river. Near Viko the valley trends towards the W. 

l 3 / 4 M. -j-Viko (700 ft.) lies a little above Haftun , which was 
formerly the station. Adjoining Viko is *Rolfshus (*S0rensen's 
Hotel and Pension , with garden ; civil landlord, who speaks 
English) , a pleasant resting-place , beautifully situated on the 
Hallingdalselv, about '/g M. below the influx of the Hemsila. The 
river affords tolerable fishing here , and the Tesleid- Vand, a large 
lake among the mountains, l 1 ^ M. to the N. (see below) is said to 
be abundantly stocked with trout. 

From Viko to the Valders Route (about 4 31.). The path ascends 
very steeply for 1/4 M., and then gradually for 1 M. more to the Fjeld- 
vidde ('table-land') , passing several sseters. The Tesleid-Vand (2800 ft.; 
about 1 M. in length) , a lake which here forms the boundary between 
the Hallingdal and Valders districts, is then crossed by boat, after which 
we descend to (2 M.) Slende, a farm-house on the Slrandefjord, cross the 
lake by a lung bridge to Ulnces-Kirke, and proceed thence either up the 
Aurdal to ( 3 A 31.) Reien, or down the valley to O/2 M.) Fagerlund (p. 39). 

About '/g M. above Rolfshus the Hallingdalselv is joined by 
the Hemsila, descending from the N.W., while the former river 
descends from the Upper Hallingdal, from the \V. (p. 32). The 
road soon crosses the Hemsila, which here forms a fine waterfall, 
beyond which, near the church of Gol, our route quits the Halling- 
dal and ascends the Hemsedal, or valley of the Hemsila , mount- 

to Lardalseren. XU*'. 4. Route. 31 

ing the tedious Golsbakker in long windings. Beyond ( 7 / 8 M.J 
Lestegaard (1440 ft.) the road crosses the river and follows the E. 
side of the valley , passing several farms. The W. side and the 
bottom of the valley are uncultivated. About ^2 M. farther we 
reach the poor station of — 

l 3 /s M. (pay for l 3 /4, but not in the reverse direction) jKleven, 
where the scenery becomes uninteresting, and 3 / 8 M. beyond which 
is Ekre (2600 ft.). 

From Ekre to the Valders Route (about 4 M.). A rough sseter- 
path ascends from Ekre to the l Heier\ passes the Vannen-Vand and the 
Storsje at the base of the huge Skogshovn (5650 ft.), traverses the district 
of Lykkja, with its scattered houses , and leads to the (l 3 /4 M.) Fosseim- 
sseter, at the S. end of the long Svensken-Vand (2860 ft.; good fishing), 
built for the use of travellers and anglers. Crossing the lake by boat, 
and passing several sseters , we then descend to the Fosseimgaard in 
Valders and cross the bridge to (2 31.) Reien (p. 40). 

Another route to Valders diverges from our road at Ulsaker, between 
Ekre and Tuf, ascends past the base of the Skogshorn to the Helsingvand, 
skirts the E. hank of the Hundsendvand, and leads to the Gfunken-Gaard, 
where it crosses the river falling into the Svensken-Vand. It then leads 
along the Smaadela, past the base of the Grinde/jeld (5600 ft.) to the N. 
end of the Helevand and the Vasends-Swler, and descends to Tune i Vang 
(p. 41), about 4'/a M. distant from Ekre. 

Beyond Ekre, on the opposite bank of the Hemsila, we observe 
a frowning and furrowed spur of the Reensfjeld (6000 ft.), over 
which are precipitated four small waterfalls , descending from a 
mountain-lake, and uniting into a single imposing cascade during 
the melting of the snow. The road passes through Kirkebe , an 
uninviting village clustered round the dilapidated red wooden 
parish church (Hemsedal3-Kirke), and 5 /g M. farther reaches the 
station of — 

l 7 /8 M. f Tuf (*Station, moderate; Qaard Fauske, 3 min. from 
the road, a fair country inn), at the confluence of the Oren- 
dela and the Hemsila. The rivers, and a lake y 2 M. distant, afford 
tolerable fishing, and reindeer abound among the neighbouring 

From Top to Nistuen (about 5 M.). A tolerable road leads for 
5 /s M. into the Grendal, the valley of the Grjzrndjzrla opening on the N., 
after which a bridle-path, passing several sseters, traverses the Merkvand- 
dal and crosses the mountains, where reindeer are frequently seen, to 
Nystuen on the Valders route (p. 42). 

Near Tuf the Hemsila forms the Rjukande Fos ('foaming fall'). 
All traces of cultivation now cease, and a few scattered steters 
replace the farms of the lower part of the valley. The road as- 
cends rapidly, and for the next 4 M. traverses an exceedingly 
bleak and desolate region , this part of the valley of the Hemsila 
being called the Merkedal. This stage, being unusually long and 
hilly, takes fully 3 hrs. 

l 7 /s M. (pay in the opposite direction for 2 3 / 4 ) fBjeberg (3320 
ft.; *Staiion, small and primitive ; civil people and good food ; 
excellent headquarters for reindeer-stalking ; pair of antlers 8- 
10 kr.), the last station in the Hallingdal, is a solitary gaard in a 

32 Routed. UPPER HALLINGDAL. From Christiania 

wild and dreary situation, at the foot of the Hemsedalsfjeld. About 
3/4 M. farther on we pass a column marking the boundary between 
the 'Stift' of Christiania and that of Bergen, and situated near the 
highest point of the road (about 3500 ft.) , beyond which we skirt 
the Eldre-Vand on the right. The road then descends rapidly to — 

l 3 / 8 M. (pay for 1 in either direction) f Breistelen (*Station, 
unpretending, but good), beyond which there is an almost con- 
tinuous and latterly steep descent, passing several waterfalls, to the 
bridge of Berlaug on the Valders route (p. 43). From Tuf over 
the Hemsedalsfjeld to this point (about 4 M., for which 8 hrs. 
should be allowed in either direction) the scenery is very wild and 
bleak , but the road now enters the highly picturesque valley of 
the Lccrdalselv. A little below the bridge is — ■ 

178 M. (pay for l 3 / 8 , but in the opposite direction for l 6 / 8 ) 
f Hseg (*Station), see p. 43. 

Upper Hallingdal. 

The Hallingdal in the narrower sense, or main valley (Hoved- 
dalferet), ascends to the W.from Viko(p. 30) to the wild and desolate 
regions of the Hallingskarv, the mountains forming the S. prolon- 
gation of the Fillefjeld and the Hemsedalsfjeld, and across which 
paths lead N.W. to the Sognefjord and S.W. to the Hardanger 
Fjord. With this district are associated some of the most famous 
of Norwegian sagas, such as that of the Villand family, and the 
inhabitants retain more of their ancient characteristics than those 
of almost any other part of Norway. With the exception of the 
higher mountains, however, the scenery is neither very picturesque 
nor imposing. About 3 / 4 M. above Viko a halt of 72 hr. is made 
at EUefsm.oev , beyond which we reach — 

l 3 /g M. (from Viko) -fNubgaarden i Torpe, near which is the old 
timber-built Church of Torpe. 

7 /g M. fSundre i Aal (a very fair station). In the vicinity are 
the interesting Church of Aal and the curious old houses known 
as the Oretastue and Thingstue. The road then skirts the Stran- 
dc.fjord, to the S. of which rises the Sangerfjeld (3855 ft.), and 
then divides into two branches. The branch to the S.W. leads to 
(l 5 /g M. from Sundre) Hammersbeen in the TJstadal , whence a 
path crosses the mountains to the Hardanger, while the branch to 
the N.W. leads to the station of (15/ 8 M.) f Neraal, with the church 
of Hoi, from which there is a path to the Sognefjord (p. 33). 

1. Route to the Hardanger (4-472 M.). Near Hammersbeen 
is the Raaen-Gaard , the property of Sander Baaen , who is said 
to have collected no fewer than 6000 of the old Norse words to be 
found in Ivar Aasen's dictionary. From Hammersb»en we ride 
or walk up the TJstadal to (I72 M.) Tufte, the highest gaard in 
the valley (unpretending quarters). 

The huge Hallingskarv is sometimes ascended from this point. The 

to Lcerdalseren. UPPER HALLINGDAL. 4. Route. 33 

E. peak (6330 ft.) is reached by ascending the course of the Eimeheia, 
while the W. peak (6440 ft.) is scaled from the W. end of the Ustavand. 
View not picturesque, hut very extensive, especially from the latter, 
embracing the Hardanger Vidde and other mountains. 

Two paths, the Northern and the Southern, lead from Tufte to 
Maursat, the highest gaard on the Hardanger side. The latter is 
the shorter, but the Sceters are farther apart. By either route the 
journey may be performed in one day. 

Northern Route. The well-defined saeter- track ascends the 
course of the Ustaelv , crosses it */g M. below its efflux from the 
Ustavand, and leads to the Rennesdals-Sater and Hornebe-Sceter. 
Pedestrians had better sleep at the latter, and start thence early 
next morning. Imposing view of the Hallingskarv with its bold 
precipices. "We now follow the Skarvaa and skirt the Monsbuheia, 
commanding a view of Monsnuten, round which the path leads to 
a hut on the 0rterenvand. We cross the river and follow the 
Krakjaheia to a ford ('Vadested') between the Store and the Vesle 
Krakjavand, skirt the Halnekolle (see below) on the N. side, cross 
the boundary of Bergens Stift, and reach the Olafsbuvand. The 
path then follows the Kjelda to the Indstesater on the Sysenvand, 
whence it leads to the gaards of Maursat and Hel , from which 
last (p. 94) the Veringsfos may be visited. 

Southern Route. This track crosses the Ustaelv to the S. of 
Tufte and passes the Brendesmter (quarters for the night, if neces- 
sary), to the S. of the Ustatind. It then leads towards the W. to 
the Oronaelv, and crosses the Krcekjaheia to the ford between the 
Kra>kjavand and Krwkjatjem , near which is the Halnekolle, with 
two miserable cattle-huts (Falaeger). Passing the Dyretjem , we 
may now either cross the Ojerenut (commanding an extensive view), 
or go round its base, to the Storliensceter on the Bjoreia. The path 
follows the latter, crosses the Leira which descends from the 
Sysenvand , and descends to Maursa>t. This route also commands 
a grand view of the Hallingskarv and the Hardanger- Jekul. 

As to the Hardanger Vidde, see K. 11 (p. 101). 

1. Route to the Sognefjobd (about 7 '/a M. ; 2^2 days). This 
is one of the finest mountain-expeditions in Norway. We start 
from Neraal (or Nedreaat) , with the interesting church of Hoi, 
situated between the Holsfjord and the Hevelfjord. To the W. 
towers the Hallingskarv. The church of Hoi should , if possible, 
be visited on a Sunday , when many picturesque old-fashioned 
costumes are still worn by the peasantry. At the end of the 
Hevelfjord lies the Gaard Villand, the ancient seat of the famous 
and turbulent family of that name (the Villandsat) , who had 
another residence at Tufte ('Villandstufte'), the place mentioned 
above. About Y2 M. above Villand the road turns to the W. and 
leads past the Sunddalsfjord to the Oudbrandsgaard, to which driv- 
ing is practicable (good quarters). The saeter track leads hence 
to the 6arlidsa>ter , and along the 0vre Strandefjord, a lake 1 M. 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 3 

34 Route 4. 0YUMS-S.ETER. From Christiania 

in length, on which are several saeters, to Ulevasbotten (tolerable 
quarters), the last Hallingdal saeter. The Hallingskarv remains 
in sight the greater part of the way. The actual mountain-pass to 
the Sogn district, about Wfe M. in length, begins here. It is 
probable that the original inhabitants of the Upper Hallingdal 
crossed the mountains thither from the coast , just as Valders was 
originally peopled from Lserdal. These valleys therefore belonged 
to the ancient jurisdiction of the Oulathingslag (p. 66). The path 
then ascends rapidly to the Skard ('gap') between the Vlevas- 
nut on the E. and the Sundheller fjeld on the W., crosses the 
Bolheode , where the direction is indicated by heaps of stones, 
and leads to the Stenbergdal in the Vasbygd. The first night had 
better be spent at the 0jums-Saeter here (2933 ft. ; good quarters). 
Passing the Nesetsater , we next pass the mountain - hamlet of 
Aurland , and descend the formidable pass of the Nestbegalder, 
partly by a perpendicular ladder , and partly by a path borne by 
iron rods driven into the rock , to Gaard Nestbe. The route then 
follows the Nestbedal (or a short-cut may be taken by the dizzy 
Bjellstig) to Gaard S#njereim (second night). ■ — On the third day 
the path leads in about 5 hrs. down the Senjereimsgalder and 
along a rapid stream to the Vasbygdvand, which we cross by boat. 
From Vasenden to Auriandsvangen is about Y2 M. more. See p. 58. 
Two other routes lead from Ulevasbotten to the W. : one to the 
S. of the Hallingskarv and through the Finsedal, leaving the Har- 
danyer Jekul to the S., then passing the Ose Skavl, and terminat- 
ing near Vlvik at the head of the Osefjord, a branch of the Har- 
danger Fjord (p. 92). The other path crosses the Gjeiterrygen, skirts 
the Vesterdela between the Hallingskarv and the Vargebra, traverses 
the Moldaadal, crosses the Vosseskavl to the head of the Bundal, 
and finally descends to Vossevangen (p. 61). Each of these routes, 
however, is about 10 M. in length, and they traverse inhospitable 
mountain-solitudes where the traveller must spend one if not two 
nights in the open air, so that they are very rarely undertaken. — 
These 'Vidder' were traversed by King Sverre with his 'Birke- 
beiner' in 1177, when they narrowly escaped perishing of cold and 
hunger. — The second route is that which the Bergen and Vosse- 
vangen Railway will take to the Hallingdal and Lake Krederen. 

ii. Valders Route. 

Via the Strandefjord, Vangsmjesen, and Fillefjeld. 
As already mentioned, this route may be approached from Lake 
Mjesen, from the Randsfjord, or from .Spirillen, so that there are 
three distinct routes from Christiania to the district of Valders. 
The whole route from Christiania to Laerdals»ren via Lake Mj»sen 
will be described first (a) , and the Randsfjord (b) and Spirillen 
(c) routes will then be given as far as the points where they re- 
spectively join the Valders road. 

to Lcerdalseren. LILLESTR0MMEN. 4. Route. 35 

a. Lakb Mj0sen Route to Valdebs. 
Through Valders and over the FiUefjeld to Lcerdalseren. 

34'/4 M. — Railway to Eidsvold (6 M.) in 2 3 /V3V4 hrs. (fares 4 kr. 80, 
3 kr. 20, 1 kr. 60 0.). Steamboat thence to Gjevik (5'Ai M.) in 5 hrs. (fares 
3 kr. 5, 2 kr. 5 0.). Diligence (in 1878) from Gj0vik to Odnces (3 5 /s 31.) 
daily (at 6 p.m.) in 4 3 /4 hrs. (fare 6 kr. and fee) ; and thence to Lcerdalseren, 
(19 3 /4 31.) 4 times a week (Mon., Tues., Frid., Sat., at 6 or 7 a.m. ; returning 
from Lserdals0ren on Sun., Mon., and twice on Thurs. , in each case at 
7 or 8 a.m.) in 2-3 days (fare 35 kr. and fee). 

The so-called 'diligence 1 consists of one or more carriages , each 
drawn by two or three horses, and with seats for 4 passengers. The fare 
for one person is slightly less than that for a horse and carriole. Each 
passenger is allowed 40 lbs. of luggage. Travellers from Christiania 
spend the first night at Odnses and the second at Tune, except by the 
Tuesday diligence from Odnses, when the second night is spent at Reien 
and a third night at Nystuen. (In the reverse direction the first night 
is spent at Tune, and the second at Odnses, except by the second Thurs- 
day diligence from Lserdals0ren, when the first night is spent at Nystuen, 
the second at Fagerlund , and a third at Odnses.) Seats may be engaged 
a fortnight in advance by writing to Hr. Kand. Jur. Fahlstr0m , Gj0vik, 
or to Hr. Expediter Wisting , Odnses , or to Hr. Lensmand Andresen, 
Lserdals0ren, and at the same time prepaying the fare. In the height of 
the travelling season the diligences are often full, and the small inns 
where they stop for dinner or put up for the night are of course crowded. 
They can therefore only be recommended either at a very early or late 
period of the season , or when a party of 2-4 persons engages all the 
seats in one vehicle for the whole journey (in which case the driver may 
be induced slightly to modify the usual time-table). In ordinary cases, 
however , the diligence is to be avoided , the sole advantages it offers 
being a trifling pecuniary saving and the avoidance of disputes as to 
fares, which are more than counterbalanced by the loss of independence 
and diminution of comfort. 

Most travellers will therefore prefer to travel from Gj0vik to Lser- 
dals0ren (23 M.) by carriole or carriage. The charge for a horse and car- 
riole the whole way is 1 kr. 80 0. per mile, besides which the 'Skydsguf 
expects a fee of 15-20 0. per mile, so that the whole journey costs about 
46 kr. for each person. All the stations are 'fast 1 . For a carriage-and- 
pair, with a hood, holding 2-3 persons with moderate luggage , the usual 
charge is 120-150 kr., and a fee of 4-6 kr. to the driver. By carriole the 
journey may be conveniently divided thus: — 1st Day. On arriving at 
Gj0vik by steamer at 5.46 p.m., drive to Lien or to Granum in 3'/2 hrs., 
or to Skeien in 5 hrs. — 2nd Day. From Lien or Granum to Fagerlund 
in 12-13 hrs. , or from Sk0ien in 9-10 hrs. — 3rd Day. From Fagerlund 
to Nystuen in 12-14 hrs. — 4th Day. From Nystuen to Lcerdalseiren in 
8-10 hrs. — In each case the usual duration of the journey, including 
stoppages , is given. If the start be made from Gj0vik early in the morn- 
ing, the stages will be (1) Frydenlund; (2) Skogstad; (3) Lserdals0ren. If 
a carriage with the same horses be engaged for the whole route, four 
days at least must be allowed for the journey. As almost all the stations 
on this route are good, it may be mentioned here that the only places to 
be avoided as night quarters are Stee and Blaaflaten. 

The Scenery is beautiful almost the whole way from Christiania to 
Lserdals0ren, and at places exceedingly picturesque and striking. The 
finest part of the route , which will even reward the pedestrian , is from 
Frydenlund to Husum (12'/2 M.). 

The Railway Journey carries us at first through interesting 
scenery. To the left we survey Christiania, and the conspicuous 
suburb of 0stre Alter, and to the right the Egeberg (p. 11). From 
(0,3 M.) Bryn a road leads to the right to Sarasbraaten (p. 12). 
Stations (0, 9 M.) Ororud, (1, 6 M.) Stremmen, and (1, 8 M) Lille- 


36 Route J. EIDSVOLD. From Christiania 

stremmen, where the Eidsvold branch diverges from the main line 
to Kongsvinger and Sweden (RR. 24, 26). Prom this point to Eids- 
vold the country is unattractive. Stations Leersund , Frogner, 
Kleften, Tregstad, Dahl. 

6 M. Eidsvold (*Hotel). Travellers arriving (at 10.46) from 
Christiania by the morning train go at once on board the steam- 
boat (which starts at 11). — If the traveller makes any stay here 
he may visit the chalybeate springs on the Eidsvoldsbakke and the 
Bautastein, or monument, erected to Henrik Wergeland, the poet, 
and the discoverer of the spring. 

A pleasant walk may lie taken to Eidsvoldsverk, about 1 fe M. distant, 
where the Norwegian constitution (Norges Riges Grundlov) was established 
in 1814. A preliminary meeting took place here on 19th Feb. of that 
year , and the final resolutions were passed by a national diet held on 
10th April. The building, originally a farm-house, has been purchased 
by government and embellished with portraits of members of the diet. 

A Steamboat (the '■Kong Oscar' or the l Skibladner~) staTts from 
Eidsvold daily at 11 a.m. for Lillehammer at the upper end of 
the lake, and another from Lillehammer daily at 7.20 a.m., each 
of them corresponding at Hamar with the trains to and from 
Throndhjem (R. 19). These vessels have good restaurants on board. 
A favourite dish is the 'Huntier-arret', a kind of trout peculiar to 
the lake. The steamboat at first traverses the broad and clear 
Vormen, which issues from Lake Mjesen and falls into the Glom- 
inen, and at ( 3 / 4 M.) Minde reaches the lake itself. 

*LakeMj«sen (412 ft.; greatest depth 1482 ft.), the largest 
lake in Norway, which L. v. Buch has called 'Norway's inland 
sea', is 9 M. long and at its broadest part l 1 ^ M. in width, and 
forms a convenient highway between the districts of Oudbrandsda- 
len and Hedemarken to the N. and S., and those of Thoten and 0vre 
Romcrike to the W. and S. Like most of the lakes in S. Norway, 
which are usually elongated river-basins formed by the streams 
descending to the southern fjords, it is a long and generally 
narrow reservoir formed by the Lougen or Laagen, descending from 
the Gudbrandsdal , and may be regarded as a prolongation of that 
valley. Like the Alpine lakes of Switzerland , Lake Mjesen is 
very deep at places (1482 ft. near Skreiabjergene) , and though 
lying 412 ft. above the sea-level, it is a curious fact that the lowest 
part of its bed is upwards of 1000 ft. below that level. The 
Skrelabjerg or Skreia-Fjeld, on the W. bank, about halfway between 
Eidsvold and Gjevik , rises to the height of 2300 ft., but with 
this exception the hills bounding the lake are of very moderate 
height. The only considerable Bays formed by the lake are those 
of Tangen and Hamar (Akersviken). Opposite to Hamar lies the 
large and well-cultivated Helgee, the only island in the lake, which 
at this point attains its greatest depth. The erection of forti- 
fications and a large central arsenal on this island is projected. 

The scenery of the banks of Lake Mjesen is of a soft and 

to Lardalseren. HAMAR. 4. Route. 37 

pleasing character. They present an almost unbroken succession 
of fields, woods, and pastures, studded with numerous farm-houses 
and country residences, but will perhaps seem somewhat monoton- 
ous if the traveller goes all the way from Eidsvold to Lillehammer 
in one day. The best points for breaking the journey are Hamar 
on the E., and Gjevik on the W. bank. 

The steamer touches at Ekornholm , Stigersand , and Fjeldhoug 
on the W. bank, and then crosses to Oillund and — 

Hamar (* Victoria , J ernbane-Hotel , both near the steamboat 
pier and railway-station, and facing the lake) , sometimes called 
i Storeliammer to distinguish it from Lillehammer, the capital of 
Hedemarken, with 2438 inhab., prettily situated between the 
Furncespord to the N. and the Akersvik to the E., which last is 
crossed by a long bridge. Hamar dates from 1152, when an episcopal 
see was founded here by the papal nuncio Nicholas Breakspeare, 
an Englishman , afterwards Pope Adrian IV. From that period 
also are said to date the ruins of the old Cathedral, once a handsome 
edifice , of which four round arches of the nave alone are left. 
A pleasant walk may be taken to the ruins, 7s M. to the N.W., 
where the original town of Storehammer was situated. The old 
town with the cathedral and two other churches was destroyed by 
the Swedes in 1567. The modern town is a thriving place, being 
at present the terminus of the Throndhjem Railway (R. 19). The 
railway from Hamar along the E. bank of the lake to Eidsvold is 
now in course of construction. 

The steamer now steers towards the W., passing the pretty 
Helgee on the left, and touches at Na?s, Smervik, and — 

Gj#vik {Ojeviks Hotel, near the pier, with view of the lake, and 
Victoria, 100 yds. farther up the , main street, both good), the 
capital of Thoten Fogderi , with 1112 inhab., situated on the W. 
bank of the lake , about 5i/ 4 M. from Eidsvold and 3 3 / 4 M. from 
Lillehammer, and at the mouth of the Hunselv. Pleasing views 
of the lake and Helgee from the Hunskirke and other heights near 
the village. The steamer on its way to the N. calls here daily at 
5.46 p.m., and on its way to the S. at 12.38 p.m. — Our route, 
one of the most frequented and attractive in Norway , quits the 
lake here. The upper end of the lake , which now narrows con- 
siderably and assumes an almost river-like form , is described in 
R. 15. 

The Carriage Road ('diligences', etc., see above) ascends 
rapidly from Gj»vik, traversing extensive woods, to — 

174 M. -fMustad (a fair station), situated about 1500 ft. above 
the lake. The drive to this point occupies fully 2 hrs., after which 
the road traverses a nearly level plateau to (1 M.) Lien , a farm- 
house near the road , and formerly the station (clean and cheap). 
About 74 M. farther on is — 

174 M. jQranum (a fair station), situated a little to the right 

38 Route 4. GRAVDAL. From Christiania 

of the road , beyond which the road descends to the basin of the 
Randsfjord (p. 47). About halfway between Granum and Odnaes 
a direct road to (12y 4 M.) Christiania diverges to the 8., skirting 
the E. bank of the Randsfjord the first half of the way. A little 
farther on, about 8/4 M. from Granum, is fOdnees (*Hotel), situated 
to the left of the road, at the N. end of the Randsfjord, and 
10 minutes' walk from the steamboat-pier (p. 48). This is also 
a fast station , but travellers by our present route drive on (3/ 8 M. 
farther) to — 

l 1 ,'s M. f Sktfien (*Station). Travellers spending the night here 
are recommended to leave very early next morning in OTder to get 
the start of the usual morning stream of tourists from Odnses, and 
they should also avoid spending the night at the same places as the 
diligence (especially Tune ; comp. p. 41). Beyond Skeien the road 
ascends on the N. bank of the Etnaelv, which falls into the Rands- 
fjord , and crosses the Dokka, an affluent descending from the 
right. The scenery , though enlivened with thriving farm-houses 
and beautiful birches, is somewhat tame here. 

l 3 / 8 M. fTomlerolden(*St&tion, good and reasonable)is situated 
in the district of Nordre Land. The station is a good specimen of 
a substantial Norwegian fann-house , with its 'Stabbur' (store- 
house, usually provided with a bell) and other roomy outbuildings, 
almost entirely constructed of timber. About 5/ 8 M. from Tomle- 
volden the road crosses the Etnaelv by a bridge which affords a 
fine view of the Etnadal , and begins to ascend the Tonsaas, a 
wooded hill with a level plateau on the summit (as is so frequently 
the case with the Norwegian mountains), 2300 ft. in height, which 
separates the valleys of the Etna and the Baegna (p. 49). A little 
beyond the bridge we cross the boundary between Hadeland (p. 47) 
and Valders. 

l 3 / 8 M. (pay for l 5 / 8 ) fSveen (* Station, new and clean) is 
beautifully situated on the N.E. side of the Tonsaas. The road 
now ascends through fine forest-scenery, affording several pictur- 
esque views of wooded ravines, to Gravdal (*Berg's Sanatorium, a 
hotel and pension, formerly the station), i / i M. above Sveen, which 
attracts many visitors in summer for the sake of the fine forest- 
walks and beautiful views in the vicinity. A road diverging here 
to the left crosses part of the Tonsaas, passes the church of Bagn, 
and leads to ( 3 / 4 M.) Void on the Baegna, a station on the Spirillen 
route (p. 50). A little higher up we reach the plateau on the 
summit of the Tonsaas and pass two swampy lakes (a raft on one 
of which serves as a ferry-boat). To the N. we obtain a fine view 
of Bruflat in the Etnadal. The road now gradually descends , and 
where it issues from the forest commands an imposing *Vibw of 
the beautiful and partially wooded valley of Valders, with the 
Strandefjord running through it , and the snow-capped Jotunheim 
Mountains, Galdebergstind , and Thorflnstinder (7000 ft.) in the 

to Lttrdalsoren. FAGERLUND. J. Route. 39 

background (see R. 17). The road soon reaches the Bagnadal, 
where it is joined by the Spirillen road (p. 50), and, a little 
farther on, — 

13/ 4 M. (pay for 2!/a) fFrydenlund i Nordre Aurdal (*Station), 
a large village beautifully situated on the old road , to the left of, 
and 200 paces below the new. The Foged, or chief administrative 
official, the Sorenskriver, or local judge, and the Lensmand, or chief 
constable, reside here, and the place boasts of a 'Folkesheiskole' 
and a 'Konsumtions-Forbrugsforening' or cooperative store. In the 
vicinity is the church of Aurdal. The church-yard is entered by a 
curious gateway containing a hay-loft and storehouse for wood. — 
Beyond Frydenlund the road , which is nearly level , runs high 
above the Baegna , partly through wood , and partly through cul- 
tivated land, and soon reaches the Aurdalsfjord, with its numerous 
islands, one of the series of long lakes from which the Basgna 
issues, and of which the Strandefjord and Vangsmjesen are the 
principal. Another fine view is obtained at Onstad, where the head- 
forester resides. The road then passes the District Prison on the 
left. On the other side of the broad valley is the Aabergsbygd, 
watered by the Aabergselv, which forms the Kvannefos. To the right, 
farther on, is a fine waterfall, called Fosbraaten, and to the left is 
heard the roar of the Vaslefos, a picturesque waterfall of the Baegna, 
which may be visited from Fagernses. (The EpiLobium, or graceful 
French willow , so common in many parts of Norway , is known 
here as the Engmjelk, Engstappe, or Kjcere Blomst.^j We now reach 
the beautiful Strandefjord (1170 ft.), a narrow lake 2^2 M. in 
length, extending nearly as far as Stee, and soon stop at — 

li/g M. fFagerlund i Nordre Aurdal (* Station), a few paces 
beyond the former station of Fagernas (*Inn, comfortable and 
reasonable), situated on the N. bank of the lake, and at the mouth 
of the river descending from 0stre Slidre. This is a charming 
spot for a stay of some duration , affording attractions to artists 
and sportsmen alike , and the two names just mentioned ('fair 
grove' and 'fair promontory' respectively) are by no means inap- 
propriate. The lake and neighbouring streams afford good trout- 
fishing, and wild-duck shooting is also obtainable. As , however, 
this is a favourite starting-place for an excursion to the Jotunheim 
Mts. (R. 17), the route to which diverges here, the inns are often 
full in the height of summer. Route through 0stre Slidre to the 
Bygdin (Jotunheim), see p. 161. 

About !/4 M. beyond Fagerlund we cross the Naselv , which 
descends from 0stre Slidre and forms some picturesque cataracts 
about 100 yds. above the bridge, and follow the bank of the lake 
to Strand (formerly a station), beyond which we pass the churches 
of Svennas and Uln&s. To the S., on the opposite side of the 
valley, is seen the Vassetelv , which descends from the Syndin 
Lakes. To the N.W. rise the snow-mountains on the Vangsmj»sen. 

40 Route 4. 0LKEN. From Christianin 

Near Ulnaes-Kirke and at Oaarden Fosseim, beyond it, on the op- 
posite bank, the lake is crossed by bridges, the part of it between 
them being called the Qraneimfjord. Mountain-passes from Ulnaes 
and Fosseim to the Hallingdal, see pp. 30, 31. — The road now 
gradually ascends the hill to — 

1 5 / 8 M. fReien (a fair station), near which is the Church of Rem 
with its old Klockstapel (clock - tower) , with numerous farms in 
the vicinity. About 72 M. beyond Eeien we reach the beautifully 
situated Church of Vestre Slidre , which commands a fine view of 
the lake. Near this church a road diverges to the right , crossing 
the SUdreaas to (l 3 / 4 M.) Royne in 0stre Slidre (p. 161). 

A little before reaching the top of the hill which this road ascends, 
about 3 /< M - from the church, the traveller may diverge by a path to the 
right, leading in 25 min. to the "Hvidhefd ('white head'), an eminence 
which commands a striking view of the valleys of Vestre and 0stre 
Slidre , the Bitihorn , and the snow-mountains to the N. of Lake Bygdin 
and the Vinstervand. A few hundred paces to the W. of this point rises 
the "Kvalehegda, where an admirable survey of the whole of the Bygdin 
range, the Vangsmjtfsen, and the Hallingdal mountains to the S. is enjoyed. 
This is a favourite excursion from 0lken (see below) , and takes about 
3 hrs. in all. 

A few hundred paces beyond the church of Vestre Slidre a 
gate and private road on the right lead in 5 min. to 01ken 
(*Brandt's Hotel and Pension, 3y 2 kr. per day), a farm-house 
converted into an inn, beautifully situated on the hill about 300 ft. 
above the lake. As this house is a favourite summer-resort and 
attracts a considerable number of invalids and others, it is generally 
quite full in the height of the season. The 'Distriktslaege', or 
physician of the district, lives on the high-road near 01ken. Horses 
and carriages may be had here. The ascent of the Hvidhefd and 
Kvalehegda , mentioned above , is recommended (3 hrs. there 
and back). 

Thus far the high-road has been generally good , the old road 
having been almost entirely superseded by the new ; but between 
Vestre Slidre and Hseg on the farther side of the Fillefjeld the 
new road has only partially been completed , and many parts of 
the old road still in use are excessively hilly , toiling up hill and 
rushing down dale where the inequalities of the ground might easily 
have been avoided. The scenery continues to be very attractive. 
In traversing the heights of Kvale (or Kvare , Kvarde , 'a hill') 
we obtain a magnificent view of the Slidrefjord (1190 ft.), as the 
upper part of the Strandefjord is often called, with the mountains 
to the W. — At the Church of Lomen (V4 M. from Stee) another 
road to 0&txe Slidre diverges to the right , crossing the SUdreaas 
to Ha>gge, from which paths lead to Hedal and Lake Bygdin (p. 163). 
(A bargain may be made for the drive from Stee to Haegge, 1 M. 
distant, but the latter is not a station.) 

iy 8 M. jStee (a small and poor station) lies near the N.W. end 
of the Slidrefjord, or Upper Strandefjord. The road traverses wood'roiiffagrLPr ^Debes ,Leq.'ziff. 


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to Lardalseren. TUNE. d. Route. 41 

the greater part of the way to the next station , ascending the left 
bank of the Bsegna, which, a short distance beyond Stee , forms a 
fine fall called the Lofos a little to the left of the road. 

1 M. -\0ilo (*Station, civil landlady) is a favourite resort of 
artists , some of whom have embellished one of the rooms with a 
number of paintings. The situation of the place presents little 
attraction, but it lies close to the * Vangsmj«sen (1540 ft.), a 
magnificent lake, about 2^2 M. in length. The road follows the S. 
bank of the lake to Qaarden Kvam, near which it is carried past the 
*Kvamsklev ('ravine cliff') by means of a gallery hewn in the 
face of the Hugakolle , resembling the Axenstrasse on the Lake of 
Lucerne. In spring and autumn the safety of travellers is some- 
times endangered here by the falling of masses of rock. At the 
most hazardous point the road is protected by a roof. This is the 
most striking point on the whole of the Valders route , and com- 
mands a noble survey of the imposing lake and the mountains 
enclosing it. On the right rises the Vednisfjeld , on the left the 
Grindefjeld (5590 ft.), and opposite us the Skjoldfjeld. To the N. 
is the Dresjafos. 

3 /4 M. -f-Tune i Vang (*Station, 5,miri. to the left, reached by 
a rough road, frequently crowded with diligence-passengers) lies 
on the slope of the hill, at a short distance from the lake, of which 
it commands a fine survey. About Ys M. farther we pass the Church 
of Vang, which replaces the old Stavekirke ('timber church') pur- 
chased by Frederick William III. of Prussia in 1843 for 320 kr. 
and removed to the Giant Mts. in Silesia. A stone in front of the 
church bears the Runic inscription : ' Oosa sunir ristu stin thissi 
aftir Gunar 1 ('the sons of Gosa erected this stone to the memory of 
Gunar'). Just beyond the church, on the bank of the lake, and on 
the right side of the road, we reach the * Vang Inn (clean and 
reasonable, kept by Ole For, successor to Mme. Odnas , by whose 
name it is sometimes still called), beautifully situated at the foot 
of the huge Grindefjeld (which may be ascended hence in 2 hrs.). 
— The road continues to skirt the lake , passing several farms 
[Hagestrand, Fertnccs, Vierdok, and Sere) and the church of 0ye. 
Opposite to us rises the imposing N. bank of the lake, on which 
tower the conspicuous Skodshorn and the Skyrifjeld. 

From 0ye a mountain path, passing to the S. of the Kvameneis (3900 ft.) 
and the Borrenes (4869 ft.), which last mountain may he ascended from 
the route, and skirting the Utrovand, leads to Nystuen on the Fillefjeld 
(p. 42) in half-a-day. 

The road now ascends from the Vangsmjesen to the small 
Strandefjord (1604 ft.), which it skirts (not to be confounded with 
the Strandefjord lower down). At the end of it is Kasa. 

From Kasa a path leads to the Jonskard- Salter (4120 ft.) and thence 
to the N.W., passing the Fagerswtnes (5479 ft.) on the right, to the 0ian- 
gense and Steinbodse, and through the Oj elmundsdal to Lake Tyin (Tvinde- 
houg, p. 166), in all a good day's walk. 

Beyond the Strandefjord the scenery assumes a more mountain- 

42 Route 4. NYSTUEN. From Christiania 

ous character, and a few farms are now seen on the sunny (N.) 
side of the valley only. 

13/ 4 M. fSkogstad (1885 ft. ; a fair station) lies nearly i/ 8 M. to 
the right of the road. From this point to the next station there is a 
steep ascent of nearly 1400 ft., and the road is unpleasantly hilly 
at places, especially to persons descending. The scenery now loses 
its grand mountainous character. 

By making a slight digression from the high road at Skogstad (about 
3 hrs. more than the time taken in driving to Nystuen; guide necessary) 
a magnificent " View may be obtained. The path passes the farms of 
Opdal, Elbjerg, and Flaten on the S. slope of the hill, and crosses the 
Troldhe (3207 ft.) to the Hageswt-Swlef in the valley of the Bjerdela, 
which falls into the Bsegna lower down. The top of the hill commands 
a very striking survey of the Tyin-Lake and the mountains of the Koldedal 
and Melkedal, with several considerable glaciers. 

1 M. (pay for iy 2 ) f Nystuen (3252 ft.; *Station, often crowded 
in the height of summer), which resembles some of the large Alpine 
hospices on a small scale, stands on the barren Fillefjeld, above 
the Utrovand. To the N. rises the Stugunes (4827 ft.), to the E. 
the Borrenes (4870 ft.). The landscape presents the desolate and 
somewhat monotonous character possessed by most of the higher 
Norwegian mountains. The gaard, an unpretending group of build- 
ings, is partly supported by government as a i Fjeldstue\ or mountain 
refuge, and is chiefly important in winter, when travellers have 
frequently been rescued from danger by the bravery of its inmates. 
(Knud Nystuen, the father of the present landlord, has been pre- 
sented with the Norwegian silver medal 'for Borgerdaad', i. e. for 
an act of heroism.) As the most violent winds blow from W. to 
E., all the buildings are erected with their narrower sides to the 
W., in order to present the smallest possible surface to the storms. 

The * Stugun«s (4827 ft.) may easily be ascended from Nystuen 
in 2y 2 -3 hrs. (or 4-5 hrs. there and back) by following the brook 
to the W. of the station and then going eastwards. Or the ascent 
may be made from Nystuen direct (somewhat steep). In either 
case a guide is unnecessary. The summit commands an uninter- 
rupted survey of the Jotunheim range, from the Horunger on the 
W. to the Sletmarkhe on the E. — To the S. of Nystuen rises the 
Suletind(5813ft.), an imposing mountain-top, V2 M. distant. The 
excursion thither from Nystuen and back takes 5-6 hrs., present- 
ing no difficulty ; or the ascent may be combined with the jour- 
ney to Maristuen by leaving the high-road at the Kirkestel, a sseter 
a little beyond Nystuen (p. 43), and following the old road {den 
gamle Vei) to the S. The view from the Suletind is one of the 
finest in Norway, but is rarely quite clear. 

From Ntstuen to Aaedal (12-13 hrs. ; guide desirable). This route 
is recommended to active walkers or good riders who have already seen 
the magnificent Lwrdal, or intend to return by that valley. The path, 
which is very rough and fatiguing at places . ascends gradually to the 
right from the Kirkestel (see above), leading between two small lakes to 
the watershed of the Fillefjeld (472-5 hrs.), which commands a magnifi- 
cent view of the Jotunfjeld, the Suletind, the Jostedalsbree, and other moun- 

to Lardalseren. MARISTUEN. 4. Route. 43 

tains and glaciers, and also of the loftily situated Tyin-Vand (p. 166) and 
of the small lake from which the Aardela issues. Passing the Slettentsl, 
a fisherman's hut on the bank of the latter stream, we follow the sseter- 
track, which afterwards crosses the stream with its numerous and most 
picturesque cataracts and falls, and follows its N. bank to Moen (tolerable 
quarters), beyond which we cross the Aardjzila and soon reach Farnws, at 
the head of the Aardalsvand (4 hrs. from the top of the hill). A boat 
from Farnaes carries us to the lower end of the lake in 2 hrs., whence 
Aardal is reached in '/a or- more. Comp. p. 52. 

The road from Nystuen to Maristuen traverses the monotonous 
Smeddal , a mountain-basin without pretension to grandeur. The 
old road led over the shoulder of the Suletind and past the Sule- 
vand, which forms the source of the Lara, and then descended 
steeply to Maristuen, whence it presents the appearance of a grass- 
grown band ascending the mountain. Pedestrians are recommended 
to follow the old road, especially if they purpose ascending the 

At the Kirkestel ('church chalet'), where the old road diverges 
to the left, there formerly stood a church dedicated to St. Thomas, 
in which the pastor of Vang performed divine service on 2nd July 
annually. In connection with this service a kind of fair was also 
held, which, however, gave rise to such irregularities and excesses 
that in 1808 both service and fair were discontinued by order of 
the authorities, and the church was afterwards removed. Farther 
on we pass the Grenlidsater and the marble Stette, or column, 
which marks the boundary between Christiania Stift and that of 
Bergen, and stands at the highest point of the road (3841 ft.). 
The road skirts the uninteresting Fillefjeldvand and Smeddalsvand 
(3120 ft.), both of which are drained by the Lara. Opposite to 
us rises the Sadel-Fjeld. We then ascend to the Brusesater 
(3243 ft.), and descend thence, partly through birch-plantations, 
with the foaming Lsera below us on the right, to — 

iy 2 ]Vl. (pay for 2 in the reverse direction) -f Maristuen (2635 ft.; 
*Station, good, though unpretending), the second 'Fjeldstue 1 on 
the Fillefjeld, originally founded by the clergy as a hospice in 
1300. Notwithstanding the height of its situation, the air will be 
found perceptibly warmer than at Nystuen , as it not only lies 
lower, but is influenced by the more genial climate of the W. coast. 
The scenery, too, though still wild, is far richer and more pleasing 
than at Nystuen. Between this point and Hag the road descends 
1150 ft., and the valley soon becomes more attractive. At the 
Bridge of Berlaug, i / i M. above Efeg, the Valders and Hallingdal 
routes unite (see p. 32). We soon stop at — 

l 1 ^ M. -j-Haeg(1482 ft. ; *Station, good, and more comfortable 
than the three last), where the finest scenery of the * Laerdal, one 
of the most superb valleys in Norway, begins. The road follows 
the valley the whole way to Laerdalseren. The finest parts of this 
most picturesque route are the ravine between the Church of Bor- 
gund and Husum, and the rock and river scenery between Husum 

44 Routed. CHURCH OF BORGUND. From Christiania 

and Oaard Sceltun. Between Haeg and Borgund the road is nearly 
level, traversing a basin which was once filled with a lake. At 
the S. end of this basin, about '/§ M. from Haeg, rises the Vind- 
helle, a huge rocky barrier, through which the Laera has forced a 
passage. The new road, completed in 1872, leads through this 
ravine, at a considerable height above the wild and foaming river, 
while at various periods no fewer than four different old roads, 
still traceable, once traversed the Vindhelle itself. 

On the right, just before the road descends into the ravine, stands 
the extremely interesting *Church of Borgund, with its old Klock- 
stapel or belfry. (The Skydsgut will procure the key from the neigh- 
bouring farm of Kirhvold ; fee to attendant 25-50 0.) This extra- 
ordinary, fantastic looking l Stavekirke\ the best-preserved church 
of the kind in Norway, is believed to date from the 12th cent., but 
is now disused , service being held in the New Church adjoining. 
It is now the property of the Antiquarian Society of Christiania. 
Every part of it is curious and interesting : the external passages, 
the numerous gables , the shingle-covered roofs and walls , sur- 
mounted with dragons' heads, the lofty portal, the elaborate orna- 
mentation consisting of two entwined snakes, and the almost quite 
dark and windowless interior. On the W. door are the Runic in- 
scriptions — 

Thorir raist runar thissar than Olau misso. 
(Thorer wrote these lines on St. Olaf's fair.) 
Thittai kirkia a kirkiuvelli. 
(This church in the church-ground.) 
The church is described in the ' Turistbref fran en Resa i Norge' 
by Finn (Stockholm, 1876; pp. 93 et seq.'), in 'Fahrten durch 
Norwegen' by Hartung 4' Dulk (Stuttgart, 1877 ; pp. 232 et seq.\ 
and in several English works on Norway. The similar, but moder- 
nised church of Hitterdal is mentioned on p. 20. 

The traveller is recommended to follow the old road from Bor- 
gund Church to Husum, a walk of l / 2 nr -i while his carriole takes 
fully as long to descend the ravine by the circuitous new road ; but 
before doing so, he should visit the entrance to the ravine , where 
the wild and imposing scenery is enhanced by a flue waterfall 
(Svartegelfos). The high road descends thence in windings through 
the picturesque ravine. Immediately above Husum is another 
picturesque waterfall (Holgruten). 

178 M. f Husum (*Station), being the central point of the finest 
scenery of the valley, is a good starting-point for excursions. 
Farther on lies another tolerably level basin, once likewise the bed 
of a lake, with the 0igaard, Kvama, Hougen, and other farms. 
Immediately beyond it the road enters another grand ravine, 
which the old road avoided by traversing the dangerous Galder 
('cliffs', 'rocky roads'), to the right. The new road crosses the river 
and skirts the overhanging rocks close to its bank , where the 

to Lardalseren. LiERDALS0REN. i. Route. 45 

water has worn a number of more or less perfect 'Jattegryder, or 
'giant cauldrons', showing distinctly how much higher the level of 
the torrent must once have been. At one point, not far below Husum 
the old bed of the stream has even been utilised for the passage of 
the road, for which part of a 'giant cauldron' has also been hewn 
away, while the torrent now thunders along 100 ft. below. On 
the N. side of the ravine are Oaarden Galderne and the Store Sokne- 
fos, a strange spot for human habitations. — As soon as the ravine 
expands we come in sight of Gaarden Saltan, situated on the huge 
deposits (Skred) of a mountain-torrent. The valley is still confined 
between lofty and precipitous rocks. The road again crosses the 
Laera and follows its right bank; it then intersects the deposits of 
the Jutulelv and traverses a broader part of the valley, from which 
the Opdal, closed by the snow-clad Aaken (5690 ft.), diverges. 
Several extensive moraine-deposits are passed on this' part of the 

l 3 / 8 M. f Biaaftaten (a poor station) lies a little to the left of the 
road, which is tolerably level for the rest of the way. The valley 
is still enclosed by lofty mountains, but the scenery is now com- 
paratively uninteresting. Beyond the Bofos, a waterfall on the 
left, the road crosses the river and passes the church of Tenjum. 
By the farms of JEri the valley suddenly trends towards the N., 
and we now obtain another view of the Aaken with its peculiar 
ridge resembling that of the Gausta in Thelemarken. The floor of 
the valley is well cultivated at places and sprinkled with farms, 
but the mountains are bare and rocky. The traces of numerous 
landslips and avalanches (Skred) are observable here. The valley 
finally turns towards the W., and we now pass on the right, near 
0ie, the picturesque Stenjumsfos, which descends in two falls from 
the Veta-Aas and Hegan-Aas. 

1 M. f Lserdalseren (Lindstreim s Hotel and Station, two large 
houses, one on the left , and the other a little beyond it on the 
right, affording good accommodation) , the ' alluvial plain of the 
Lserdal river', lies on a broad, level, and somewhat marshy plain at 
the mouth of the Lara, shut in by rocky and barren mountains, 
and affording a very limited view of the arm of the magnificent 
Sognefjord on which it is situated. The village, which boasts of 
a handsome new timber-built church , a telegraph-station , and a 
few tolerable shops, is a poor place with 800 inhab., deriving its 
sole importance from the fact that it forms the principal avenue of 
approach to the Sognefjord , and also to Bergen, from the '0sten- 
fjeldske', or inland districts of Norway, lying 'to the E. of the 
mountains' which form the backbone of the country. Travellers in 
quest of fishing or shooting will find Husum or some other point 
higher up the valley preferable to this, while those in search of fine 
scenery will hasten on to the Ncerefjord and Oudnangen on the 
Bergen route (p. 59), or to the Aardalsfjord, Lysterfjord, and Fja>r- 

46 Route 4. SKJ^ERDALBN. From Chrisliani 

lands fjord (R. 5), or to the Aurlandsfjord (R. 6), whence a path 
crosses the mountains to the Hardanger Fjord (R. 11). The Sogne- 
fjord and its various ramifications are described in RR. 5-7. — 
The steamboat pier is l fe M. from the station (carriole 40-50 ». for 
each person). 

b. Via. the Randsfjord. 

38 7 /s M. Railway from Christiania to (12,7 M.) Randsfjord in G'A hrs.; 
trains at 6.30 a.m. and 3.15 p.m., returning from Randsfjord at 6.15 
a.m. and 3 p.m. (fares 7 kr. 25, 4 kr. 20 0.). — Steamboat from Rands- 
fjord to (6,3 31.) Odnces daily at 1 p.m. (corresponding with the early train 
from Christiania) in 5'/2 hrs., returning from Odnses at 8.30 a.m., in time 
for the second train to Christiania; fares 4 kr., 2 kr. 80 0.). — Road 
from Odnces to (19 3 /4 M.) Lcerdalseren, see pp. 38-45. The usual charge 
for a carriage and pair of horses (- Cale&chvogii 1 ) for two persons from 
Odntes to Laerdals0ren is 100 kr., and a gratuity of 5 kr., while a carriole, 
including fees, costs about 43 kr. — Travellers pressed for time are 
cautioned against engaging horses for the whole distance, in which case 
5-6 M. only can be accomplished each day. Speed and comfort are best 
combined by hiring a carriage or a 'Trille' (a four-wheeled carriage without 
a hood) and a driver for the whole journey, stipulating for a change of 
horses at each station. — As already mentioned , almost all the stations 
are fairly good, but those should be avoided where diligence-passengers 
spend the night. — Diligences, see p. 35. 

If necessary, the whole journey may be performed in 3 days, by 
driving, on the first evening, from Odnses to Tomlevolden or to Sveen, 
on the second day to Tune or to Skogstad, and on the third to Leerdals- 
0ren ; but 4-5 days at least should, if possible, be devoted to it. 

Railway from Christiania to (6,2 M.) Hougsund, see R. 2; 
thence to (8,5 M.) Vikersund, see p. 29. 

Beyond Vikersund the train skirts the W- bank of the Tyri- 
fjord, of which it affords beautiful views to the right. The wooded 
hills on the opposite bank are the Krogskog (with the Krogklev, 
p. 13) and the Gyrihaug (2216 ft.; Gyvr or Gygr, 'giantess'). 
At one point the steep red-sandstone road ascending from Sund- 
volden to Krogkleven is distinguishable. The first important 
station is — 

9, 8 M. Skjaerdalen (Inn), from which a small steamer crosses 
in I1/2 hr. to Sundvolden daily at 11.45 a.m. and 8.30 p.m. (cor- 
responding with the trains from Christiania), and returning from 
Sundvolden at 5.45 a.m. and 2.20 p.m. (in time for the morning 
and afternoon trains to Christiania). Krogkleven may thus be 
reached from Christiania by train and steamer in 6^2 hrs., a very 
easy and pleasant route. The drive from Sundvolden to (2 3 / 8 M.) 
Sandviken takes about 4 hrs., so that by leaving Sundvolden about 

4.45 p.m. the traveller may easily reach Sandviken in time for the 

8.46 train, which reaches Christiania at 9.20 p.m. (comp. p. 12). 
For a single day this circuit forms the most attractive excursion 
near Christiania. 

At (10,5 M.) Ask the train quits the Tyrifjord. 

11 M. Httnefos (*Glatved's Hotel , with a garden, pleasantly 
situated in the N. part of the town; Jernbane- Hotel, near the 
station ; Skydsstation in the S. part of the town, near the church), 

to Lcerdalseren. RANDSFJORD. 4. Route. 47 

a small town with 1135 inhab., lies at the confluence of the Bcegna 
or Aadalselv, which descends from Lake Spirillen, and the Rands- 
elv, coming from the Randsfjord. The river formed by them is 
called the Storelv, which empties itself into the Tyrifjord, whence 
it afterwards emerges under the name of Drarnmenselv. The Bacgna, 
just before its junction with the Randselv, forms two waterfalls, of 
which that to the N. ig rather a huge cataract, and which are to- 
gether known as the *H«rnefos. Though of no great height, these falls 
are quite worth seeing, especially during the 'Flomtid' or 'Flaum- 
tid' (flood time) in May and June, when the volume of water is very 
imposing. The bridges which cross the rivers afford a fine view of 
the falls and the environs. By passing under the bridges it is 
possible to reach a point nearer the seething waters. An unsatis- 
factory glimpse at the falls from above is obtained from the rail- 
way-station. As is so often the case in Norway , a number of 
saw-mills are congregated here for the sake of the motive power 
afforded by the falls. A channel on the left bank of the N. fall 
conveys the timber to the mills with immense velocity. • — Travellers 
bound for Vik and Sundvolden (p. 13) may order carrioles at the 
hotel. — A road on the left (E.) bank of the Aadalselv leads in 
1 hr. to the *Hofsfos, another fine fall of that river. 

From Hjzrnefos to (l 5 /s M.) Sundvolden, '/< '*• from which is "Krog- 
kleven , see p. 13. — Excursionists from Christiania, if pressed for time, 
may, immediately after reaching H0nefos by the early train and glancing 
at the falls, drive to Sundvolden in 2>/2hrs., drive on to Sandviken, and 
there catch the evening train to Christiania (comp. p. 46). This is a 
most interesting circuit, but very hurried if performed in one day. 

11.6 M. Heen, the next station, lies on the Bcegna, which the 
train now crosses. Lake Spirillen, see p. 48. 

Turning suddenly to the E., the train skirts the Heensbreud 
and the Askelihoug (1409 ft.) , traverses a wooded district thinly 
peopled, and finally stops at — 

12.7 M. Randsfjord Station (*Inn), on the Randselv, near its 
efflux from the Randsfjord. A bridge crosses the broad river to 
Kokkerstuen or Hadelands-Glasuark and the populous district of 

The Randsfjord (steamboat-pier near the station ; steamboats, 
see above), a lake 420 ft. above the sea-level, 6'/3 M. in length, 
and Yg-i^M. only in width, is the largest in S. Norway after 
Lake Mje-sen. It is bounded on the E. by the well-cultivated and 
populous district of Hadeland, and on the W. andN. by the districts 
of Valders and Land. The banks, rising gradually to a height of 
2000 ft., and well cultivated at places, are somewhat monotonous 
and uninteresting. The lake is generally so narrow as to resemble 
a broad river. The steamer (one daily in each direction ; see above) 
performs the trip to Odnces In b l /% hrs., stopping at numerous sta- 
tions on the way. By the church of Fluberg, on the right, near the 
N. end of the lake, are a number of fine weeping birches. 

48 Route 4. LAKE SPIRILLEN. From Christiania 

Odnaes (*Inn), and thence to Lferdalseren , see p. 38. As the 
steamer arrives at 6.30 p.m., and it is daylight till 10 and twilight 
nearly the whole night in the height of summer, the traveller may 
drive at once to (l 3 /4 M.) Tomlevolden , or even to Sveen, l 3 / 8 M. 
farther (comp. p. 38). 

c. Via Lake Spirillen. 

36 M. Railway from Christiania to (11,6 M.) Heen in 5 hrs. 50 min. 
(trains, see p. 46; fares 6 kr. 85 0., 4 kr.). — Steamboat from Heen 
to (5 M.) Serum at 1.30 p.m., arriving at 7 p.m., or, when the river is 
low, to (3'/s II.) Noes only , arriving at 6 p.m. ; returning from S0rum 
daily at 6 a.m., or from Nses at 7 a.m. — Road from S0rum to Fryden- 
lund 4 l /2 M. (1 kr. 60 91. each horse per mile)-, thence to Lcerdalseren 
14 r /s M., see pp. 39-45. — As this route is less frequented than those hy 
Lake Mj0sen and the Randsfjord , carriages are not always to be had at 
S0rum, but a carriole or Stolkjserre is easily obtained. Travellers pre.' sed 
for time may drive to Storsveen on the evening of their arrival, whence 
it is possible to reach Lserdalsjzrren in two days. 

Railway to Heen, see p. 47. The route thence to Frydenlund 
via Spirillen is more picturesque than that via the Randsfjord and 
Odiicps ; but four-wheeled carriages are seldom obtainable on the 
road to the N. of the lake, nor is there a 'diligence', so that travel- 
lers by this route must be prepared to travel the whole way from 
Spirillen to Lavrdalseren by carriole. 

After arriving (12.20 p.m.) at Heen (Dahl's Inn, tolerable) the 
traveller has an hour for luncheon or early dinner. The small 
steamer 'Bsegna', which has an unpretending restaurant on board, 
usually starts at 1.30 p.m., and ascends the Bagna or Aadalselv, 
with its occasional lake-like expansions. The navigable channel, 
indicated by wooden buoys (Beier) is somewhat intricate. On the 
right we soon pass Hallingby , a ' Skydsstation', with a pretty 
church. Higher up the river the stream becomes very rapid, and. 
the engines are required to do their utmost. We next pass the 
pleasant-looking farm of Bergmnd on the left. The course of the 
vessel is often obstructed by floating timber, through which it has 
to force a passage. The rapid Kongstrem, which intersects an old 
moraine, is now ascended, and we enter (l 5 /s M. from Heen) — 

*lake Spirillen (probably derived from spira, 'to flow rapidly'), 
a beautiful sheet of water, 2V4 M. in length, surpassing the 
Randsfjord in picturesqueness. The banks are well cultivated at 
places, and at others mountainous and severe. The principal place 
on the "W. bank is Aadal, with the church of Viker, and on the E. 
bank Enger-Odden, a picturesque gaard and posting station. To 
the left, farther on, the mountains become more imposing [Qyran- 
fisen, 3f>32 ft.). On the opposite bank lie several farms with a 
pleasant sunny aspect ('paa Solsiden'). The large blocks of stone 
on the banks have been left in their present position by the ice 
with which the lake is covered in winter. After passing the preci- 
pitous rocks on the left, the steamer comes in sight of — 

to Lardalseren. STORSVEEN. 4. Route. 49 

Nees, or Nasmoen, at the head of the lake, with its church and 
wild mountain-background. 

To the W. of Nfes is the entrance to the Hedal, through which a 
rough road ascends to Jdvre Hedal , with the interesting timber-built 
church of Ildjemstad, about f/2 JI. distant. According to tradition the 
whole population of this valley died of the plague in 1349-50 ('dere store 
Manded0d\ 'I)auden\ or ^den sorte Bed''). When the church was after- 
wards discovered by a hunter, he found a bear installed by the altar, in 
proof of which a bear's skin is still shown. Similar traditions also exist 
with regard to other places in Norway and Denmark. The popular notion 
used to be that the 'Pesta' scoured the country in the shape of an old 
woman in a blue petticoat, or in that of a 'Pestmand'. — From Ildjern- 
stad a road crosses the hill to Cl'A ^) Linheia (see below). 

When the river above Naes is too low to be navigable , the 
steamer does not go beyond this point, in which case the trav- 
eller crosses the bridge to the Skydsstation Granum (Inn), whence 
he may drive the same evening to Linheia or even to Storsveen. 
In summer, however, the steamer usually ascends the rapid and 
picturesque Baegna to Serum, l l /g M. above Naes. The banks are 
at first wooded and somewhat monotonous, with a few small clear- 
ings ('Pladse') at places. On the left rises the precipitous Bjern- 
bratberg , and farther on is the Haraldshoug, a hill with several 
farms, which commands a fine view of the valley. On the right 
towers the imposing Valdershom , and on the left the Serumfjeld. 
We now cross the boundary between the districts (Fogderier) of 
Buskerudsamt and Christian samt. The mutilated birches here have 
been stripped of their foliage to provide fodder for the cattle. 
Stremmen is prettily situated on the right. Farther on we observe 
a wood which was partially destroyed by fire in 1873. 

SOTum {Inn, fair), a prettily situated gaard with a steamboat- 
pier, about 5M. from Heen, is the terminus of the steamboat-route. 
To the right lies Gaarden Hougsund, one of the largest farms in 
Valders. Farther on, to the left, is the Tolleifsrudkirke, where our 
road is joined by that from Ildjernstad in the 0vre Hedal (see 
above). Passing Gaarden Docka, we soon reach • — • 

Y2 M. (from Serum) 7 Linheia (*Station). To the left diverges 
the old road, now a saeter-track only, to Hedalen (see above); and 
on the same side of the road we afterwards pass the huge rocky 
precipice of Morkollen. From the left, farther on , descends the 
Muggedals-Elv. To the right, on the opposite bank of the Baegna, 
Gaarden Grimsrud. Scenery picturesque and pleasing, particularly 
in the neighbourhood of the Sendre, Midt, and Nordre-Garthus farms. 

1^2 M. f Storsveen (*Station ; intelligent landlord, who possess- 
es several interesting 'Oldnorsk' books ; pretty baskets, a specialty 
of the neighbourhood, are sold here). To the left, farther on, rises 
the Throndhusfjeld , and on the right the Fondhusfjeld. The road 
then crosses the Helleraa, where there are several mills, and passes 
a pretty school-house (Skolegaard), a number of thriving farms, and 
Grand ('hamlet') Kobbervik. The Baegna expands at places into the 
form of a lake. In front of some of the houses a Muistung ('may- 

Baedekek's N orway and S weden. 4 

50 Route 4. VOLD. 

pole') and a Julebaand ('Christmas sheaf for the birds) form me- 
morials of the local customs. — At Sundstad , where the Bsegna 
contracts , are the ruins of a bridge by which the road formerly 
crossed to the E. (left) bank of the river, leading thence to Bang. 
The new road, completed in 1877, now follows the W. (right) 
bank, aiul skirts the Svartvikfjeld, with its overhanging rocks and 
'giant cauldrons' (hollows formed, by the action of water). The 
Soleiblomst or Smerblomst ( a kind of ranunculus) is frequently 
seen by the wayside. We now reach the large basin of Bang, with 
its numerous farms, its church, and parsonage, all on the opposite 
bank of the river, and soon stop at — 

1 M. Void (*Station), charmingly situated. A pleasant walk 
may be taken to (20 min.) the *Fall of the Bcegna, which however 
may also be visited on the way to Frydenlund. — A good road 
leads from Void to ( 3 / 4 M.) Oravdal and (^M.) Sveen (seep. 38) ; 
near Void it passes Krcemmermoen , formerly the station , and 
still an inn. 

On the left, beyond Void, rises the pointed Hullekollen, at the 
base of which is Reinlid, with its ancient Stavekirke (p. 143), the 
road to which diverges to the left from the Baegna bridge. Our road 
crosses the bridge and turns to the left, entering the upper region 
of the valley of the Bcegna, while the road to the right leads to 
Krcemmermoen , Bang, and Sveen. Fine mountain-scenery. The 
road soon quits the valley and ascends the Jukamsklev in long 
windings, whence we obtain a striking view of the rapid river 
below. To the right, at the top of the hill, is Gaarden Jukam, which 
we afterwards pass on the left. The road affords a good survey of 
the Reinlidsbygd with the Stavedalsfjeld, the mountain range of 
which Hullekollen is a spur. — Beyond 'Plads' Hengen we obtain 
a noble *View of the snow-mountains of Jotunheim bounding the 
valley of 0stre Slidre , the Kalvaahagda, the Thorfinstinder, and 
the other mountains near Lake Bygdin (p. 163). On the right we 
observe the road which crosses the wooded Tonsaas to Gravdal 
(p. 38). The road then descends to Gaarden Motet (or Medtes), 
where it is usual to rest the horses for half-an-hour. Over the 
door of the gaard are the quaint verses — 

'Stat her mit Huus i Fred 'Her seder jeg mit Br0d, 

For hveert Misundheds 0ye, Her frygter jeg min Gud; 

Thi den misundte Jord Velsignet er hver den 

Den leer sig ogsaa plcrye.' Som her gaar in og ud.' 

[May my house stand here in peace from every eye of envy; (but I care 
not) for the envied earth can equally well be ploughed. Here I eat my 
bread and fear my God. Blessed be every one that passes in and out.) 

The scenery beyond this point is less interesting. The road 
runs chiefly through wood, and again ascends, soon uniting with 
the road from Gjtfvik and Odna;s , which descends from the Ton- 
saas on the right. 

IV2 M- fFrydenlund {^Station; see p. 39) lies on the old road, 
to the left of the new, and about 200 paces below it. 


5. The Sognefjord. From Laerdalsaren to the Aardals- 
fjord, Lysterfjord, and Fjaerlandsfjord. 

Comp. Map, p. 40. 
Steamboats. Although small boats are procurable at all the stations 
(fare about 1 kr. per mile for each rower), travellers are cautioned against 
engaging them for long distances as their speed is usually slow, and the 
stations are very far apart. For whatever part of the Sognefjord the 
traveller is bound, he should therefore endeavour to time his arrival at 
Lserdals0ren so as to catch a steamer on the same or the following day 
to take him to his destination. As already observed in the Introduction 
(p. vi), no plan can be definitively settled without a careful consultation 
of ^Norges Communicationer* , but as the summer-services of the steamers 
rarely undergo serious alterations from year to year , it may be useful 
here to give an outline of the principal routes from Lserdals#ren in 
accordance with the latest arrangements. 

1. To Aardal, Marifjaren, and Skjolden : Mond. 8 a.m. and Thurs. 7 a.m. 

2. To Marifjaren direct: Tues. 8 p.m., Thurs. 7 a.m., Frid. 3 a.m. 

3. To Aurland and Gudvangen: Sund. 7 a.m. and Thurs. 12 midnight. 

4. To Gudvangen direct: Wed. 8 a.m. and Thurs. 3 p.m. 

5. To Fjcerland vid Gudvangen: Mon. 12 midnight. 

6. To Bergen direct: Mon., Tues., Wed., Thurs., Frid. (from Bergen 
Mon., Tues., Wed., Thurs., Sat.); comp. R. 7. 

The steamers are all well fitted up and have good restaurants on board 
(which provide wine and beer, but no spirituous liquors), but the sleeping 
accommodation is limited. If a night or part of a night has to be spent 
on board, the traveller should lose no time in securing a sofa or berth. 
The cabin fare is 40, the steerage 25, and the deck 15 0. per sea-mile 
(4 Engl. M.). The usual charge for a substantial breakfast with coffee is 
172-2, for dinner 2, and for supper l-l>/2 kr. (fee discretionary, according 
to length of voyage). 

Special Map : 'Kart over Nordre Bergenhus-Amt, I & II' ; 1 kr. 20 0. each. 

The * Sognefjord (from the old word l Sogne\ signifying a nar- 
row arm of the sea), the longest of all the Norwegian fjords, being 
16 M. long from Sognefest to Skjolden , and averaging y 2 M. in 
width , forms one of the most important highways of traffic in 
Western Norway, and also one of the most convenient avenues to 
some of the grandest and wildest scenery in the country. Like 
all the Norwegian fjords , it is unattractive at its entrance , where 
the rocks have been worn away, partly by the action of the waves, 
and partly by that of the enormous glaciers with which the whole 
country was once covered. The scenery gradually improves as the 
traveller proceeds from E. to W., until the fjord at length ter- 
minates in a number of long and narrow arms bounded by lofty 
mountains rising at places to a height of 5000 ft., and of almost 
unparalleled grandeur. At the upper extremities of the N. ra- 
mifications of the fjord lie huge glaciers descending from the snow- 
mountains, including the JostedalsbrcB ('Br«e' or 'Brede' signifying 
glacier), the largest glacier in Europe. In other parts of the fjord 
again the banks present a smiling and genial character, being- 
fringed with luxuriant orchards and waving corn-fields, and studded 
with pleasant-looking dwellings. At some points indeed (as at 
Balholm , Sogndal , Amble, and Skjolden) the scenery of the fjord 
is not unworthy of comparison with that of the Lake of Lucerne, 

52 Route 5. AAKDAL. Sognefjord. 

or even with that of the lakes of N. Italy. In the majestic grandeur 
of its mountains and glaciers, the Sognefjord far surpasses the 
Hardanger, hut its general character is severe and at places desolate 
and monotonous, while the waterfalls, as well as the softer scenery, 
of its southern rival unquestionably carry off the palm. — Up to 
the point where the great ramifications of the Sognefjord hegin, 
the climate is the same as that of the W. coast, being rainy and 
mild in winter and usually damp and cool in summer; but the 
seasons in its long and narrow arms are more similar to those pre- 
valent in inland European countries. In winter a considerable 
part of these arms is usually frozen over , and although the ice is 
detached from the shore at its margins , being raised a couple of 
feet or more twice daily by the tide , it serves as a busy highway 
for sledge traffic. On these occasions the steamers of course cannot 
ply beyond the limits of the open water. 

The Inhabitants (Sogninger) of the banks of the fjord , which, 
with the adjoining country, are all embraced in the name of 'Sogri, 
appear to belong to two distinct races, those in the W. parts pos- 
sessing the placid Norwegian character, while those of the E. parts 
are remarkable for their vivacity, which shows itself in their hur- 
ried and almost incoherent mode of speaking. All, however, will 
be found uniformly obliging and hospitable to travellers. — In 
these regions the traveller will still occasionally meet with an old 
Regstue ('smoke house') , one of the primitive dwellings of the 
natives , with its Ljor , or opening for the smoke and admission of 
light, and its pointed roof (one of Tidemand's well known subjects). 
In the centre of these hovels was the Grue (or Gruva, 'pit', akin 
to 'groove'), or hollow in which the Are was lighted, which, as 
civilisation advanced , was afterwards replaced by a hearthstone 
with a chimney of masonry above it (Skorsten, Arnested, Peis). — 
On all the roads adjoining the fjord , with the exception of the 
great routes from Lserdal to Christiania, the Stolkjarre is almost 
invariably used instead of the lighter Kariol. 

A steamer leaves Lcerdalseiren (p. 45) for Aardal twice weekly, 
the voyage occupying two hours. Both the Lardalsfjord and the 
Aardahfjord are unattractive , being bounded by barren rocky 
mountains, and their shores being almost entirely uninhabited. 

Aardal (*Jens Klingenberg's Inn), a small village with a hand- 
some church situated at the head of the fjord of that name, a branch 
of the Sognefjord nearly 2 M. in length, is the starting-point for an 
excursion to the Vettisfos, the finest waterfall in the Sogn district, 
and for a very interesting mountain -walk to Nystuen (p. 42). By 
starting very early in the morning, a good walker might accomplish 
each of these expeditions in one day, but on the excursion to the 
Vettisfos a night had better be spent at Moen or Vetti, and on the 
route to Nystuen (for which a guide is desirable) a night at Moen. 

Sognefjord. VETTISFOS. 5. Route. 53 

Route to the Vettisfos (7-8 hrs. ; guide unnecessary; a mo- 
derate supply of provisions should be taken). We cross the Aardals- 
tange , a 'tongue' or neck of land separating the fjord from the 
(i/ 4 M.) Aardalsvand, a grand mountain-lake, IY4M. long. A boat 
on the lake carries us (1 pers. 1 kr. 40, 2 pers. 2 kr. 20 0.) in 
2 hrs. to Farnces , at the N.E. end of the lake, and on the right 
bank of the Utla, a river which is formed by the confluence of 
numerous mountain- torrents. 

From Farnses a bridle-path ascends to the N. through the Langedal, 
passing the Aare and Stokke sreters , to Muradn (p. 176) , whence a path 
leads through the Lovardalsskard (4699 ft.), a 'gap' or depression at the 
foot of the Austabot-Tinder and Solei-Tinder, into the Berdul and to Oaur- 
den Fuglesteg (2494 ft.), which lies almost perpendicularly above the valley 
of Fortun (p. 152). The descent to Fortun is excessively steep, whence 
probably is derived the name of Fuglesteg , or 'bird-path'. The walk 
takes 10 hrs. in all (guide desirable; 4 kr.). 

Ascending the Utladal from Farnaes, we soon cross the Aardela, 
which descends from the Tyin-Vand (p. 166), and reach the Gaard 
Moen , or Fosmoen (tolerable night quarters), where the Nystuen 
route diverges to the right. From this point to the Gaard Vetti 
(li/4 M.) is a walk or ride of 4-5 hrs., the first 3 / 4 M. to the Gaard 
Gjelle (536 ft.) being nearly level. The Gjellefos descends here on 
the right. Here begins the formidable *Vettisgjel, a narrow ravine 
bounded by cliffs of immense height, aud endangered by avalanches 
and land-slips in winter and in rainy weather. The Utla and the path 
here thread their way through a chaos of rocky debris, resembling 
the scene of the famous Goldau landslip in Switzerland. (Those 
who prefer to avoid this dreaded defile may ascend from the gaard 
to the top of the hill and follow a perfectly safe, but uninteresting 
saeter-path to Ulsnannaasi, 0tjernnaasi, and the Vettismork-Sater, 
situated above the Vettisfos.) Beyond the ravine the path ascends 
a steep mountain-spur, and then skirts a perpendicular precipice, 
high above the Utla, passes the Afdal on the left, with the pictur- 
esque Afdahfos (531 ft.), and the Heljafos on the right, and leads 
to the small Gaard Vetti (1092 ft. ; good accommodation at Anfind 
Vetti'*). — A good path constructed by the 'Turistforening' leads 
hence in 3 /4-l hr. to the * Vettisfos, or Vettismorkafos , a fall of 
the Morkakoldedeila , about 900 ft. in height , one of the highest 
and finest waterfalls in Europe. By some travellers this justly 
celebrated cascade , with its picturesque adjuncts , is preferred to 
the Rjukanfos (p. 20), the Varingsfos (p. 94), and the Skjsegge- 
dalsfos(p. 100), but in volume of water it is generally far inferior 
to any of these. The fall may be viewed from above by ascending 
the precipitous Vettisgalder by a path leading to the Vettismorksater 
(2190 ft.), and turning to the left a little below the saster; but 
the utmost caution is necessary in approaching the brink of the 
abyss. — About >/2 nr - beyond the saeter is the Fleskedals - Sater, 
whence the Friken (4657 ft. ; riding practicable to the summit), 
commanding a view of the Horunger and other snow-mountains, 

54 Route 5. MARIFJ^EREN. Sognefjord. 

may be ascended. The imposing Stalsnaasi (5725 ft.), bet-ween 
the Morka-Koldedal and Fleskedal may also be ascended from the 
Vettismorksseter (guide Anfind Vetti ; 4 kr.). Comp. p. 173. 

From the Fleskedals-Sffiter a grand mountain route leads through the 
Uradal to Smaaget, the Tyin-Vand, and Eidsbugarden on the Bygdin-Vand 
in 8-10 hrs. (guide necessary; see E. 17, v.). 

A steamer (see p. 51") leaves Aardal twice weekly for Laerdal, 
and also twice weekly for Marifjaren and Skjolden on the Lyster- 
fjord , to which we now proceed. The voyage to Marifjaeren takes 
3 hrs., and to Skjolden 2 hrs. more. 

The Lysterfjord, the N.E. and longest (3!/2 M.) ramification 
of the Sognefjord , presents a series of wild mountain-landscapes, 
diversified by beautiful scenery of a softer type. On the W. side 
rises the precipitous Hougmal (3811 ft.), beyond which the steamer 
touches at -j- Solvorn (* Station), a prettily situated place. 

From Solvorn a beautiful walk or drive (see also below) may be taken 
across the hill to (l 3 /4 M.) fHofslund, near Sogndal (p. 64). — Or a drive 
may be taken to O/2 M.) iHillestad, whence the "Molde (3665 ft.), a moun- 
tain vising between Solvorn and Marifjgeren, may be ascended for the sake 
of the view it commands of the whole Lysterfjord, the Jostedalsbrse, and 
the Horunger (ponies and guides at Hillestad station). From Hillestad 
the road leads N.E. to ( 3 /i M.) Marifjceren (from Solvorn to MarifjEeren 
pay for l 3 / 4 M.). 

On the promontory opposite Solvorn lies Urncss with its ancient 
'Stavekirke' and 'giant tumuli' (Kam.peh.ouge). On the right, about 
Y2 br. after leaving Solvorn, we pass the Oaard Kroken, famed for 
its orchards. In i/ 2 hr. more the steamer touches at — 

Marifjseren (* Jacob Thervi's Inn) . prettily situated on the 
Oaupnefjord, a branch of the Lysterfjord, at the N. end of the 
Molde , mentioned above. (Steamer hence to Lcerdal three times 
a week , once direct in 3 hrs., and twice via Aardal in 5 hrs. ; to 
Skjolden twice a week.) A beautiful walk may be taken hence up 
the hill to the N.W. to the old church of Joranger , which com- 
mands a magnificent view of the fjord and the Feigumsfos, a water- 
fall 720 ft. high on the E. bank. To the S. of Marifjsren is Gaarden 
Hundshammer, whence part of the Jostedalsbra is visible towards 
the N. — On the beach are observed a number of large stones, 
which have been forced up into their present position by the ice 
covering the fjord in winter. — At the N.W. extremity of the 
Gaupnefjord lies Reneid (*Inn), 3/ 8 M. distant. 

Excursion to the Jostedal (2-3 days). Visitors to the * Jostedal, 
with its famous glaciers , leave the steamer at Marifjaeren and row in 
V2 hr. to ( 3 /s M.) Reneid, which is a fast station for boats, but slow for 
horses. A rough track , hardly practicable for driving (but riding re- 
commended as far as the church) , leads thence to (2 31.) Myklemyv (ac- 
commodation at Anders 1 , also horses) and (1 31.) Jostedals-Kirke (658 ft.). 
This part of the route , which is uninteresting, passes near several large 
glaciers (Jekler) descending from the Jostedalsbrse (Brce signifying a mass 
of snow and ice , including the Jetkler or offshoots), the most important 
being the Timslcvgdalbrai (8 Engl. 31. in length) and the three glaciers of 
Bcvgscet or Krondal; but they are not visible from the road. At Joste- 

Sognefjord. GILDRESKREDEN. 5. Route. 55 

daf accommodation may be oblained at the parsonage or at one of the 

The principal object of interest in the valley is the Nigardsbrae, 
1 M. to the N. of the church. At Gaarden Faaberg (1314 ft.; quarters for 
the night), '/* M. farther, the best guide for a visit to the glacier may 
be procured, but his services are unnecessary unless the traveller intends 
crossing the Jostedalsbrse or proceeding to the Gudbrandsdal or Nordfjord. 
Other glaciers beyond theNigardsbrse are ihe Bjemesteg or Faabergsteil (i/4 M. 
from Faaberg), and the Lodalsbrw and StegehoUsbrce, 3 /i M. farther. — Tra- 
vellers intending to cross the mountains usually spend the preceding night 
at the Faabergs-Steil, '/jK. above Gaarden Faaberg, and at the foot of the 
Lodalsbrce, which, together with the Stegholtsbrse , is most conveniently 
visited from this point and will repay the trouble. 

From Faabergs-Stel to Slryn and Faleide, see p. 126 ; to the Gudbrandsdal, 
see p. 153. 

The Jostedal glaciers, having long been known and frequently explored, 
are the most celebrated in Norway and have been described by Forbes in 
his 'Norway' (Edinburgh, 1853), by C. de Seue in his work 'Le Neve de 
Justedal et ses Glaciers' (Christiania, 1870) , and by Dtirocher, Bohr, Nait- 
mann, and others. 

Road from Mabifj^ren to Sogndal (ty-j* M.), a beautiful 
walk (6-7 hrs.) or drive (5-6 hrs.). Horses must be ordered in 
good time as the station is a 'slow' one. The hilly road passes the 
base of the Molde, which is very steep and not easily ascended on 
this side , and follows the course of the Bygdeelv. On the right, 
above us, lies Joranger. We pass a number of farms and cottages, 
chiefly on the sunny side of the valley, and plantations of birches 
and alders, the leaves of which serve as fodder for the sheep and 
goats. A little to the right lies Fet, with its old church. At the 
highest point of the road (about 1200 ft.) we obtain a view of the 
distant snow-mountains to the S. of the Sognefjord, including the 
Fresviksbrse. During the somewhat steep descent we obtain a 
magnificent *View of the scattered village of Hafslo with the 
Hafslovand and the mountains of the Sognefjord , and at our 
feet lies — 

3 /4 M. f Hillestad (very poor station). The church and parsonage 
of Hafslo lie on the lake, about i/ 8 M. to the W. 

Ascent of the Molde from Hillestad, see above. — From Hillestad to 
Solvorn on the Lysterfjord (p. 54) V2 M. ; the road to Sogndal diverges 
to the right about */8 M. from Hillestad. 

From Hillestad or Hafslo to the Veitestrandsvand and Fjwrlandsfjord, 
see p. 57. 

Beyond Hillestad the road passes the lake and traverses a pine- 
wood, through which glimpses are obtained of the lake and the 
Jostedalsbras to the N. The Solvorn road diverges here to the left. 
— Beyond Gaarden Oklevig the road attains its highest point, and 
then descends the numerous zigzags of * Gildreskreden (Skreien), 
where great caution is necessary in driving. Near the beginning 
of them is St. Olafskilde, a spring from which sick persons some- 
times drink, devoutly making the sign of the cross with two sticks. 
In descending we obtain a magnificent view of the fjord. On our 
right rushes the Orrerielv , descending from the Veitestrand and 
Hafslo lakes, and forming the Helvetesfos and Futesprang. Below 

56 Route 5. F.LERLANDSFJORD. Sognefjord. 

us lies Nagleren. The road now skirts the Bar snas fjord. The 
glacier-worn rocks should he observed here , with large isolated 
boulders resting on them at places. The vegetation gradually be- 
comes richer, and oaks, elms, and ashes begin to appear. Passing 
through the Bmhul, a curious aperture in the rock, the road ascends 
to the heights of Kram, which afford another splendid view. At 
Onarden Loftenas, on the opposite bank , the fjord contracts to a 
narrow channel, and the Sogndalsfjord now begins. We then reach 
fHofdund, the station for the adjacent Sogndal, a pretty place with 
a good inn (p. 64), 13/ 4 M. from Hillestad. — From Sogndal to 
Fjaerland, see p. 57. 

From Marifj^eren to Skjolden. The upper part of the Lyster- 
fjord is grand and picturesque. The steamer passes Nces, near the 
mouth of the Gaupnefjord, on the left, and the imposing Feigumsfos, 
a line waterfall of two leaps, 1400 ft. in height, on the right, and 
next stops (1 hr.) at f D«sen (*Jnn) on the W. bank, near the old 
stone church of Bale , whence a road leads to Naes. Beautiful 
scenery, somewhat resembling that of the Lake of Lucerne. 

From D0sen the traveller may ascend the Daledal by a horse-track 
to Guard Kilen , beyond which there is a steep climb to the Vidde of 
Storhougen (2600 ft.), at the head of the valley, and the Fjeldgaard Vigdal. 
The path then descends to Mijklemyr in the Jostedal (p. 54) , about 2 M. 
from D^sen (a walk (if 6-7 hrs. ; guide advisable). 

From Desen the steamer proceeds (twice a week) in another 
hour to Skjolden (*Inn), prettily situated at the end of the Lyster- 
fjord. To the E. rises the snow-clad Fanaraak; in the foreground, 
to the right, is Eide ; to the left are Bolstad and Skjolden. 

From Skjolden to the Forlundal, and to Redsheim, see R. 16; to the 
Horunger, see R. 17, x. 

The * Fjserlandsfjord , of which the Svcerefjord and Vetle fjord 
are branches, extends to the N. of Balholm (p. 64) for a distance 
of 21/4 M., and is terminated by the Bojums-Jekel and the Suphelle- 
Jekel , the two most imposing offshoots of the Jostedalsbrae. A 
steamboat at present runs to Fjarland at the head of the fjord once 
a week only (Wed.), coming from Lcerdal via. Gudvangen, and 
stopping half-a-day (Thurs.) at Fjaerland so as to allow time for a 
visit to the glaciers. The excursion may therefore be very con- 
veniently made from Lrerdal or from Gudvangen ; but if the tra- 
veller who has visited the Lysterfjord has time and energy still at 
command, he will find it interesting to cross the mountains from 
that fjord to Fjaerland, spend one or more days in exploring the 
glaciers, and return thence on a Thursday by steamer to Laerdal, 
or to Balholm, where a steamer on its way to Bergen usually touches 
on Friday mornings. If the W. and N. fjords with their magni- 
ficent snow-mountains and picturesque waterfalls be thus visited 
in succession, the traveller will then have seen the whole of the 
finest scenery of the Sognefjord with the exception of the Naire- 

Sognefjord. STORE SUPHELLEBILE. 5. Route. 57 

fjord (p. 59) , which is traversed by the favourite routes to 
Bergen and to the Hardanger Fjord, and conveniently visited last. 

From Hillestad to Fjjeeland (one day; a supply of provisions de- 
sirable). About s/ 4 M. from Hillestad (p. 55) is the S. end of tlie Vei- 
testrandsmnd (640 ft.), l'A M. long, to the N. end of which we row in 
2>/ 2 hrs. ; we then walk to the neighbouring farm of Heggeslrand (quar- 
ters for the night, if necessary). This gaard and several higher up form 
the Veiteslraitdsbygd , beyond which the path ascends gradually to the 
region of snow, where l ice-irons 1 (Brodder or Fodpigger) are usually 
put on. The route passes through the Veitestrandsskard , and then de- 
scends rapidly over snow and ice (where caution is necessary) to the 
Suplielle-Satet; and thence to the Vetlebrw in the Suphelledal (see below). 

Fkom Sognual to Fjjerland (10-12 hrs.). This is a much easier and 
more interesting route than the last. A tolerable road ascends from 
Sogndal to (1 M.J the Sogndalsvand (1500 ft.), on which we row toC/aM.) 
Gaarden Selseng at its N.W. end. From this point the traveller may as- 
cend '■ Thorsladnatten, which commands an imposing view of the Togga 
(4900 ft.), the Fruhest, the Bamekona, and the Jostedalsbrfe. To the E. 
the Horunger are visible in clear weather. — The path now ascends the 
Longedal, passing several sseters, to the central of the three depressions 
in the mountain, about 4000 ft. above the sea, to the left of which rise 
the summits of the Frudalsbrw (5150 ft.). It then descends the Bergedal 
tn Gaarden Berge on the E. bank of the Fjserlandsfjord, from which a 
boat conveys us in 1 hr. to ('/a M.) Fjcerland. 

The banks of the Fjaerlandsfjord are very imposing, though 
less precipitous than those of the Nsertffjord (p. 59). On the right, 
above the Rommedal, rises the * Rommehest (4120 ft.), which may 
easily be ascended, and commands a mountain-view of the grandest 
description. The steamer stops at Fjserland or Mundal (Inn kept 
by Aasmund Mundals Enke), '/s M. from the head of the fjord ; 
accommodation may also be obtained at Gaarden Vaatevik, t/ 2 M. 
from the pier. From either of these points the glaciers may be 
visited in 5-6 hrs. (there and back, guide unnecessary). 

The * Store Suphellebrse , in the Suphelledal, l'/ 2 hr. to the 
N.E. of the steamboat-pier, descending to within 150 ft. of the 
sea-level, is the lowest glacier in Norway, with the exception 
of the northernmost glaciers in the Xekelfjord in Tromser Amt 
(p. 237). The lower part of the glacier, however, consists merely 
of the fragments of ice which fall over the rocks from the proper 
glacier above. — About 1 hr. higher up lies the *Vetlebra> or Lille 
Suphettebrce, which is remarkable for the purity of its ice. — The 
Skjeidesnipa (4725 ft.) separates the Great Suphellebrae from the 
* Bojumsbrs , the foot of which is 600 ft. only above the fjord, 
presenting a huge ice-fall (1 1/ 2 hr. from the steamboat-pier). 

6. The Sognefjord. From Lserdalseren to Aurland 
and Gudvangen. From Gndvangen to Bergen. 

Gomp. Maps, pp. to, 56. 

Steamboats. There are usually two steamers weekly to Gudvangen 
via Aurland, and two steamers to Gudvangen direct (see p. 51). 

Leaving L*rdal and its uninteresting fjord, the steamer passes 
the long promontory of Refsncestangen and Indre Freningen , and 

58 Route 6. AURLANDSFJORD. Sognefjord. 

usually touches at (i 1 /^ hr.) Yttre Frmingen on the main fjord, 
consisting of a substantial gaard and a saw-mill a little to the E. 
of it. On a green plateau, about 400 ft. higher, lies the School 
House, attended by the children of this very scattered district. 

From Indre Fr0ningen, to which the traveller must walk or row, 
the huge '-Blejen (5560 ft.), a spur of the Blacifjeld (6790 ft.), may be 
ascended in 6-7 hrs. ; it commands an admirable view of the Sognefjord, 
the Jostedalsbrse, the Horunger, the Jotunheim Mts., the Hallingdal, and 
Voss. The fjord itself is best seen from the brink of the Lemegen (5190ft.), 
a cliff descending almost perpendicularly to the N. — The ascent from 
Frtfningen is steep. An easier route is from Vindedal (poor accommoda- 
tion), 3 /4 M. to the W. of Lcerdal, and a little to the E. of Befsncestangen 
(16 hrs. to the summit and back). Seen from various parts of the fjord, 
the Blejen forms a very imposing object in the landscape. — Travellers 
staying at Amble (p. 63) may make the ascent from Frcrningen or from 
Vindedal, either of which may be reached by small boat in an hour. 

The scenery now becomes more picturesque, and the steamboat 
soon turns to the S. into the * Aurlandsfjord, a branch of the 
Sognefjord, passing Fresvik (p. 63), to the right, with its snow- 
mountains in the background. The Aurlandsfjord and the Ncere- 
fjord which diverges from it (see below") are two enormous ravines 
with precipitous rocky banks , 3000-4000 ft. in height , form- 
ing the slopes of the higher mountains behind, which are not 
visible from the lake. As these banks are intersected at places by 
side-valleys descending to the lake , they are often divided into 
sections somewhat resembling the lofty gables of mediaeval houses. 
Being rocky and barren , they are almost entirely uninhabited ; 
but houses are occasionally observed high above the lake, perched 
on some apparently inaccessible rock. Over these abrupt slopes 
are frequently precipitated waterfalls of great height, partly per- 
pendicularly, and partly in the form of streaks of foam gliding 
over the dark-brown rock, and reflected in their whole length in 
the unruffled water of the sombre fjord. Their monotonous mur- 
mur alone breaks the profound silence of the scene. 

The first place in the Aurlandsfjord is Brednas (or Breinces), a 
group of poor houses on the left. We next pass the entrance to 
the Nserefjord (between Ncerencts and Bejteln) on the right , and 
enter the S.E. arm of the Aurlandsfjord. On the right is Vnder- 
dal , prettily situated, whence the Steganaasi ('ugly' or 'terrible 
nose' ; 5665 ft.), the highest peak of the Syrdalsfjeld , may be 
ascended via. the Melhus-Sceter. Opposite, to the E., rises the 
long Flenjag, with the Flenjanaasi (4840 ft.) farther to the S. The 
steamer stops at Aurland or Aurlandsvangen (*Brun , s Inn) , the 
principal hamlet in the Vasbygd, from which a route leads past 
the Vasbygdvand, up the imposing Oalder ofSenjereim, and across 
the mountains to Hammersbeen in the Hallingdal (see pp.34, 33). 

The interesting ' Flaamsdal {Flaam or Flaurn signifying a flood, or 
swollen river) may be visited by rowing to Gaarden Fretheim, at the head 
of the fjord, fully 1/2 M- distant from Aurland, and walking or riding 
thence along the Moldaclv to Gaarden Melhus (1294 ft.), where the night 
may be spent, or to Gaarden Kaardal, the highest house in the valley 

Sognefjord. GUDVANGEN. 6. Route. 59 

(3-4 hrs.). The finest points in the Flaamsdal are the hill above the 
church of Flaam, the Riondefos, Vibesnaasi, and the Berakvamsgjel (Gjel 
or Oil, 'cleft', 'ravine'). 

From Aukland to Vossevangen (3 days). 1st Day : to Kaardal , as 
above. 2nd Day (guide desirable as far as Opst0l): a, steep ascent of 
about 2000 ft. to the Gravahals (Hals signifying 'pass' ; 3728 ft.), following 
the telegraph-wires; then a descent to the Rundehoug Safer and Opstel 
in the district of Voss, whence the path follows the Rundalselv to Al- 
mendingen (in all 12-14 hrs.). 3rd Day: bridle-path to (l'/2 M.) Kleve, and 
road thence to ( 3 /4 M.) Vossevangen. — Above Kl0ve is the so-called Sver- 
resli ('Sverre's path') , which is said to have been traversed by King 
Sverre and the Birkebeiner in 1177. — From the head of the Rundal, 
which is entered a little to the S. of the Gravahals, and which will 
eventually be traversed by the Bergen and Voss Railway, another route, 
diverging to the left, leads to (6-7 hrs.) Ose on the Osefjord, a branch of 
the Hardanger (p. 92). A rough mountain track also leads from Almen- 
dingen direct to (6-7 hrs.) Ulvik (p. 91). 

From Aurland to L^rdal (2 days). This is an interesting route for 
pedestrians, traversing magnificent mountain -scenery. 1st Day: steep 
ascent of about 4000 ft. between the Blaaskavl (Skavl, 'snow-drift') on the 
N. and HGiskarsnuten on the S., and afterwards passing the lofty Hodn- 
snipe on the right, to the Hodnsceter (8 hrs.). — 2nd Day: to the Skaa- 
leswier and ascend the * Barshegda (4635 ft.), commanding a superb view 
as far as the Horunger, and of the .Tjzrranaasi with the Troldelifjeld. A 
rough speter-path then descends to the (7 hrs.) church of Tenjiwi in the 
Lwrdal (p. 45), from which Lardalseren is 1 Dr. distant by the high- 
road. — Another path leads direct from the Hodnsseter to Lserdalsgtren, 
but misses the fine view from the Barshizrgda. 

The *NjEaerjOHD. The direct steamer from Ljerdal to Gud- 
vangen performs the trip in 3^2 hrs. ; another, via Amble (p. 62), 
takes 4 hrs ; and those via Aurland take 5 hrs. (from Aurland to 
Gudvangen 1 hrs.). The strikingly grand and severe *Naerofjord, 
a S.W. branch of the Aurlandsfjord, is l 1 /^ M. in length. A little 
beyond Dyrdal, which lies on the right, at the mouth of the valley 
of that name, the fjord contracts to a narrow defile , bounded by 
precipitous rocky mountains of immense height. On the left lies 
Styve and beyond it Holmenas. On the right rises the church of 
Bakke or Nare, picturesquely situated, with a cluster of small farms 
and poor cottages around it. At the landing-place, ^ M. farther, 
the water is shallow, and passengers are landed in small boats. 

f Gudvangen (* Hansen's Inn and Station , small , on the left, 
below the level of the road), a hamlet at the head of the Nser«rfjord, 
10 inin. from the landing-place, lies in so confined a situation that 
it is not reached by the sun's rays throughout the whole winter. 
On the E. rises the Sjerpenut, on the W. the Solbjergenut. From 
the Kilsboten, to the N. of the former, is precipitated the *Kilefos, 
a waterfall resembling the Staubbach, 1850 ft. in height, begin- 
ning with a perpendicular fall of 500 ft. and terminating in a cata- 
ract. On the Tight of the fall is the Hestnasfos and on the left 
the Nautefos, which unite with it at one point and afterwards se- 
parate. The Nceredalselv affords tolerable fishing, but Gudvangen 
is not recommended for a prolonged stay. If the traveller merely 
visits the place from Lserdal, and intends returning thither or pro- 
ceeding to some other part of the Sognefjord, he should not omit 

60 Route 6. 1NLERODAL. From Gudvangen 

to ascend the valley as far as the head of the Stalheimsklev , a 
magnificent walk or drive of 5-6 hrs. there and back. The only 
other walk from Gudvangen is down the left bank of the fjord, 
passing the landing-place, by a level road to (y 2 M.) Bakke (or 
Narei~), with its picturesquely situated church (see above). 

From Gudvangen to Vossevangen and Bergen (13'/2 M.). 
This part of our route, particularly as far as (4 M.) Vossevangen, 
traverses some of the grandest and most picturesque scenery in 
Norway, and is preferable to the direct steamboat-route from Lser- 
dal to Bergen (R. 7). Instead of going direct from Vossevangen to 
Bergen via Bolstaderen , the traveller who intends proceeding 
northwards from Bergen to Molde and returning thence by the 
Romsdal, or to Throndhjem and returning thence by railway, is 
recommended to go from Vossevangen to Eide (p. 90), visit the 
Hardanger Fjord, and then proceed to Bergen. Those , on the 
other hand, who propose to return home from Bergen via the Hard- 
anger Fjord and Stavanger will prefer to go from Vossevangen to 
Bergen via Bolstaderen . 

All the stations from Gudvangen to Evanger, inclusive, are fast (1 kr. 
80 0. per horse and cart per mile; carrioles rare, so that two travellers 
with moderate luggage usually take a Stolkjferre at a fare and a half). 
No good quarters for the night between Gudvangen and Vossevangen. 

The road, part of which is new, having been completed in 1878, 
ascends gradually from Gudvangen through the wild and pictur- 
esque *Nser«dal, with its exquisitely clear river, bounded on each 
side by lofty and imposing mountains, of which the huge Jordnls- 
nut (3600 ft. ) is the most conspicuous on the right. On the rocky 
precipices on either side are seen traces of the numerous avalan- 
ches (Skred) which fall into the valley in the early part of the 
summer. The road passes the houses of Sjerping and Hylland, 
and (about 7 / 8 M. from Gudvangen) reaches the *Stalheimsklev 
(A7er, 'cliff'), a precipitous slope, about 1000 ft. in height, which 
terminates the valley. The road ascends the 'Kiev' by means of 
sixteen somewhat steep zigzags , the ascent of which takes nearly 
an hour. On the right is the *8evlefps, on the left the *Stalheims- 
fos, two picturesque waterfalls. Looking back from the top of the 
pass, we enjoy a very striking view of the profound and sombre 
Nsredal , with the huge rounded rocky summit of the Jordalsnut 
on the left, and the Kilefos beyond it. This view is justly con- 
sidered one of the grandest of its kind in Norway. A little beyond 
the summit of the pass we reach — 

1 Vs M. (P a y f° r 1 72 in the reverse direction) f Stalheim (1 1 30 ft. ; 
poor station) , where we enter a broad and comparatively level 
region of the valley, bounded by grey rocky mountains ( Kaldafjeld, 
Aaxeln-, Mulmayrensruuiven) , and presenting a more smiling aspect 
than the ravine we have just quitted. 

From Gaarden Bra j khe near Stalheim a dizzy path, known as XaaUne 

to Bergen. VOSSEVANGEN. 6. Route. 61 

(the needles 1 ) leads high above the Nser^dal and past the Jordalsnut to 
Gaarden Jordal (1100 ft.), and thence across the mountains to the Sadlen 
Swter, whence the traveller may descend either to Vik or to Fresvik, both 
on the Sognefjord (p. 63). As far as Gaarden Jordal a guide is unnecessary. 

Crossing the watershed between the Sognefjord and the Bol- 
stadfjord , the road passes the Opheimsvand and Opheims-Kirke 
(952 ft.), prettily situated on the hank of the lake, and leads 
through Orehullet, a kind of natural rocky gateway, beyond which 
we obtain a view of distant snow-mountains. Traversing a pictur- 
esque valley, we next stop at — 

1 M. (pay for 13/ 8 ) f Vinje (957 ft. ; poor station), and descend 
thence by a hilly road to — 

7 /gM. (pay for i 1 /^) f Tvinde (226 ft.; very poor station), passing 
the Tvindefos , a line waterfall on the right. The valley now ex- 
pands and becomes more fertile. On the right rises the Lenehorje 
(4600 ft.) and Hodn (3600 ft.), on the left the snow-clad Hondals- 
nut (4785 ft.), and opposite us the Graasiden (4270 ft.). The road 
traverses a beautiful pastoral and partially wooded district, crosses 
the Eongsbakke , and passes the Lenevande on the left, beyond 
which it descends somewhat steeply to ■ — 

1 M. (pay for l 3 / 8 ) f Vossevangen (*Fle iscfcer's Hotel and Station, 
on the bank of the lake, 5 min. beyond the village, comfortable; 
*Dykesteris Inn, in the village, near the church, less pretending), 
charmingly situated on the Vangsvand (123 ft.), in the midst of 
an unusually well-cultivated district, which may be termed the 
kitchen-garden of Bergen. This spot is suited for a prolonged 
stay. The lake and neighbouring streams afford tolerable fishing, 
and several beautiful excursions may be made in the vicinity. 
The only object of interest in the village itself is the timber-built 
Church, which dates from the 13th century. The Lenehorje 
(4600 ft.), to the N., may be ascended hence in 5-6 hrs., the path 
being practicable for riding nearly the whole way. The Hondalsnut 
(4785 ft.), to the E., may also be ascended in about the same time 
from (y 2 M.) Meen on the road to Eide. 

Fkom Vossevangen to Eide on the Hardanger Fjord (2 3 /4 31. ; fast 
stations; 1 kr. 8O0. per mile). The road leads to the S.E., at first skirt- 
ing the Vosseelv, and then gradually ascending to its highest point (85S ft.). 
The country is pretty and well cultivated , but somewhat monotonous. 
The silver fir is seen here at intervals. The road then descends gradu- 
ally and crosses the boundary of the Hardanger district. A number of 
marshy ponds impart a dark brown colour to the water of the Skjerveselv, 
which flows southwards. The upper part of the valley soon terminates 
suddenly (as at Stalheim) , and the road descends in zigzags into the 
profound and most picturesque valley known as "Skjervet, flanked with 
imposing rocks. On the left the "Skjervesfos is precipitated in the form 
of a veil over the black slate rock. The vegetation becomes richer as 
we descend, the lime and the ash occurring frequently here. Farther on 
we pass a number of old moraines. On the left is the "Skorvefos. 

2 31. (pay for 2 l /i in the reverse direction) \0vre Seim (i Graven), or 
Vasenden (tolerable station) is prettily situated on the Gravenvand (p. 90), 
the E. bank of which is skirted by the road. Opposite rises the lofty Xk-s- 
heimshorjen. From Graven-Kirke , about halfway between Vasenden and 
Eide, a very steep and hilly road crosses the mountain to (l'/2 31., pay 

62 Route 6. EVANGER. 

for 2 5 /s) t Vlvik (p. 91), a beautiful walk or ride of 3'/2 hrs., but hardly 
practicable for driving. We next pass Nedre Vasenden, at the lower end 
of the Gravenvand, pass through a rocky defile, and soon reach — 

3/4 M. Eide (see p. 90). 

From Vossevangen to the Flaamsdal and Aurland (3 days), see p. 59. 

Beyond Vossevangen our route , which, as far as Bolstaderen, 
nearly coincides with the Bergen and Voss Railway, now in course 
of construction, skirts the hilly N. bank of the picturesque Vangs- 
vund for about % M., then follows the direction of the Vosseelv, 
passing Qaarden Flage and traversing a pleasant district, to — 

l 5 /g M. (pay for 2) f Evanger (*Mme. Monsens Inn), situated 
on the Evangervand, whence the summit of the Myklethveiten 
(3755 ft.), to the S., an admirable point of view, may be reached 
in 2-3 hrs. — A small steamer usually runs twice daily from 
Evanger to the W. end of the lake ( 5 /§ M., in 40 min. ; fare 80 0.), 
whence the road descends by the side of the beautiful Vosseelv to 
Bolstadaren, y 2 M. farther. (When the river is sufficiently full, 
it is possible to row down from the Evangervand to Bolstad&ren, 
shooting several rapids by the way.) 

iy 8 M - Bolstad«ren {^Station, 'slow'") lies at the E. end of 
the Bolstad- Fjord, a branch of the Osterfjord. A steamer usually 
runs hence to Bergen three times weekly (in 5 1 / 2 -6 hrs., or up- 
wards, according to the state of the tide), traversing the narrow 
and at places very picturesque fjords just mentioned. 

If the steamer does not run , the route from Bolstaderen to 
Bergen is as follows (the stations being all 'slow') : — ( 3 / 4 M.) 
Dalseidet, by water; then to( 5 / 8 M.) Dale, by land; by boat on the 
Osterfjord to (2 3 / 4 M.) Garnas; and lastly by land to ( 3 / 4 M.) Lone 
and (17/ 8 M.) Bergen (p. 102). 

7. The Sognefjord. From Lserdalsoren to Bergen by 


Comp. Maps, pp. 40, 56. 

31 31. Steamboat from Lccrdals&ren to Bergen 5 times weekly in 14-2372 
hrs. ; fares 12 kr. 40, 7 kr. 75 0. (comp. p. 51). Each of the five steamers 
slightly varies its route on each trip , so that it is only at the most im- 
portant stations that they touch regularly four times weekly in each 
direction. Such stations are indicated in the present route by being 
printed in heavy type. (See "Communicationer'.) The distance between 
the stations are given in Norwegian nautical miles , one of which is 
equal to 4 Engl. M. (Through-passengers pay for the direct distance to 
Bergen, while the distance actually traversed is 10-12 M. more.) 

Lcerdalseren (p. 45), as already mentioned, is the most im- 
portant place on the Sognefjord , being the starting-point of the 
routes to Christiania through Valders and through the Hallingdal, 
and also of the local steamers to the western branches of the Sogne- 
fjord, which have been already described. The first station on the 
steamboat route from Laerdal to Bergen is — 

2 M. Amble (*Inn kept by the Lensmand), prettily situated on 
the N. bank of the Sognefjord. Through the bay of Amble a strik- 

Sognefjord. FRESVIK. 7. Route. 63 

ing suivey is obtained of the Fresvik Glacier on the opposite bank 
of the fjord, or better from the top of the *Blaafjeld (1700 ft. J, 
1 hour's walk to the S., a magnificent point of view. At low tide 
the naturalist should visit the beach (Fjcere) here, which will 
afford him several objects of interest. A road leads hence, passing 
Qaarden Ileiberg, to (y s M.) Kaupanger, beautifully situated at 
the head of the Bay of Amble, which somewhat resembles a large 
crater, but not a steamboat-station. The small Stavekirke, now 
restored, dates from the time of King Sverre (12th cent.). The 
landscape is diversified here by a number of fine elms and ashes. 
From Amble to Sogndal the steamer usually takes 21/2 hrs. or 
more, having a circuit of more than 3 M. to perform. 

From Amble to Sogndal (l'/s 31.). The direct route, by taking which 
the traveller disembarking here may catch the steamer again at Sogndal, 
is by a good road to ('/s M.) Kaupanger (see above), beyond which it ascends, 
commanding a magnificent retrospect of the Sognefjord and particularly 
of the precipitous slopes of the snow-clad Blejen (p. 58). The road then 
enters a pine-forest, and descends past several large farms (each provided 
with a '■Stabbur' and belfry with the ' Maulklaukka\ or bell to summon 
the labourers to meals) to C/2 31.) Eide (a poor station). A road skirting 
the Eidsfjord leads hence to C/2 31.) Loftesnws, a substantial farm-house 
opposite Sogndal, to which the traveller crosses the Sogndalsfjord by 
boat. It is, however, preferable to row from Eide to Sogndal C/2 31., in 
1 hr. ; boat with two rowers 1 kr. 8 #.), passing the picturesque JStorhoug, 
a mountain furrowed by avalanches, and traversing the Eidsfjord, in 
which herrings (JSild) are frequently caught in large numbers. To the 
N.W. rise several snow-clad mountains. The water in this bay is almost 
entirely fresh on the surface, but is Salter in its lower strata. 

2 M. Freningen (p. 58), at which the larger steamers rarely 
touch, lies on the S. bank of the fjord, and is reached in l 1 ^ hr. 
from Amble. Ascent of the Blejen, see p. 58. 

1 M. Fresvik, a small station on the S. bank of the Sognefjord, 
at the entrance to the Aurlandsfjord (p. 58), lies at the N. base 
of the Nonhaug (Non, 'noon', or rather 2 or 3 p.m., when the sun 
appears over this Haug). To the E. is Nuten with the Saltkjelnas. 
A very interesting excursion may be taken to the *Fresvik Glacier 
to the S.W. (driving practicable part of the way). A mountain 
path leads hence through the Tundal and Jordal to (8 hrs.) Stal- 
heim (p. 60), on the road from Gudvangen to Vossevangen. 

The steamer now steers towards the N., passing the promon- 
tories of Hensene ('the poultry') and Meisen, and enters the narrow 
Sogndalsfjord, an arm of the Sognefjord about l 1 ^ M. in length. 
On the left Gaarden Lunden; on the right is Fimreile, on a fertile 
hill, commanded by the mountain of that name (2575 ft.) rising 
above it , and bearing traces of a great avalanche (Skred) which 
once descended from it. On 15th June, 1184, Magnus Erlingssen 
was signally defeated and slain here by King Sverre. Passing 
through the narrow Norefjord (with the peninsula of Nordnas on 
the left), we enter the Sogndalsfjord strictly so called, the smiling 
banks of which form one of the best cultivated districts in Norway. 
On the left rises Olmheims Kirke (belonging to the parish of Sogn- 

64 Route 7. BALHOLM. Sognefjord. 

dal); Fardal lies at the mouth of the Aust (0verste) Dal. On the 
right opens the Eldsfjord, on the bank of which rises the Storhoug 
(3940 ft.]. On the left lies Gaarden Stedje (or Steie), with its 
thriving orchards. 

3 M. Sogndal (*Hotel), consisting of Sogndalskirke, Hofslund, 
and Soyndalsfjceren(Fjcere, 'beach'), reached by steamer in IV2 nT - 
from Fresvik, lies on an old moraine through which the Sogndalselv 
has forced a passage. The beauty of the situation is enhanced by 
the lofty mountains in the neighbourhood {Storhougen , to the S. ; 
Skriken, 4120 ft., to the W. ; and *Njuken, to the N., which last 
may easily be ascended in 3i/ 2 hrs.J, and by the comfortable-look- 
ing farm-houses on the banks of the fjord, among which that of 
Aaberge to the N. is especially conspicuous. After the battle of 
Fimreite the victorious Birkebeiner are said to have burned a 
hundred farm-houses here in one day. A pleasant walk may be 
taken on the bank of the river to the Waterfall, where there are 
several mills, and then to the S. to the picturesque timber-built 
Church, a Bautastein adjoining which bears the Runic inscription ; 
'Olafr konungr saa ut mille staina thessa\ The road may then 
be followed to Stedje , with its two large Kanrvpehouge ('giant 
tumuli'), whence we may return to Sogndalsfjaeren by boat (an ex- 
cursion of 1 hr. in all). The banks of the fjord are enlivened by 
numerous birches. 

From Sogndal to the * Frudalsbrw (to the N. of which is the "Sten- 
dalsbrw) and Fjmrland (10-12 hrs.), see p. 57. From Sogndal to Mari- 
f jeer en, a beautiful walk or drive of 2'/2 M., see p. 55. 

Returning to the central highway of the Sognefjord, the steamer 
steers towards the "W. and touches at — 

3 M. Leikanger or Lekanger (*Inn, suitable for a prolonged 
stay), situated on the beautiful and fertile N. bank of the fjord, 
known as the Sjestrand. To the E. lies Gaarden Henjum, with a 
quaint ^tue' (wooden house) of the 17th cent., and to the W. 
Gaarden Husebe, with a lofty Bautastein. 

A day's excursion may be taken from Leikanger to the N. through 
the Henjumdal to the Gunvordsbrce (5150 ft.). 

On the opposite bank of the fjord lie Fejos (feia, 'erode' ; os, 
'mouth of a river'), where a steamer touches once weekly in each 
direction, and Vangsnas ('meadow promontory'), commanded by 
huge mountains in the background. From Fejos mountaineers 
may ascend the * Rambaren (5250 ft.) and the * Fresvik Bra> 
(5150 ft.). — Opposite Vangsnses the Fjarlandsfjord (p. 56) opens 
to the N., while the main fjord trends suddenly to the S. — The 
next steamboat-station is — 

2 M. Balholm (*Inn) , the principal village on the fertile 
Balestrand, finely situated on the N. bank of the fjord, near the 
entrance to the Fjaerlandsfjord. The small inlet to the N.W. of 
Balholm is the Essefjord. The imposing mountain-background con- 
sists of Gjeiterryggen, Vindrekken (3875 ft.), and Guldaple; farther 

Sognefjord. VIK. 7. Route. 65 

to the N. are Furunipa and Toten< Between the Guldseple and 
Furunipa is the curious gap called Kjeipen ('rowlock', from the 
supposed resemblance). The *Munkeegg, to the S., which is easily 
ascended, commands a striking view. 

The Balestrand (Bale, 'elevated beach') is commonly supposed 
to be the scene of Tegner's 'Frithjofs Saga'. At Oaarden Flesje, 
>/2 M. to the S., King Bele's tomb (Gravhoug) is pointed out, 
while the fertile promontory of Vanysnas opposite is said to be 
the Framnas of Frithjof ('the robber of peace'). To the N. of 
Balholm is the very picturesquely situated church of Tjugum. 
Shortly before we stop at Balholm, the deck of the steamer affords 
a view of the Vetlefjord with its glacier-background, but not of the 
N. end of the Fjeerlandsfjord (p. 56). 

Balholm is well adapted for a lengthened stay, as several in- 
teresting excursions may be made in the neighbourhood, the finest 
of them being a visit to Fjarland and its glaciers , which have 
been already described (p. 57). 

Fkom Balholm to Sande (2 days). 1st Day. Row up the Svaerefjord 
to (1 M.) Gaarden Svceren at the head of the bay (tolerable quarters) ; ascend 
through the valley 0/4 If.), and then by a steep and rugged path to the 
Svcereskard (2300 ft.) , a pass between lofty ^mountains , and sometimes 
partially covered with snow, whence a fine retrospect is obtained towards 
the Sognefjord; the route next traverses a boggy and sterile plateau to 
the watershed , descending from which it soon reaches a sseter (about 
5 hrs. from Svseren); it descends thence, passing a small lake, and traversing 
wood at places, to another saeter, crosses the river, and leads over marshy 
ground to if jell (8-10 hrs. walk in all). — 2nd Pay. From Mjell by a 
bridle-path to Gaarden So/, and thence by a road to the pretty Viksvand, 
a lake about 1 M. long , which is traversed by boat , passing the island 
and chapel of Hwstad; thence by road to Sande (p. 122; a Walk of 3-4 hrs. 
and a row of l 3 /4 hr. in all). 

Fkom Balholm to F#rde (2 days). 1st Day. Row to (1 M.) Ulvestad, 
at the head of the * Vetlefjord, and follow the road thence to ('/» M.) 
Mell , near which an offshoot (Jekel) of the Jostedalsbrae descends into 
the valley; thence, with a guide, to Botnen at the S.W. end. or to Greneng 
at the N.E. end of the Haukedalsvand, both routes being rough and fatiguing 
(7-8 hrs.). 2nd Day. From Grefneng in about 10 hrs., or from Botnen in 
9 hrs., to Ferde on the Ferdefjord (p. 123); Tolerable quarters may be 
obtained at any of these places. 

Leaving Balholm, the steamer usually steers due S. to ■ — 

1 M. Vik (* Inn) , beautifully situated on a bay on the S. side 
of the fjord, with fertile environs and snow-mountains in the back- 
ground. To the left rises Ramlaren. The two old churches, 
one built of timber, the other of stone, are interesting. Numerous 
boathouses (Nest, locally pronounced Nausht). To the N. the 
Vetlebra, a branch of the Jostedals Glacier, is visible ; more to the 
right is the Tvindefos. 

A carriage-road ascends the valley behind Vik for about 1 M. — 
Interesting mountain -routes (about. 8 hrs. each) lead hence to Stalheim 
(p. 60), to Vinje (p. 61), and to Gulbraa in the Exingdal (guide necessary 
in each case). 

Soon after leaving Vik the steamboat passes a promontory on 
the left, on which is placed a 'Gilje 1 , or apparatus for catching 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 5 

66 Route 7. VADHEIM. 

salmon , with waterfalls painted on it with a view to attract 
the fish. 

2 M. Nese i Arne fjord, picturesquely situated in its hay on the 
S. side of the Sognefjord, is commanded by an imposing background 
of mountains about 3000 ft. in height, clothed with grass to their 
summits and partially covered with snow. To the S. open several 
valleys , through which mountain-routes lead to the Exingdal and 
to Vinje (i Voss). — About 2 M. to the N.W., on the same side 
of the main fjord , lies Ortnevik , where the steamers occasionally 
touch, 1 M. to the N. of which, on the opposite bank, lies — 

3 M. Maaren , prettily situated , with a waterfall near it. The 
white water-worn cliffs bear traces of the great height to which 
they are sometimes washed by the waves. 

l'/o M. Kirkebe lies on the N. bank, nearly opposite the Fugl- 
scetfjord, a bay on the S. side, in which lies Svartanger, where the 
steamers touch once weekly in each direction. 

1^2 M. Vadheim (* Station , unpretending, 'slow') is prettily 
situated at the head of the Vadheims/'jord, a bay on the N. side of 
the Sognefjord. Route to Molde, see R. 14. (On the Eikefjord, a 
bay on the S. side, about 3 M. to the S.W. of Vadheim, lies Tredal, 
at which a steamer touches once weekly in each direction.) 

3 M. Ladvik , on the N. bank, the principal place in this part 
of the Sogn district, presents little attraction to travellers. A little 
to the E. of it is Vcerholm, where the steamers touch occasionally. 
To the S. of Vaerholm, on the opposite bank, is — 

1 M. Brcekke, on the small Risnefjord, above which the Stang- 
landsfjeld rises to the W. 

2 M. Be fjord (or Lervik~), on the small fjord of that name, is 
the starting-point of a road to (3 3 / 4 M.) Dale on the Dalsfjord (see 
p. 112), but the stations are very poor, and the road very hilly, 
so that most travellers proceeding northwards will prefer the route 
via Vadheim and Sande (p. 122). The scenery, however, on this 
route is very wild and picturesque at places. To the N.W. of 
Lervik rises the Lihest (2370 ft.), at the head of the Aafjord. The 
magnificent scenery of the Sognefjord is now quitted; the moun- 
tains become lower and more barren , and the picturesque side- 
valleys disappear. The last station on the fjord is — 

2 M. Sognefest, on the S. side, opposite which, to the E., rise 
the Sulen-0er, a group of islands , containing mountains 1800 ft. 
in height. The steamer now passes through the strait called the 
Sognesjei, and next stops at — 

1 M. Eivindvik on the Oulenfjord, the famous seat of the 
ancient (fulathingslag , a popular assembly, to whose jurisdiction 
all the western 'Fylker' from Seindmere to Rygjarbit (now Christian- 
sands-Stift and Bergen-Stift , including the Hallingdal and Val- 
ders) were subject. The steamer now threads its way through the 
'Skjaergaard' or network of islands to the N. of Bergen, inhabited 

DR0BAK. 8. Route. 67 

by i Striler\ as the natives of this region are called , touching at 
(1 M.J Skjergehaon, (4 M.) Lygren, and (2M.) Aloerstremmen, and 
at length reaches — 

3 M. Bergen, see It. 12. 

8. From Christiania to Christiansand. 

Steamboats (coinp. 'JVorges Communicationer'). About twelve steamers 
start weekly from Christiania for Christiansand, a distance of 39 Norwegian 
nautical miles (156 Engl. JM.), performing the voyage in 16-30 hrs., according 
to circumstances. The larger steamers , bound for Bergen, Thrnmlhjem, 
and the North , touch nowhere between Christiania and Christiansand; 
others touch at two or three intervening stations , and others again at 
fourteen or fifteen. The traveller who proposes to break his journey at 
any station between these two towns may perform the first part of it by 
one of the small coasting steamers plying to Drefbak (daily), Holmeslrand 
(daily), Moss (almost daily) , Tensberg (almost daily), Sande/Jord (1 times 
a week), or to Porsgrund and Skien (4 times a week). The smaller vessels, 
which touch at numerous stations, ply almost exclusively ^iitdenskjairs\ 
i.e. within the Skjuergaavd , or belt of islands which flanks almost every 
part of the Norwegian coast, where the water is perfectly smooth , while 
the course of the larger steamers is '■udenskjcefs'', or outside the islands, 
where the sea is often rough. The traveller may, therefore, if he prefer 
it, perform nearly the whole voyage to Christiansand in smooth water, 
with the additional advantage of getting occasional glimpses at some of the 
picturesque coast-towns. — The usual cabin fare is 40 0. per Norwegian 
nautical mile, steerage 25 0. per mile. Most of the steamers have good 
restaurants on board (breakfast or supper about IV2 , dinner 2 kr.), and 
good, though limited sleeping accommodation (steward's fee discretionary). 
— Distances from Christiania are given approximately in Norwegian sea- 

The * Christtania-Fjord , a very picturesque arm of the sea, 
about 50 English miles in length , and enlivened with frequent 
steamboats and sailing vessels , is bounded by banks of moderate 
height, which are studded with pleasant looking country-houses, 
villages, and towns. The steamer starts from the Bjeroik on the E. 
side of Christiania (p. 4), steers between the islands of lileke and 
Grasholm, commanding to the left a line view of the beautiful 
Bundefjord with its numerous country-houses, and between the 
Linde and Hovede (on the right, with interesting strata of slate), 
and describes a circuit round the town. On the right rises the 
picturesque chateau of Oscarshall (p. 19), and to the left (.S.) 
projects the promontory of Ncesoddtangen, which separates the 
Bundefjord from the main fjord of which it is a branch. To the 
right, a little farther on, lies Sandviken (p. 13), ensconced behind 
a number of islands. The vessel now steers due S., and the 
beautiful city is soon lost to view. Looking back from this part 
of the fjord , we obtain a view of the Kolsaas , the Skogumsuas, 
and to the \V. the Vardekolle , three porphyry hills well known to 
geologists (p. 14). Several islands are passed, and the fjord 
gradually contracts to a passage barely 700 yds. in width. 

4 M. Dr«bak (two hotels), with 2040 inhab., carries on a 
considerable traffic in tiuiber and ice. The latter is obtained from 

68 Route 8. MOSS. From Christiania 

a small lake in the neighbourhood, and is exported to England as 
'Wenham Lake ice'. In winter , when the upper part of the fjord 
is blocked with ice , the navigation frequently remains open up to 
this point. Opposite the town is the small fortified island of 
Kaholm, with the Oscarsborg, to the "W. of which (on the right) is 
the peninsula of Hudrum. On the latter lies Slottet , a posting- 
station, from which a hilly road leads to Svelvig on the Drammens- 
fjord. Drebak and the next stations Hvidsten (500 inhab.) and 
Soon (700 inhab.) are frequently visited for the sake of the sea- 
bathing. Opposite Soon, on the W. bank of the fjord , which now 
expands to a considerable width , and from which the Draminens- 
fjord diverges here to the N., lies Holmestrand (Hotel du Nord; 
Vesman's; DahVs), with 2213 inhab., a sea-bathing place situated 
at the foot of a cliff, to which steamers run daily from Christiania, 
about 7 M. distant. Beyond Soon the small steamers usually steer 
to the S., through the strait and canal which separate the Gjelle 
from the E. bank of the fjord, to — 

8 M. Moss (ReinscVs Hotel; Germania), a small town and sea- 
bathing place, with 5073 inhab., where the treaty which terminated 
the war between Norway and Sweden was signed on lith Aug. 
1814. Opposite Moss, on the W. bank of the fjord, is — 

8 M. Horten (two hotels), or Karl-Johansvcern, with 6000 
inhab., a prettily situated place, the headquarters of the Norwegian 
fleet. — The rich vegetation of the upper part of the fjord is now 
left behind , and the coast becomes more bleak and rocky. — A 
little to the S. of Horten, on the same bank of the fjord, lies 
Aasganrdstrand, beyond which is — 

10 M. Valle, a small town with a large glass-manufactory, where 
the larger coasting steamers touch frequently. Some of the smaller 
vessels pass through the Temsbergs-Kanal to Ttfnsberg (Schnur- 
buseh's Hotel; Hotel Zembla), li/ 2 M. to the W., a town with 5243 
inhab., and the oldest in Norway, dating from the time of Harald 
Haarfagre. This is the headquarters of Sven Foyn (see p. 250) and 
a number of hardy Arctic mariners, residing chiefly in the islands 
of NetterQ and Thjeme to the S. of the town, who man the fleet of 
about fifty whalers and seal-hunting vessels of considerable size 
(one-third of them being steamers) which annually starts from this 
port. The hill above the town, on which an old castle once stood, 
is no v occupied by a Belvedere Tower. In the vicinity is the 
chateau of Jarlsberg , the seat of the counts of that name. — On 
the E. bank of the fjord, at its mouth, and nearly opposite Tans- 
berg, is Frederiksstad (see p. 260). ■ — Beyond Tensberg our route 
passes the Nettere and Thjemo , to the S. E. of which rises the 
lofty Lille Farder Lighthouse, which marks the entrance to the Chris- 
tiania Fjord. To the "W. of the Thjame-, at the head of the Sunde- 
fjord, lies the small town of — 

16 M. Sandefjord (Heidenreich's Hotel; Johmen's), with 2462 

to Christiansand. LAURVIK. 8. Route. 69 

inhab., a favourite, but somewhat expensive watering-place, prettily 
situated. Off the mouth of the Sandefjord, which all the steamers 
pass, the water is often rough, there being a considerable gap here 
in the belt of islands. 

17 M. Laurvik (Laurviks Hotel and two others), situated at the 
mouth of the Lougen or Laagen (Laurvik or Laugarvik, 'river-creek'), 
which descends from the Numedal (p. 18), a busy little town, 
with 7855 inhab., was formerly the capital of the county of that 
name , to the lord of which belonged the large and conspicuous 
building visible from the deck of the steamboat. A beech-plan- 
tation in the vicinity is said to be the only one in Norway. Im- 
mediately to the N. of the town lies the Farisvand, an inland lake 
l 3 / 4 M. in length. The old iron-works of Fritze on the Fariselv 
have been converted into a saw-mill. — A good road, following 
the valley of the Laag, leads from Laurvik to (9 M.) Kongsberg 
(p. 17); on this road lies (5 M.) Skjerven, from which another 
road leads to (-i 1 ^ M.) Drammen (p. 15 ; all the stations are fast ; 
1 kr. 80 8. per horse and cart per mile). — At the mouth of the 
bay of Laurvik, 1 M. to the S., is Frederiksvcem (Inn), with 1100 
inhab., formerly the station of the Norwegian fleet. — Crossing 
the mouth of the Langesunds-Fjord , which is unprotected by is- 
lands, the steamer next stops at — 

19 M. Langesund (Inn), with 1081 inhab. , which lies at the 
entrance to an important water-highway leading into the heart of 
Thelemarken. The steamboats bound for Skien now steer towards 
the N. to (}/% nr Brevik, where the fjord contracts to a narrow 
channel, a town with 2269 inhab., opposite which lies the small 
town of Stathelle(John$en's Inn); and thence through the Friersfjord 
to ( 3 / 4 hr.) Porsgrund (Stiansen's Hotel), a town with 3545 inhab., 
situated at the mouth of the broad Sklenselo, which descends from 
the Nordsje. Ascending this river, the steamer finally stops at 
( 3 / 4 hr.) Skien (Heyers Hotel; Oplandske Hotel), a town with 5465 
inhab., the ancient Skidar, dating from the 14th cent., but in con- 
sequence of repeated fires now consisting entirely of modern 
wooden houses. The stone church is a handsome building, erected 
in 1777. Above the steamboat-pier are the Klosterfos and the 
Damfos , two waterfalls of great volume , which are crossed by 
bridges. On a small island between the falls formerly stood the 
nunnery oiQimse, founded in the 12th century. On the steep 
Bratsbergklev , to the E. of the town, are the ruins of the Brats- 
berg Chapel. 

From Mien to the Rjukan-Fos , see p. 25. As already mentioned, this 
is one bf the most attractive routes in S. Norway, and it may easily be 
combined with a visit to other picturesque parts of Thelemarken. The 
following tour of 10-13 days includes the finest scenery in the district, 
almost all of which is accessible by steamboat or carriole. Most of the 
stations afford good quarters. 1st. Steamboat to Hitterdal (p. 19); 2nd. 
Carriole to Tinotei, steamboat to Strand, and carriole to Vaar, near Krokan 
and the Rjukan-Fos (p. 20); 3rd. Walk to Holvik on the Mjewand (p. 21); 

70 Route 8. ARENDAL. 

4th. By boat and on foot to Rmdnnd on the Totakvcmd (p. 21); 5th. By 
boat and on foot to Jamsgaard near Vinje (p. 24); 6th. Drive to Trisml 
on the Bmtdalsvand (p. 26); 7th. Visit Bandakslid, on the opposite bank 
of the lake, and the Lille Rjutan-Fos (p. 27); 8th. Visit Bale and environs 
(p. 26); 9th. Steamboat to Strain gen (p. 25); 10th. Carriole to Vlefos and 
steamer to Slien (p. 25). Or the traveller may prefer to proceed from 
Dale to Hvideseid (p. 26), and thence via. the Nisservand to Arendal (see 
below), a journey of 3 days. Those who intend proceeding to Christian- 
sand may drive from Bandakslid on the Bandaksvand (p. 27) to Veum, 
walk or ride thence by the Bispevei to Valle in the Sa'fersdal (p. 73), 
and drive down the Ssetersdal to Clirisliansaiid (p. 71), n j( urney of five 
days in all, traversing much interesting scenery. Travellers desirous of 
avoiding the rough walks from the Bjukanfos to Holvik , and thence to 
Bauland . may retrace their steps from the Bjukanfos to Lysthus, and 
drive from Lysthus to Trisset via Siljord and Mogen. 

After leaving Langesund the course of the steamer is un- 
protected by islands for some distance. The smaller steamers then 
pass through the Langesunds-Kreppa (i. e. 'strait), or Langaarsund, 
a very narrow channel between lofty and picturesque rocks, while 
the larger vessels steer through a wider passage inside the island 
of Jomfruland. 

22 M. Kragere (Hotel Germania; Kragere Hotel) , with 4861 
inhab., situated on a peninsula opposite the small island of that 
name, carries on a considerable trade in timber, iron-ore, apatite, 
ice , and oysters. In the neighbouring island of Lange are iron- 
mines of some value, and in the vicinity of Kragerer are extensive 
deposits of apatite, a mineral consisting chiefly of phosphate of 
lime, largely used by manufacturers of artificial manures. 

To the N. of Kragertff are numerous inland lakes, some of which are 
said to afford excellent fishing. The largest of these, l'/i 31. to the N., 
is the Tolevand , about 2 M. in length, on which a small steamer plies 
several times weekly, and from the N. end of which pedestrians may 
proceed either to Vlefos (p. 25), to Fjcwgnsund on the Flaavand (p. 25), 
or to the N. end of the Nisservand (p. 'US) in one day. 

Between Kragere and Ris»erthe coast is unprotected by islands. 

24 M. 0»ter-Riseer (Gade's Hotel ; Thiss's), with 2635 inhab., 
is another small trading town. At Lyngeer , about 3 / 4 M. to the 
W., many of the steamboats also touch. The islands again become 
more numerous. Some of the steamers next touch at Boreen, an 
island 3 M. from Riser, and others at (28 M.) Dyngeen or Haven, 
about 1 M. farther, from which stations a small steamer runs 
frequently to Tvedestrand (I-IV2 hr.). One steamer weekly from 
Christiania and one from Christiansand at present ascend the fjord 
to Tvedestrand itself (1471 inhab.), whence a road leads towards 
the N. to the Nisservand and Hvidese (p. 25). 

Beyond Haven, a prettily situated place, the steamer enters 
the Tromesund, a strait between the mainland and the considerable 
island of Trome, and soon enters the excellent harbour of — 

30 M. Arendal (Schnurbusch's Hotel; Serensen's) , a ship- 
building and trading town of considerable importance (4112inhab.), 
prettily situated near the mouth of the Nidelv, and possessing 
one of the largest commercial fleets in Norway. One of the chief 

CHRISTIANS AND. 9. Route. 71 

approaches to Thelemarken is by the road leading hence to the 
Nisservand (p. 26), from which the Nidelv descends. Simonstad, 
a station on that route, 4 3 / 8 M. from Arendal via, Tvede (p. 26), 
may also he reached by a direct road via Rustdalen, a village about 
3 M. to the N., and thence by boat across the Nelougvand (490 ft.). 
Another road leads from Arendal to the N.W. to Faret at the head 
of the Kilefjord in the Saetersdal (p. 73), about 8 M. distant. — 
Soon after leaving Arendal the steamer traverses the Oaltesund, 
between the Trome and the Hue, and passes the two lighthouses 
known as Torungerne. The next stations are — 

33 M. Grimstad (Mailer's Hotel), with 1786 inhab., and — 
35 M. Lillesand (Guldbrandsen), with 1426 inhabitants. 
39 M. Christiansand (see below). 

9. Christiansand and Environs. 

The Saetersdal. 

Hotels. Ernst's Hotel, Strandgade, close to the steamboat-pier and 
the custom-house (German landlord), fairly good, but dear: R. 2-3, B. 2, 
D. 3. S. 2 kr., A. 40-60 0. — Britannia, at the corner of the Markedsgade 
and Dronningensgade, 4 min. from the landing-place, equally good, and 
more reasonable. — Skandinavia, Dronningensgade, nearly opposite the 
Britannia, small and unpretending. 

Boat to or from the steamboats . the larger of which do not lay to 
at the pier, 13 0. for each person, 7 0. for each trunk. 

Porterage from the landing-place to the custom-house 20 0. for each 
trunk; from the custom-house, or from the landing-place, to one of the 
three hotels, 33 0. for each trunk. 

Post and Telegraph Office in the Strandgade, 5 min. from the hotels. 

Sea Baths adjoining the Ottere, a small island at the E. end of the 
Strandgade (ferry 3 #.), reserved for ladies 10-12 a.m. (bath 40 0.). Warm 
and Shower Baths adjoining the public gardens, near the church (40-60 0.). 

Steamers to Chrisliania daily, to Stavanger and Bergen almost daily, 
to Throndhj em 4 times weekly, to Tromsei 3 times, to Hammerfest twice, 
and to the North Cape, Varde, and Vadse once weekly. Also to Gothen- 
burg fortnightly, to Frederikshavn in Denmark 3 times weekly, to Copen- 
hagen weekly, to Hamburg twice weekly, to London fortnightly, to Hull 
weekly, and to Leith fortnightly. Small local steamers ply daily to Ronene 
and Boen on the Topdalselv, and to Mosby on the Otteraa. 

Christiansand, with 12,137 inhab., the largest town on the S. 
coast of Norway and the residence of a bishop, is beautifully situ- 
ated at the mouth of the Otteraa, or Torrisdalselv, on the Christian- 
sand-Fjord, the prolongation of which , running inland towards 
the N., is called the Topdalsfjord. The town is named after 
Christian IV., by whom it was founded in 1641. It possesses an 
excellent harbour , at which all the coasting steamers and others 
from England, Germany, and Denmark touch regularly. The broad 
and regular streets with their low, timber-built houses present an 
exceedingly dull appearance , as the town is thinly peopled in 
proportion to its area. Almost every house, however, is gaily 
embellished with window-plants , on which the inmates usually 
bestow great care. The only buildings worthy of mention are the 

72 Route 9. CHRISTIANS AND. 

Cathedral, a handsome edifice of the 17th cent., adjoining which is 
a small Park, the new Cathedral Skole, and the Bank-Bygning. 
In the streets nearest the harbour and the hotels are several good 
shops. The beer and spirit-shops are few in number, and belong, 
as in many otheT Norwegian towns, to a company, whose profits, 
after payment of 5 per cent to its members , are handed to the 

Environs. The situation of Christiansand is picturesque, and 
a day or two may be pleasantly devoted to excursions in the en- 
virons. One of the favourite walks (1 hr. there and back) is on the 
Ottere, a rocky and partially wooded island at the E. end of the 
Strandgade, about 8 min. from the hotels (ferry 3 ».). The baths 
(p. 71) are reached by a path turning to the right a few paces 
from the ferry. The path in a straight direction passes the Seamen's 
Hospital and leads round the whole island (40 min.), commanding 
beautiful views of the town and fjord. — On the Mandal road, on 
the W. side of the town, i/ 4 hr. from the hotels , lies the pretty 
Cemetery. Immediately opposite to it (to the right) is a path 
ascending the hill and leading to the (10 min.) Ravnedal, a wooded 
and grassy dale, at the upper end of which (10 min.) there is a 
point of view reached by a flight of wooden steps. Descending 
thence on the W. side of the dale, and passing two ponds and a 
mill, we regain (Y4 hr.) the Mandal road and (10 min.) the Ce- 
metery (a walk of IV4-IV2 nr - in a U)- — On the N. side of the 
town, at the mouth of the Otteraa (!/ 4 hr.), is the landing-stage 
of the small steamers which ply on that river. A rocky hill near 
it affords a good survey of the environs. At the mouth of the river, 
on the opposite bank , rises the church of Oddernces, to which a 
wooden bridge crosses. About 1 M. up the river is Mosby , to 
which the steamer plies daily in an hour; 1 M. farther to the N., 
near the Vennesland station, is the Oaard Vigland, near which are 
the Hundsfosse and the Helvedesfos , picturesque waterfalls , to 
which the traveller may drive from Christiansand in 2y 2 -3 hrs. — 
A steamer plies twice daily between Christiansand, *Ronene, and 
Boen on the Topdalselv, traversing the Topdalsfjord, a pleasant 
excursion of 2 1 / 2 -3 hrs., there and back. — A trip by boat may be 
taken to the lighthouse on the Oxe, 1 M. distant. Farther to the 
S.W. is the lighthouse of Ny-Hellesund, where L. von Buch, the 
celebrated German geologist, spent a considerable time in 1807, 
while waiting for a vessel to Denmark, which was then at war 
with England. 

From Christiansand to Ekersund (17 5 /s M.). A good , but hilly 
road, running near the coast, and crossing several ferries , leads from 
Christiansand to Ekersund, traversing beautiful scenery nearly the whole 
way. Almost all the stations on the route are fast', the most important 
being (3'/s M.) Mandal, (5>/2 M.) Fedde, &/ t M.) Eide, and (3 M.) Ekersund, 
at each of which good accommodation is obtainable, but the others are 
poor. The steamboats perform the voyage to Ekersund in 12-15 hrs. 
while the journey by land, which very few travellers undertake occu- 

S^TERSDAL. 9. Route. 73 

pies 3-4 days. If time permit, however, the traveller will be rewarded 
by driving at least as far as Mandal (p. 75) , where steamers bound for 
Stavanger and Bergen touch almost daily; or he may continue his journey 
thence to (4 5 /s M.) Farsund (p. 76), where the steamers also call. 

The Ssetersdal. A visit from Christiansand to the Scetersdal, a valley 
running to the N., 21 M. in length, watered by the Otteraa, abounding 
in picturesque scenery and quaint old dwelling-houses, and remarkable 
for the primitive character of the inhabitants, involves some privations 
and occupies 10-12 days (there and back). If, however, the traveller does 
not object to a fatiguing walk or ride, he may proceed from Ryssestad 
or from Valle (see below) to the Lysefjord near Stavanger (p. 80; in 2 
days); or from Valle to the Bandaksvand (p. 26; in 2 days); or from 
Breive (p. 74) to the Suledalsvand (p. 81) and Sand on the Hylsfjord 
(p. 81; in 2 days), whence a steamer runs to Stavanger once weekly; or 
from Breive to Mo in Thelemarken (p. 24; in one day). As most of the 
stations, exceedingly poor at all times, are almost deserted in the height 
of summer, when the inhabitants are engaged in pasturing their cattle 
among the mountains Cpaa Heja') , the traveller should endeavour to 
visit the valley either before 24th June or after 15th August, between 
which dates it is difficult to obtain horses, guides, or even food. The 
journey as far as Breive is accomplished by Stolkjserre, by steamboat, 
and (the two last stages) on horseback or foot. Travellers bound for 
Bergen are recommended to proceed from Breive to the Suledal , Reldal 
(p. 24), and Odde (p. 97) on the Hardanger Fjord; while those bound 
for Kongsberg or Christiania leave the Ssetersdal at Valle and traverse 
the interesting lake-district of Thelemarken (RE. 2, 3). — Visitors to the 
Saetersdal should travel with the smallest possible quantity of luggage, 
and had better be provided with a moderate supply of preserved meat, 
biscuits, and brandy. Carrioles may be had at Christiansand, but at all 
the other stations the less comfortable Stolkjserre is used. Fast stations 
as far as Sogneskar: I kr. 80 0. per horse and car per mile. 

I. Day. Drive to (1 M.) Mosby (to which a steamer also plies on the 
Otteraa, p. 72), (I'/ 2 M., pay for 2) \Reiersdal , and (1 31., pay for l>/ 2 ) 
Kile, at the S. end of the Kilefjord, where an "Inn is kept by the captain 
of the lake steamer. 

II. Day. By steamer in 2 hrs. to Faret or Fennefos, at the N. end of 
the Kilefjord, a lake 2'/4 M. in length. Drive to (l'/4 31.) iGuldsmedmoen 
or Senum, at the S. end of the Byglandsfjord, a lake about 3'/a M. long, 
consisting of two parts, separated by a short river (the Otteraa)? with 
locks to facilitate navigation. The lower lake, sometimes called the Aar- 
dalsvand, extends as far as (2'/2 31.) Stremmen, about 1/2 31. above Nces; 
the upper, beyond the locks, i',4 31. long, terminates a little below Ose. 
If the state of the water permits , small steamers ply 4-5 times weekly 
between Senum and Ose (in 4 hrs.), but passengers are sometimes landed 
at ^Nces (2 hrs.). The traveller may therefore have to drive from "Nees to 
(l'/a 31.) Ose; or, if the steamer does not suit, the whole way from Senum 
to (3 5 /8 M.) Ose; or possibly the whole way from Kile to (5 5 /» 31.) fOse, 
near the church of foiestad. Ounnar Drengsen's quaint old house at Ose 
affords good quarters (small collection of national costumes, etc.). 

III. Dat. Drive to (2 M.) \Helle i Hyllestad (tolerable quarters), a 
little beyond which lies Ryssestad, from which a fatiguing mountain-track 
leads to the (7 M.) Lysefjord (p. 80), near Stavanger (2 days; guide de- 
sirable, 12-14 kr.). Drive from Helle to (l 3 /4 31.) iSogneskar i Valle (a 
fair station), situated in the heart of the Ssetersdal. The bottom of the 
valley is tolerably well cultivated, but the surrounding hills are extremely 
barren. The Gaard Riget, adjoining the church, contains an interesting 
collection of antiquities. Before reaching Aakre, a little farther on, it is 
worth while descending to the river to inspect the curious Jcettegryder, 
or 'giant cauldrons', 6-8 ft. deep, which have been formed by the action of 
the water. On the opposite bank lies Ornlid, whence a mountain-track, 
soon uniting with that from Ryssestad, leads to the Lysefjord (7 31. ; 
2 days; guide advisable, 12-14 kr.). — From Aakre a rough bridle-path, 


called the Bispevei, leads to the E. to (9-10 hrs.) the road hetween Moland 
on the Fyrisrand, about 1 31. to the S., and Vettm, a hamlet 1 M. to the 
N., a little beyond which is the Haugene station (comp. p. 27; horse 
and man from Aakre to Veum about 14 kr.). — Beyond Aakre the Sseters- 
dal road narrows to a bridle-path. Sogneskar , as already mentioned, is 
the last fast station. 

IV. Day. Ride or walk from Sogneskar to (2 M.) Bjerneraa, and 
thence to O/z M.) Trydal and ('/? M.) Bykle by the "Byklesli, a dangerous- 
looking path skirting a precipice overhanging the river, and forming the 
only means of communication between Valle and the 'Annexkirke 1 of 
Bykle (quarters at Ole Drengsen's). The Byklevand, a small lake, is 
crossed by boat at the end of this stage. 

V. Day. Ride or walk about 3 l A M., and then row up the Hartevand, 
a lake 3 /4 M. long, to Breive or Breidvik, at the head of the Ssetersdal, a 
lonely gaard , picturesquely situated, and affording rough, but tolerable 

The traveller may proceed from Breive in one day to Mo or to Vinje 
in Thelemarken (p. 24). — Or, leaving Breive at a very early hour (with 
Thorbjem Breive as a guide) . he may cross the imposing Meienfjeld 
(4000 ft) to JordbrcHke in the Suledal (p. 81), about 3 M., and thence 
to Roaldkvam on the Suledalsvand, •/:! 31. farther, a rough and fatiguing 
walk or ride of 10-12 hrs. — The traveller may now proceed direct to 
the Hardanger Fjord thus: row to Gautetun or Ncas (about '/ 2 51.), on the 
N. bank of the Suledalsvand, a very picturesque lake, 2 l /« M. long (p. 81); 
ride or walk thence to (2 51.) Botten on the Reldalsvand , and row to 
( 5 /s M.) Horre or to ('/s 31.) Reldal, whence the journey to (4 l /s M.) Odde 
is easily accomplished in a day (see p. 25). — Those bound for Stavanger 
row to (l'/z 31.) Vaage . on the N. bank of the Suledalsvand, walk or ride 
by a very picturesque path to O/2 JI.) Hylen on the Hylsfjord (steamer 
to Stavanger fortnightly in 6'/2 hrs.), and proceed thence by water to 
(2 31.) Sand (steamer to Stavanger weekly in 5 hrs.); or they may row 
from Roaldkvam to Fiskekjen or Moen , at the S.W. end of the lake, 
passing through a picturesque strait known as 'Porfen', and drive thence 
to (i'/s 31.) Fos and (1 31.) Sand. — The Suledalsvand is well worthy of 
a visit, and the walk from Vaage to Hylen, or the drive from 3Ioen to 
Sand, is picturesque (comp. p. 81); but most travellers will find it more 
convenient to proceed from Neps or GauteUm northwards to Odde, where 
a steamboat- touches three times weekly. 

10. From Christiansand to Stavanger. 

Excursions from Stavanger. 

32 M. (or 128 Engl. 31.). Steamboat almost daily in 18-20 hrs. (usual 
fare 40 or 25 0. per sea-mile). As the voyage is often very rough, par- 
ticularly the latter part, from Ekersund to Stavanger, many travellers 
prefer taking their passage to Ekersund only (12 hrs. from Christiansand), 
and proceeding thence to Stavanger by railway. Passengers with through- 
tickets to Bergen or elsewhere may also land at Ekersund, take the train 
to Stavanger, and there rejoin the steamboat, on board of which they 
may leave their luggage. In this case they are entitled to repayment of 
the steamboat-fare between these two stations. If the traveller'does not 
intend making any stay at Stavanger, he should of course enquire if one 
of the trains from Ekersund starts soon enough to enable him to over- 
take the steamer. 

Railway from Ekersund to Stavanger (6,s 31., or 47'/2 Engl. 31.) in 
3 hrs. 20 min. (fares 3 kr. 95. 2 kr. 55 0. ; no third class). Trains from 
Ekersund daily at 6 a.m. and 4.30 p.m.; from Stavanger at 8.5 a.m. and 
4.30 p.m. — As the carriages are not provided with spring-buffers, pas- 
sengers often experience a series of unpleasant shocks at starting and 
drawing up. This is a narrow-gauge line, the rails being only 3'/i> ft. apart. 

The voyage from Christiansand to Stavanger presents few at- 

MANDAL. 10. Route. 75 

tractions, the coast being for the most part very bleak and barren, 
and moreover very imperfectly seen from the steamboat. The 
vessel's course is at places protected by islands (Sfc/cer), but is 
often entirely without such shelter, particularly between Ekersund 
and Stavanger, a voyage of 5-6 hrs., where the water is rarely 
quite smooth. The coast-line is broken by numerous valleys de- 
scending from the 'Opland' and terminating in long and deep fjords. 
These valleys are usually watered by rivers which frequently ex- 
pand into lakes, and they afford a means of communication be- 
tween the Kystfolk, or dwellers on the coast, and the Oplandsfolk, 
who differ widely from their seafaring and trading countrymen in 
character, dialect, and costume. As most of these valleys, all the 
way from Christiania to Stavanger, radiate from the mountains in 
the interior of the country as a common centre, it is to them that 
the fanciful resemblance of Norway to a pancake with split edges 
most aptly applies. At the head of these valleys, which seldom 
offer any attraction to the tourist, and barely even the necessaries 
of life , lie huge tracts of barren mountains, spreading out into 
vast and rarely trodden table-lands (Fjeldvidder), and very rarely 
culminating in peaks or distinct summits. The hare rock-scenery 
of the coast is enlivened by a few unimportant fishing and trading 
towns nestling in the recesses of the fjords, and by an occasional 
forge for the smelting of ore brought down from the interior. One 
of the principal branches of trade is the export of mackerel and 
lobsters to England. The former are packed in ice, while the 
latter are put alive into tanks (Brende) in the vessels constructed 
for the purpose, to which the sea-water has free access. If the 
sea is moderately rough the lobsters rise and fall with the motion 
of the vessel, and arrive in good condition ; but if it is too smooth 
they sink to the bottom of the tank and crush each other to death. 
Another native product of considerable value consists of the nu- 
merous plovers' (Vibe) eggs found on the moors and sandhills of 
Jaderen, near Ekersund. — As mentioned in the preceding route, 
the journey from Christiansand to Ekersund and Stavanger may 
be performed by land the whole way, and the scenery is exceed- 
ingly fine at many places ; but most travellers will find the steam- 
boat more convenient. — The first steamboat-station (reckoning 
in sea-miles from Christiansand) is — 

5 M. Mandal (Olseris Hotel, Natvig's), the southernmost town 
in Norway, with 4057 inhab., consisting of Mandal, Malme, 
and Eleven, and situated partly on rocky islands. As the harbour 
is situated at the last of these places , the station is frequently 
called Klevene (the cliffs'). The Mandalselv, which falls into the 
fjord here, descends through a valley parallel to the Sstersdal and 
through several lakes from the Aaseral, the upper part of the valley, 
6 M. distant, a district inhabited by a very primitive pastoral 
people. In summer they migrate to the neighbouring mountains 

76 Route 10. EKERSUND. From Christiansand 

(tilfjelds or tilheis ; Heia signifying mountain-pasture), where they 
spend several months in their miserahly poor Faloeger, and are not 
unfrequently attacked by hears. To the W. of the valley of the 
Mandalselv are the parallel Undal and Lyngdal valleys. 

Beyond Mandal the steamer passes the mouth of the Undalselv 
and the conspicuous lighthouse on Cape Lindesnaes , 160 ft. in 
height, and soon reaches — 

11 M. Farsund (*Hotel), a small seaport with 1511 inhah., 
situated near the mouth of a fjord running inland in three long 
ramifications , into the easternmost of which falls the Lyngdalselv. 
The small 'Opland' district to the N. of Farsund is Varme , and to 
the N.E. is the Lyngdal, the inhabitants of which, however, prefer 
trading with Mandal. — Having now passed the southernmost 
part of the Norwegian coast, extending from Christiansand to 
Farsund, the steamboat steers towards the N., skirting the district 
of Lister , with its lighthouse , passes the mouth of the Feddefjord 
on the right, and enters the Flekkefjord, at the head of which lies — 

16 M. Flekkefjord (Wahl's Hotel), a prettily situated seaport 
with 1694 inhab. and a sheltered harbour. To the S.E. lies (iy 4 M.) 
Fedde (p. 72) on the fjord of that name, into which the Kvinesdal 
descends from the N.E., and to the N. runs the Siredal, with the 
Sirednlsvand , a lake 2^2 M. long, the outlet of which falls into 
the Lundevand , a long lake to the W. of the Flekkefjord. — A 
little beyond the mouth of the Lundevand , from which the Ska 
empties itself into the sea in the form of a cascade, is — 

17 M. Rcegefjord, the station for Sogndal (Sluhoug's Hotel), 
about Y2 M. inland, in the neighbourhood of which are several 

19 M. Ekersund, or Egersund (*Ellingsens Hotel, on the right, 
4 min. from the pier and 8 min. from the railway-station, un- 
pretending, B. l,D.2kr. ; Jccderen, kept by Danielson, a similar 
house , in the market near the station , also on the right) , a town 
with 2415 inhab., lies in a singularly bleak and rocky region , at 
the S. end of Jaderen, the coast-district extending between this 
point and Stavanger. An excellent survey of the environs is 
obtained from the rocky hill at the back of Ellingsen's Inn , with 
a pole on the summit , reached in 25 min. by traversing a narrow 
street opposite the railway-station, and ascending to the right past 
the cemetery and a farm-house. To the N. stretches Jccderen, almost 
the only extensive coast-plain in Norway, partially cultivated, but 
chiefly consisting of moor and sand-hills , where plovers' eggs are 
found in great quantities, and intersected with a network of rocky 
dykes which were probably formed by glacier-action. The railway- 
station is on the N. side of the town, 12 min. from the quay. 

The Railway to Stavanger , which traverses this coast-plain, 
presents little attraction , the scenery being very dreary as far as 
Sandnces , but is far preferable to the steamboat , especially if the 

to Stavanger. STAV ANGER. 10. Route. 77 

traveller is liable to sea-sickness. The chief stations are (3, 4 M.) 
Ncerbe , (5,5 MO Sandnces, prettily situated at the head of the 
Stavanger Fjord, and (6,§ M.) Stavanger. 

The Steamboat on leaving Ekersund passes the Elcere, a large 
island protecting the harbour , with a lofty lighthouse , and the 
picturesque Viberudde , a promontory with another lighthouse. 
The coast is flat and dreary, and the water generally rough owing 
to the strong currents and violent gales by which it is frequently 
agitated. The steamer steers towards the N., passing the Jaderens 
Rev ('reef), a sandy promontory forming the westernmost point 
of Jsederen , and the mouth of the Hafrsfjord , where Harald 
Haarfagre ('fair hair'), gained a decisive naval victory in 872, 
which gave him the sovereignty of the whole country, and which 
released him from a vow, taken ten years previously, not to cut 
his hair until he should be king of all Norway. A little farther on, 
the vessel turns to the E., traverses a branch of the Buknfjord, 
and passes the Tungenas, a promontory with a lighthouse, forming 
the N. extremity of the peninsula in which Jaederen terminates. It 
then steers towards the S.E., and soon reaches the town itself. 

32 M. Stavanger (*H6tel du Nord, 10 min. from the station, 
and 10 min. from the principal quay, R. 2, B. l l / 2 , D. 2, S. 1 kr. 
20 0., L. and A. 80 e. ; Jespersen's Hotel, nearer the quay, also 
good; Nielsen, near Jespersen's ; Holt, Kirkegaden. British vice- 
consul, Mr. H. W. S. Hansen; American, Mr. T. S. Falck; there 
are also a French, a German, and a Russian consul. Nymann's 
sea-baths), an important commercial town , with 20,370 inhab., 
picturesquely situated on the Stavanger Fjord , a branch of the 
Buknfjord, possesses two harbours, Vaayen, facing the N.W., and 
Gfstervaagen, a smaller bay separated from the other by a peninsula 
called Holmen, on which rises Valbjerget, an eminence commanding 
a line view. The town is one of the most ancient in Norway, dating 
from the 8th or 9th century, but as it has suffered very frequently 
from fires it now presents quite a modern appearance. Many of 
the houses are now built of stone. At the upper end of the Vaag 
lies the Torv or market-place , beyond which rises the Cathedral, 
and near the 0stervaag is the modern Petrikirke. Fish is the 
staple commodity of the place, and the herrings, which for a time 
had almost entirely deserted this part of the coast, have of late 

The * Cathedral, the most interesting building in Stavanger, 
and the finest church in Norway after the cathedral of Throndhjem, 
was founded by Bishop Rcinald , an English prelate, at the end of 
the 11th cent, and dedicated to St. Swithin [Suetonius , Bishop of 
Winchester, d. 862). It is about 250 ft. in length , and 70 ft. in 
width. In 1272 the church was burned down, but was soon after- 
wards rebuilt in the Gothic style. After the Reformation it was 
sadly disfigured by alterations, but since 1866 it has been restored 

78 Route 10. STAVANGER. Excursions. 

as far as possible to its original condition. The nave is separated 
from the aisles by massive pillars of early Norman or Byzantine 
character, which belong apparently to the original edifice. The 
handsome Gothic Choir, which adjoins the nave without the inter- 
vention of a transept, probably dates from the 13th century. The 
choir is flanked with four towers, two at the E. end, and two 
smaller ones at the W. end, and terminates in a large and effective 
E. Window. The great Tower of the W. facade of the church is 
in ruins. On each side of the church are two handsome Portals, 
one entering the aisle , and another the choir. The Pulpit 
( Prcedikestol) of the 16th cent, and the Font ( Debefont) are also 
worthy of inspection. — The Munlcekirke, a kind of chapel adjoining 
the cathedral , is now a school. The neighbouring Kongsgaard, 
once the residence of the bishop , whose seat was transferred to 
Christiansand at the end of the 17th cent., is now occupied by the 
Latinskole, or grammar-school. It contains a handsome old Chapel. 
On the banks of the adjacent Bredevand, a small lake, are pleasant 

To the N. of the cathedral are the Brandvagt, formerly the 
Marinekirke, the Hotel du Nord, and the Sparebank, or savings-bank, 
the building of which contains the picture-gallery of the Kunst- 
forening (open Wed. and Sund., 11-1). In the opposite direction, 
about 7min. from the cathedral, is the Railway Station. — Ascending 
the Pedersbakke, we may next glance at the modern Petrikirke, and 
crossing the Nytorv , visit the Spilderhaug Docks , beyond which 
lies the Hetlandsmark with Vor Fruekirke. 

A beautiful Walk may be taken to the S. on the Ladegaardsvei, 
past the cemetery and the Hillevaagtoand , to Stettebakken , which 
commands a fine view of the Gansijord and the Lifjelde to tlieE. — 
Another good point of view is the Belvedere Tower ( Udsigtstaarn) 
on Vaalandspiben, to the S. \V., and a third is the Ullenhauge, farther 
to the W. , at the foot of which are a famous Fish-breeding 
Establishment (Fiskeudklceknings- Apparatcr ; trifling fee for ad- 
mission) and Hanson's Willow Plantation (Pileplantning). 

An interesting Excursion may be taken to Sole, a village on 
the W. coast of Jsderen, about l'/ 4 M. to the S.W., with a ruined 
church in which Hr. Bennetter, an artist, has fitted up a studio, 
and where the peculiar character of this coast may be inspected. 
We may then return by the E. bank of the Hafrs fjord , cross from 
Guard Meling to Malde, and regain the town by another road. 

Excursions from Stavanger. 

Stavanger is the commercial centre of the district of Ryfylke 
and the numerous islands of the extensive Buknfjord , which is 
bounded on the W. by the Karme, and on the N. by the long 
peninsula of which Haugesund forms the westernmost point. The 
name Buknfjord applies to the more open part in the centre of the 

Excursions. STAV ANGER. 10. Route. 79 

bay , the chief ramifications of which are the Slavanger or Oans 
Fjord, the Helefjord, and the Lysefjord on the S., the Jesenfjord 
on the E., and the Sands fjord (dividing into the Hyls fjord and 
Sevdefjord) , the Sandeldsfjord (with its ramifications the Vinde- 
fjord and Yrkefjord'), and the Skjoldsfjord on the N. — Most of 
these fjords are in the form of narrow ravines several miles in 
length, bounded by lofty and precipitous mountains rising abrupt- 
ly from the water, at the foot of which lie deposits of debris at rare 
intervals, affording but scanty space for the dwellings of the sparse 
population of the district. At places, however, the banks are of a 
flatter character and well cultivated, presenting a smiling and 
picturesque contrast to the forest with which the lower slopes are 
generally clothed, and to the frowning rocks and glistening snow 
of the higher mountains in the background. The scenery of several 
of these fjords vies with the iinest parts of the Hardanger Fjord, 
but is less accessible and therefore less frequently visited by trav- 
ellers. The magnificent Lysefjord (see below) is unfortunately 
seldom accessible except by rowing-boat, but the Sandsfjord, with 
its picturesque ramifications , and the Sandeidsfjord are regularly 
visited by steamers from Stavanger (see below). 

Steamboats. An outline of the present arrangements will 
give the traveller a general idea of the principal routes , but no 
plan can be finally settled until the most recent 'Communicationer' 
have been carefully consulted. The steamers to the Hardanger 
Fjord and to Bergen are not mentioned here , as they merely cross 
the Buknfjord without penetrating into any of its recesses. 

To Sand on the Sandsfjord on Mondays at 11 and Thursdays 
at 6 a.m. ; the Monday boat goes on to S»vden on the Sevdefjord, 
whence it starts for Stavanger on Tuesdays at 6 a.m. ; the other 
boat goes on from Sand to Hylen on the Hylsfjord on alternate 
Thursdays , and returns (both from Hylen and from Sand) to 
Stavanger on the same day. These boats touch at Jelse, both in 
going and returning. 

To Sandeid on the Sandeidsfjord on Mondays at 6 , and on 
Thursdays at 9 a.m. ; the Monday boat returns the same day, the 
other on Fridays at 6 a.m., the former touching at Jels» on the 
way back, the latter on the way out only. 

Travellers may proceed direct from Sand (or Hylen, see above) 
to Sandeid by changing boats at Jelse on Thursdays at 3.30 p.m.; 
in the reverse direction they may proceed direct from Sandeid to 
Sand and Savde by changing boats at Jels» on Mondays at 3.30 p.m. 

A. To the Lysefjord. 

An excursion from Stavanger to the * Lysefjord, the grandest 
fjord on the S.W. coast of Norway, occupies 2-3 days, and is 
attended with some fatigue and privation , unless, as sometimes 
happens, an excursion steamer runs to Lyse and back in one day. 

80 Route 10. LYSEFJORD. Excursions 

There are no good inns or stations on the route , and the row up 
the fjord and back takes 7-8 hrs. each way. 

A small steamer sometimes plies between Stavanger and Hele 
on the Helefjord (a steam of 2 hrs.) ; or the traveller may take the 
train to Sandnces (p. 77 ; x / 2 hr.), and drive thence to (2!/2 M.) 
Hele (3-4 hrs.), where tolerable quarters may be procured. Here 
we hire a boat with two or more rowers (15-20 kr. for the whole 
excursion) and cross the Helefjord to (!/ 2 M.) Ojese or Fossand, 
at the entrance to the Lysefjord, on the S. side, where we may 
visit a large moraine which led Esmark, a Norwegian savant, about 
the year 1821 , to the conjecture that the whole country was once 
covered with glaciers. (See Forbes's Norway, Edin., 1853 ; p. 239.) 
We then enter the Lysefjord, a wild and almost deserted arm of 
the sea, 700-2000 yds. in width, 31/2 M. long, and at places 1400 ft. 
in depth, and enclosed by precipitous rocky mountains upwards of 
3000 ft. high. At the head of the fjord lies the hamlet of Lyse 
(poor quarters), surrounded by imposing rocks, a little to the N. of 
which rises the Lysekam (4500 ft.). A curious and unexplained 
phenomenon is sometimes observed here. A crashing noise like 
thunder is heard, immediately after which a gleam of light flashes 
horizontally over the surface of the fjord , disappearing halfway 
across. The noise and light are believed to proceed from a kind 
of cavern in the face of the rock about 2000 ft. above the fjord, 
and inaccessible except by means of ropes from the top of the 
mountain. A similar phenomenon is said to have been observed 
on the Trolgjel near Gaarden Molaup above Strand on the Hjerend- 
fjord (p. 117). (See Vibe's 'Meer und Kiisten Norwegens', Gotha, 

From Lyse to Valle in the Saetersdal, a very rough and fatiguing 
walk of two days, see p. 73. 

B. To the Sandsfjord, Hylsford, and S«vdefjord. 

As above mentioned , two steamers weekly run from Stavanger 
to Sand on the Sandsfjord, one of which goes weekly to Sevde, the 
other fortnightly to Hylen. One of these vessels touches at the 
islands Talge, Finne (where several of the inhabitants of Stavanger 
possess pleasant \illas), and Stjernerei , and at Narstrand at the 
mouth of the Sandeidsfjord ; while the other calls at Tou (2 M. to 
the N.E. of Stavanger; path thence past the Bjereimsvand and the 
Nedre and 0vre Tysdalsvand to Bergeland in the Aardal; 1/2 M. 
above Bergeland is the picturesque Hiafos~), Fister, and Hjelmeland 
on the mainland. Between Tou and Fister we cross the mouth of 
the Aardalsfjord, which is visited by the Tuesday boat from Sand 
to StavangeT. Hjelmeland lies at the mouth of the Jesenfjord , a 
long inlet somewhat resembling the Lysefjord in character. From 
the head of that fjord a rough and fatiguing route crosses the 
mountains in 2 days to Valle in the Saetersdal (p. 73). 

from Stavanger. SANDEID. 10. Route. 81 

Both steamers touch at Jelstf (Inn) on the mainland (3 l fa hrs. 
from Stavanger), at the mouth of the Sandsfjord, a village of some 
importance, with a church and an excellent harbour, where travellers 
desirous of proceeding direct from Sand to Sandeid, or in the 
reverse direction, change boats (once weekly in each direction, see 
above). We now enter the Sandsfjord, and in li/ 2 hr. more reach — 

Sand (*Inn) , at the mouth of the Suledalselv, which descends 
from the Suledalsvand, 2 l /g M. distant. 

The "Suledalsvand, a most picturesque lake, 2'/2 M. long, enclosed 
by imposing mountains , is well worthy of a visit. A good road leads 
from Sand to (1 31.) Fos and (l'/s M.) Fiskekjm or Mo, at the S.W. end 
of the lake. Taking a boat there, we row up the lake, passing (after 
'/a 31.) through * Porlen, a grand and narrow defile, to Vaage, about 1 31. 
from 3Io, whence a path leads to Hylen f>/ 2 31.; see below), and Nws or 
Gautetun, 1 31. farther (path to Botten on the Reldalsvand , about 5 hrs., 
see p. 24). From Nebs we may then row to Roaldkvam, about >/ z 31. 
more , at the head of the lake (tolerable quarters) , whence Breive in the 
Ssetersdal (p. 74) may be reached in one day. — The route from Stavanger 
to the Hardanger via the Suledalsvand , Nses , and R0ldal has deservedly 
come into much favour during the last few years. — Heavy luggage may 
be sent from Stavanger to Odde, or to Bergen, by direct steamer. 

Once a fortnight a steamer goes on from Sand into the Hyls- 
fjord, an eastern ramification of the Sandsfjord, reaching Hylen at 
the head of the fjord in l l fa hr. more (6y 2 hrs. from Stavanger). 

From Hylen to Vaage on the Suledalsvand (see above), , /t'N.., a very 
picturesque walk of l'/z-2 hrs., crossing the lofty '-Hylsskar, where we 
stand on a narrow ridge . a few feet only in width, and enjoy a magni- 
ficent view of the lake below. 

A steamer goes on once weekly from Sand to the *S«vdefjord, 
or Saudefjord, the N. arm of the Sandsfjord, vying with, or even 
surpassing the Suledalsvand in grandeur. S#vde or Saude (poor 
quarters),at the head of the fjord, is reached in I1/4 hr. from Sand 
(Qifahrs. from Stavanger). A path leads hence to Eskevik on the 
Eeldalsvand, near Botten (p. 25) in 10-12 hrs.; and another, 
diverging from the first, and somewhat longer, leads through the 
Slettedal to a point on the Hardanger road about l fa M. to the N. 
of Horn (p. 25). 

C. To Sandeid. 

The two weekly steamers from Stavanger to the Sandeidsfjord, 
like those to the Sandsfjord, take different routes, both in going 
and returning , one of them touching at Jelse (see above) on the 
way out, and the other on the way back. At the mouth of the 
Sandeidsfjord, on the left, lies Narstrand , beyond which the 
steameT soon reaches the point where this fjord, running N. and 
S., is intersected by the Yrkefjord to the W. and the Vindcfjnrd 
to the E., forming a complete cross, and recalling the form of the 
Lake of Lucerne. On the right, near the mouth of the Vindefjorrt, 
is Vigedal, a pretty place with thriving farm-houses, beyond which 
we soon reach Sandeid (Inn), pleasantly situated at the head of 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 6 

82 Route 10. TER0EN. 

the fjord (6y 2 -9V2 hrs. from Stavanger, according to the route 
taken by the steamer). 

Travellers arriving at Sandeid from Stavanger or from Sand, and 
bound for the Hardanger , should drive from Sandeid across the 'Eid', 
or neck of land which separates the Sandeidsfjord from the Hardanger, 
to ( 3 /i M.) 01en or Aaland ("Inn), beauti.ully situated on the fjord of 
that name, a branch of the Hardanger Fjord. A steamer at present starts 
hence for Bergen on Tuesdays at 7 and Fridays at 6 a.m., via Skonevik, 
crossing the entrance to the Hardanger Fjord, a voyage of 11-12 hrs. in 
all. Another, coming from Stavanger, usually calls here on its way to 
Eide and Odde on the Hardanger Fjord, and also on its way back to 

One of the Bergen steamers (Saturdays, 5 p.m.) also goes from J&len 
to Fjaere on the Aakrefjord (in 4 hrs.), whence a very rough, but pictur- 
esque bridle-path crosses the mountains, via Vinterlun, in 6-7 hrs. to (2 M.) 
Guard Jefsendal . situated between Seljestad and Hildal on the road to 
Odde (p. 25); a little beyond Vintertun a branch of the track descends 
to the right direct to Seljestad. 

Two of the steamers above mentioned touch at Etne, at the head 
of the Etnefjord, whence a mountain path leads direct to (4 M.) Seljestad 
(p. 25), a very fatiguing walk of 11-12 hrs. 

If on arriving at JSlen the steamers do not suit, the traveller may 
drive to (1 M.) Etne and ( 7 /s 31., very bad road, pay for l 3 /.i 31.) Leiknass 
on the Skonevik, in descending to which a magnificent view of the Ul- 
venaase , 3600 ft. high, is enjoyed. Boat thence to 0/2 31.) fflfamws. 
Then drive to p/4 M.) Valen and (i'/s 31.) Helvik. Ferry thence to Hereen, 
a few hundred yds. only, whence there are usually three steamers weekly 
to the Hardanger Fjord, two to Stavanger, and two to Bergen. About 
1 M. to the N. of Herizren is Ter0en, a still more important station, from 
which six or seven steamers weekly run to Bergen , four into the Har- 
danger, and two to Stavanger. This approach to the Hardanger (by Sand- 
eid, J01en, and Her0en or Terpen) is much more varied and attractive 
than the direct steamboat route from Stavanger. From this point into 
the Hardanger Fjord, see p. 84. 

11. From Stavanger to the Hardanger Fjord 
by Steamboat. 

(From Stavanger to Bergen.) 

Steamboat to Odde at the S. extremity of the Hardanger, on Mon- 
days at 6 a.m., arriving next day at 9 a.m.; and there is usually an- 
other which spends two nights on its way to Odde. — These are the 
only steamers which ply direct between Stavanger and the head of the 
Hardanger Fjord. But the traveller may take one of the four smaller 
steamers plying between Stavanger and Bergen as far as Lervik , Hereen, 
or Tereen, where other steamers touch frequently on their way from Ber- 
gen into the Hardanger. — Another very pleasant way of reaching the 
Hardanger is to take the steamer from Stavanger to Sandeid (see above), 
proceed by land and small boat to Tereen the next day, and proceed 
thence by steamer into the Hardanger. — Nearly the whole voyage by 
all these steamers is in smooth water , their course being protected by 
islands , except for a short distance between Stavanger and Kopervik, 
and between Haugesund and Langevaag. The steamers are comfortably 
fitted up, but the sleeping accommodation is always very limited Break- 
fast or supper is provided for I-IV2 kr., dinner for 2-2'/ 2 kr. ; steward's fee 
optional. The usual passage-money is 40 0. per mile in the cabin , and 
25 0. in the steerage. By water Odde is about 32 sea-miles (128 Engl. M.) 
from Stavanger, but the course taken by the steamers is 40-50 miles in 
length. Through-passengers pay for the direct distance, while those for 
short distances pay for the miles actually traversed. The miles given at 

KOPERVIK. 11. Route. 83 

the beginning of the paragraphs in the following route , are the direct 
distances from the starting-point of the route (Stavanger). The distances 
between the most important stations are also mentioned. — Lastly, it 
may be mentioned , that , as the fine scenery of the Hardanger does not 
begin till Her0en and Terpen are approached, the traveller loses little by 
going thus far at night. 

The navigation of these western fjords of Norway, with their 
innumerable rocky islands, winding channels, promontories, and 
sunken rocks , is exceedingly intricate , often demanding the ut- 
most attention of the captains and pilots, whose skill the traveller 
will have occasion to admire. Most of the captains speak English, 
sometimes German also, and they are usually very obliging. — Nu- 
merous lighthouses (Fyr) on both sides of the steamer's course are 
passed between Stavanger and Langevaag, to the N. of Haugesund. 

On leaving Stavanger the vessel steers towards the N.W. ; on 
the left are the Duse-Fyr and Tungenas-Fyr on the Bandeberg ; to 
the right the Hundvaage , the Mostere with the ruined Ulsten- 
kloster, and beyond it the larger Rennese and other islands. On 
the left we next observe the lofty lighthouse on the Hvitingse, 
beyond which the open and unsheltered mouth of the Buknfjord 
is crossed (in about an hour). We next observe Skudesnceshuon, 
with its lighthouse, to the left, a small seaport (1327 inhab.) at 
the S. end of the Karme, to which a steamer runs from Stavanger 
twice weekly. The first station at which the steamers usually 
stop is — 

5 M. Ferresvik, a village on the Bukne. 

6 M. Kopervik, or Kobbervik (Inn) , with 852 inhab., is one 
of the largest villages on the Karme, a large and populous island, 
to which the heTring-nshery is a source of much gain. The island 
is nearly flat , and tolerably well cultivated at places, but consists 
chiefly of moor and poor pasture-land , and is almost entirely 
destitute of trees. It contains numerous barrows , or ancient 
burial-places , especially near the N. end , some of which have 
yielded relics of great antiquarian value. The climate , which is 
cool in summer and mild and humid in winter , is exceptionally 
healthy, the average annual death-rate being only 12 per thousand. 
— About l 3 / 4 naut. M. to the W. of the Karme lies the small and 
solitary island of Utsire , with a chapel and a lighthouse. 

The steamer soon enters the Karmsund, the strait separating 
the island from the mainland. On the left, about 1 M. beyond 
Kopervik, is the old church of Augvaldsnces, adjoining which, 
and inclined towards it, is an old 'Bautastein', 25 ft. in height, 
known as l Jomfru Marias SynaaV (the Virgin Mary's Needle). 
Tradition says that when this pillar falls against the church the 
world will come to an end. To the N. of this point, on the opposite 
side of the 'Sund', are five similar stones , popularly called the 
'■Five Foolish Virgins'. At the end of the Karmsund, on the main- 
land, lies — 

84 Route 11. LERVIK. From Stavanger 

8 M. Haugesund (Jonassen's Hotel; Olsen's), locally known as 
Karmsund, with 4424 inhab., a place of no interest, except as the 
supposed burial-place of Harald Haarfagre (d. 933), whose original 
tombstone is still pointed out. On this spot, the Haraldshaug, 
a mound of earth a little to the N. of the town, rises an Obelisk of 
red granite , 45 ft. in height , on a square pedestal, around which 
are placed a number of stones, 9 ft. in height, called the Fylkestene, 
representing the Fylker, or districts into which Norway was formerly 
divided. This monument, called the Haralds-Stette, was inaugurat- 
ed in 1872, in presence of Prince Oscar (now King Oscar II.), ou 
the thousandth anniversary of Harald's victory on the Hafrsfjord, 
in consequence of which the whole of the Fylker were united under 
his sceptre. Steamboat to Bergen twice weekly, besides the Sta- 
vanger and Bergen boats. — A road leads from Haugesund to the 
E. to (4i/ 4 M.) 0len (p. 82). 

To the N. of Haugesund extends an unprotected part of the 
coast, called Sletten, nearly 3 M. in length, which the steamer 
passes in about an hour. Near the N. end of this tract, 2^2 M. 
from Haugesund, is Lyngholmen, where some of the steamers 
stop, the first station in Bergen-Stift, or the province of Bergen, 
to the W. of which is the Ryvardens-Fyr on a rocky island. We 
now enter the Bemmelfjord , one of the narrow inlets of the Har- 
danger , passing the Bemmele on the left, on which rises Siggen, 
a hill known as one of the 'towers' of Bergen. This district is 
called the Send-Hordland , the natives of which are known as 
Seringer. Picturesque mountains in the background. Some of 
the steamers next stop at Tjernagel, on the mainland, 2M. farther, 
others at Langevaag, on the Bemmel», opposite. 

13 M. Mosterhavn, the next station, on the Mostere, boasts of a 
church built by Olaf Tryggvessen (995-1000), the oldest in Norway. 

15 M. Lervik, a station of some importance, lies at the S. end 
of the Storde, one of the largest of the islands at the entrance to 
the Hardanger. The well- wooded Halsene , an island to the E., 
contains part of the buildings of a Benedictine monastery, founded 
probably in 1164. Several barrows in the vicinity. 

One of the Hardanger steamers, instead of touching at Lervik, 
usually turns to the S., past the promontory of Valestrand, and 
describes a long circuit to Vdbje , 0len, Etne, Skonevik, Sunde, 
and Hereen (comp. R. 10), taking 3 hTs. longer to reach Her»en 
than the more direct steamer. 

Beyond Lervik the direct steamer traverses the Kloster-Fjord, 
named after the above-mentioned monastery on the Halsen0, and 
the Husnces-Fjord. 

17 M. Hereen, a small island opposite Helvik, is an important 
station, as most of the steamers to the Hardanger, both from Sta- 
vanger and from Bergen, as well as several of those plying between 
Stavanger and Bergen, touch here. The scenery now becomes more 

gr . AitstaH von 


to the Hardanger Fjord. TER0EN. 11. Route. 85 

interesting ; the mountains are higher and less barren, and on 
every side the eye is met with a picturesque profusion of rocks, 
islands , promontories , and wooded hills, enlivened with bright- 
looking little hamlets nestling in sheltered creeks. 

19 M. Terpen (Inn), a little island and village near the N. coast 
of the fjord, and to the E. of the large Tysncese, is a very im- 
portant station , six or seven steamers running thence weekly to 
Bergen, four into the Hardanger, and two to Stavanger. The sce- 
nery is remarkably fine here , especially as the snowy summit of 
the Folgefond is now visible towards the E. — Near this point we 
quit the Send - Hordland , the island and coast district hitherto 
skirted, and enter the Hardanger district, and it is here that the 
Fjord of that name strictly speaking begins. 

[From Stavanger to Bergen there are usually eleven steamers 
weekly, Ave being vessels of considerable size from Christiania, 
and one from Hamburg, bound for Bergen or more distant places, 
while four or five smaller steamers ply weekly between Stavanger 
and Bergen only. The larger boats touch at Haugesund only, beyond 
which they proceed direct to Bergen , either passing between the 
Bemmele and the Storde, or between the latter and the Tysncese. 
The outer islands are mostly bare and rocky , and of moderate 
height. The voyage by the direct steamers takes 10-12, by the 
local boats 12-15 hours. One of the latter touches at Nceshavn on 
the W. coast of the Tysnase ; the others pursue the more interesting 
course via Tereen (see above). 

Beyond Tereen , which is reached in 9-10 hrs., three of the 
local steamers pass through the Loksund, a very narrow strait be- 
tween the mainland and the Tysnase. The next station , Ein- 
ingevik, lies on the Tysnsese, at the N. end of the strait; beyond 
which is Godesund, on a small island to the N. of the Tysnsese. 
The Bjmnefjord or Strandefjord and the Korsfjord are next tra- 
versed. On the right is Korshavn, on a small island ; and a little 
farther on is Bukken, a small island between the mainland and the 
Sartore. The scenery on this part of the voyage is less attractive 
than at the mouth of the Hardanger. Bergen comes in sight as 
the steamer rounds Kvarven, the N. spur of the Lyderhom; on 
the left (N.W.) rises the mountainous Aske. The first view of the 
town is very striking. To the N. rises the Blaamand, to the E. 
Ulriken, and to the S. are the Levstak and Lyderhom. 

25 M. Bergen, 4i/ 2 hrs. from Teraen, 10-15 hrs. from Sta-- 
vanger, see R. 12. 

The **Hardanger Fjord is most conveniently reached by steamer 
from Stavanger (the present route) , or from Bergen (four times 
weekly), or by land from Gudvangen on the Sognefjord to Eide 
(see p. 60). The other approaches (comp. p. 101), from the E. 
to Eidfjord and from the S. to Odde, all involve a more or less 

86 Route 11. HARD ANGER F JOED. 

fatiguing ride or walk across the mountains, the easiest and most 
interesting of these routes being from the Haukelid Sster to Odde 
(p. 24), and from Sand to Odde via the Suledalsvand (p. 81). 
Those from Savde (p. 81) and Fjaere (p. 82) to Odde are less 
recommended. It need hardly he said that the traveller who per- 
forms the whole journey to the head of the fjord and back by 
vater cannot thoroughly appreciate the beauties of the scenery. 
£ he favourite headquarters for excursions are Eide , Ulvik , Eid- 
ijord , and Odde , at each of which one or more days should if 
possible be spent. The inns are generally good and reasonable, 
but are often full in the height of the season. 

The Hardanger Fjord, the main channel of which is subdivided 
into the Kvindherred, the His, the Ytre and Indre Samlen, and the 
Ser fjords, runs from Terpen to the N.E. for about 11 sea-miles 
(44 Engl. M.) to Utne, where it turns suddenly to the S. to Odde, 
a distance of 6 miles more (in all 68 Engl. M.). Opposite Utne 
diverge the Graven, Ose, and Eid fjords, besides which there are 
numerous smaller creeks which it is unnecessary to name. The 
average bTeadth of the fjord is about 3 Engl. M., but the upper 
part of the Serfjord gradually narrows to a width of a few hundred 
yards only. The scenery is justly celebrated for its beauty and 
grandeur, and of all the Norwegian fjords this is perhaps the most 
attractive on account of its variety. Its accessibility and the com- 
parative comfort of its inns are farther advantages not to be over- 
looked. In some respects the Hardanger resembles the Sognefjord, 
being enclosed by rocky and precipitous mountains 3000-5000 ft. 
in height, but the forms of the mountains are less picturesque, 
and snow and glaciers less frequent. On the other hand the 
mountains are generally better wooded , the banks more fertile, 
and the scenery altogether of a softer and more smiling character, 
while the huge and spotless snow-mantle of the Folgefond is fre- 
quently visible in the background. To these attractions must be 
added two of the finest waterfalls in Norway, hardly indeed sur- 
passed in Europe , both of which are easily accessible to good 
walkers. The population ('Haranger') , too, and their national 
characteristics will interest many travellers. Two specialties of 
the fjord are the peculiar Hardanger violin and a strong kind of 
beer brewed by the natives. "Weddings here are still very pictur- 
esque festivities , though generally falling short of Tidemand's 
beautiful 'Brudefcerd'. The bridal crowns and gold and silver 
trinkets (such as the Selje , or Sylgja, a kind of brooch or buckle) 
are curious, and the embroidery, coverlids, and carpets manufac- 
tured in this district are much sought after. The costumes are 
seen to the best advantage on a Sunday morning before or after 
divine service. The women, who wear the 'Skout', a kind of cap 
of white linen with stripes, and sometimes a picturesque red 
bodice, may often be observed giving the finishing touches to their 

HARDANGER FJORD. 11. Route. 87 

toilet after landing from their boats to attend church. The 
primitive mode in which public worship is conducted is also very 

Special Maps. 'Kart over Semdre Bergenhus Amt', in two 
sheets, at 1 kr. 60 e. each. 

From Terpen to Vik ouEidfjord. The Hardanger Fjord be- 
gins on the E. side of the Tere, whence a striking view is enjoyed 
of the *Folgefond, with the Melderskin, Malmangernut, Kjeldhaug, 
and other spurs descending from it. The Folgefond (Fonn or Fond, 
'mass of snow') is an enormous expanse of snow and ice, 5-6 M. in 
length and 1-2 M. in width, covering the plateau, 3000-5000 ft. 
in height, which rises between the Hardanger Fjord on the W., 
the Aakre-Fjord on the S., and the Sar-Fjord, with the valley ex- 
tending to the S. of it, on the E. side. Towards the S.E. the pen- 
insula of the Folgefond is connected with the mainland by an isth- 
mus 3^2 M. in width (between Fjsere and Odde). The mountain 
attains its greatest height immediately to the E. of the Serfjord, 
from which it rises almost perpendicularly. On the "W. side the 
plateau descends gradually to the fjord. From the 'Fond', the nearly 
level snowy roof of the mountain, descend glaciers (Jekler) in 
every direction, resembling huge icicles, the best known of which 
are that of Bondhus near the head of the Mauranger-Fjord, a favour- 
ite subject with artists , and the Buarbrce {Bra , 'glacier') to the 
E. of Odde. From this vast expanse of snow protrude several rocky 
peaks (Nuter , literally 'knots') of moderate height : on the N. 
side the Solnut and Thorsnut , on the W. Hundseret ('the dog's 
ear'; 5360 ft.), and on the E. the Reinanut and Sauenut. The 
best survey of the Folgefond from the W. side is obtained from 
Tereen and the neighbourhood, and from the E. side from the heights 
between Reldal and Seljestad. — Good walkers may cross the 
mountain without danger from 0vrehus on the Mauranger-Fjord 
to Tokheim near Odde , or from Jondal to Naae (Bleie) , both of 
which routes are mentioned below (pp. 88, 89). 

The stations are here enumerated in their usual order , but 
some of the steamers do not touch at them all. The direct distances 
from Stavanger are prefixed to them as before. 

17 M. Her*en, 2 M. to the S. of Terpen, see p. 84. About 1 M. 
beyond Hereen, on the mainland, is Vskedal. To the N. lie the 
long islands of Skorpen and Snihthveit , and on the right are the 
sombre slopes of the Solfjeld. 

18 M. Dimmelsvik (Inn), whence a mountain-track leads to the 
S. to the Matrefjord. Passing the base of the Malmangernut 
(2880 ft.), we next reach Rosendal (two unpretending inns), about 
1 M. farther, beautifully situated at the base of the Melderskin 
(4680 ft.). The place belongs to the Barons Rosenkrantz and 
Rosenkrone , who , however , were obliged to resign their baronial 

88 Route 11. JONDAL. Hardanger 

dignity on the abolition of all titles of nobility in 1821. In the 
vicinity is the church of Kvindherred , destitute of a tower. The 
Chateau, erected in 1678, contains a picture-gallery, and is adjoined 
by pleasant grounds. — A bridle-track leads through the Meldadal 
to the MidUmter and the Myrdalsvand, whence a steep, but tolerable 
path ascends to the summit of the Melderskin (guide not indis- 
pensable) , which commands an imposing survey of the Folgefond 
and fjord down to the sea. ■ — An excursion through the narrow 
IJattebergsdal , containing the Ringerifos, as far as the foot of the 
Folgefond is also recommended. — On the opposite bank of the 
fjord, about 1 Y2 M. from Rosendal, is Ojermundshavn, commanding 
a fine view of the Maurangerfjord, and 1 M. to the N.E. of it is — 

19 M. Skjelnces, at the S. end of the large, but uninteresting 
Varaldse. The strait on the E. side of the island is called the 
Sildefjord , beyond which , on the mainland lies the church of 
jEnces, at the entrance to the * Maurangerfjord. 

The maurangerfjord, about 2'/2 sea-miles in length, with its bays of 
0stre and Nord-Pollen , may be visited from Skjelnses by boat. On the 
right we observe the fine waterfall of Fvreberg. From Bondhus (tolerable 
quarters) , near the head of the fjord (a row of 2'/2 hrs. from Skjelnaes) 
we walk in 2 hrs. to the "Bondhusbrae (guide necessary), a magnificent 
glacier which descends from the Folgefond , between the Selsnut on the 
W. and the Bonddalsnut on the E. side. It is reached by crossing a 
moraine, rowing over the small Bondhusvand with a number of waterfalls 
descending from its precipitous banks , and ascending across a second 
moraine. The foot of the glacier is 1050 ft. above the fjord. Refreshments 
at the sseter here. Guide or horse 1 kr. 60 0. 

From the Maurangerfjord to Odde (10-12 hrs. in all). From Bond- 
hus we row in l J2 hr. to 0vrehus , at the head of 0strepollen, the E. 
extremity of the fjord, where horses and guides are to be had. The 
ascent to the Folgefond is extremely steep, but the expedition presents 
no serious difficulty or danger in suitable weather. After a fresh fall of 
snow ('nysne 1 ), however, it is impracticable. The summit of the pass, where 
the route skirts the Hundser (5350 ft.) , is about 5000 ft. high, beyond 
which there is a steep descent to Tokheim near Odde (p. 97). — Another 
route, frequently traversed of late, descends from the Folgefond to Odde 
bv the Buarbrse (p. 98), but is more fatiguing. (Comp. Forties's Norway, 
Edin. 1853; pp. 130, et seq.) 

20 M. Oravdal, on the W. bank of the fjord , and, about 1 M. 
farther, 0ierhavn, at the N. end of the Varaldse, are the next 
stations. The broad part of the fjord extending from this point to 
Strandebarm, 2 M. to the N., is called the Hisfjord. 

21 M. Bakke (*Inn), beyond which is the church of Strande- 
barm, is beautifully situated on the W. bank, in the midst of 
grand scenery. To the E. we observe the Myrdalsfos and the 
Folgefond, to the N. the snow-clad Thveite Kvitingen (4220 ft.) 
and Vesholdo. The steamer then steers towards the E., enters a 
narrower part of the fjord, and stops at — 

22 M. Jondal (Inn), on the E. bank, 2 M. from Bakke, where 
the scenery is less attractive. This place is locally famous for the 
excellence of its boats. A rough track ascends hence the Krondal 
to (1 At.) (J narden Flatebe (1100 ft.), grandly situated, and leads 

Fjord. NORHEIMSUND. 11. Route. 89 

thence to the S. to the Jondalsbrce, near the Dravlevand and Jekle- 
vand ; and another path from the gaard crosses the Folgefond to 
Bleie (Naae) on the Serfjord (p. 96). This very interesting route 
leads from Flateber to the N.E. to Sjusat, ascends steeply and de- 
scribes a vide bend towards the N., turns to the E., skirts the 
Thorsnut (5210 ft.), and passes the Saxaklep. The highest point of 
the route is 4510 ft. above the fjord. Then a steep descent to the 
Reisater (1080 ft.) and thence to Bleie (p. 96 ; 8-10 hrs. in all ; 
guide necessary). 

Beyond Jondal the steamer passes Jonarnas on the right, and 
soon enters the broad Samlenfjord, which is divided by the al- 
most isolated Samlenut into two parts, called the Ytre and the 
Indre Samlen. The scenery here is again very picturesque. The 
steamer crosses to the W. side, passes Axnas and the church of 
Viker, and enters the Norheimsund, a beautiful bay, on which lies — 

24 M. Norheimsund (several good inns), or Sandven, charm- 
ingly situated, and suitable for a prolonged stay. In the vicinity 
are picturesque rocky and wooded hills. To the W. rises the 
snowy Ljene Kvitingen. Sandven commands an admirable view 
of the Folgefond, with the mountain-spurs radiating from it. At 
the back of the village is the Steinsdal, a pretty and well-cultivated 
valley , in which a good road ascends to the [}l% hr.) Steinsdalsfos 
or 0vsthusfos (from l 0verste //its'), a waterfall 150 ft. in height, a 
narrow path behind which enables the visitor to pass dry-shod 
between the water and the rock. In descending the fjord some of 
the steamers stop for several hours at Norheimsund, during which 
the fall may easily be visited. 

Beyond the Steinsdalsfos, '/ 4 M. farther up the valley, the carriage-road 
terminates at the farms of Steine (tolerable quarters) and Birkeland, 
whence a sseter path leads through beautiful pine-forest to the (i'/2 M.) 
Gaard Eikedal, on the N. bank of the Eikedalsvand (1000 ft.)- The path 
then descends precipitously past the picturesque Eikedalsfos , 285 ft. in 
height, traverses a level and bleak tract, and descends rapidly to the 
beautiful Frelandsdal (i Samnanger), in which, '/« M. lower down, lies 
Tesse (Inn), on the Aadlandsfjord. The whole walk, upwards of 3 M., 
occupies 9-10 hrs. (guide necessary). Steamer from T0sse to Bergen in 
summer. If the steamer does not run, a boat may be taken to Vaage on 
the opposite bank (2 hrs.) , whence a path ascends to ( 3 /i M.) Gaarden 
Hougsdal (tolerable quarters) , from which the commanding Gulfjeld 
(3190 ft.) may be ascended. From Hougsdal a walk of 7 / 8 M- by Totland 
to Birkeland, whence a carriage-road leads to (l 1 /? M.) Bergen. 

On leaving Norheimsund the steamer touches at 0stenser, or 
Austesyn (Inn), on the adjoining bay, another pretty place which 
attracts a number of summer visitors. 

A mountain- path leads hence to the (4-5 hrs.) Holmegrenvand, or 
Humlegravand (1910 it.) , which affords good fishing, and thence into the 
Bergsdal, from which a path leads to (4-5 hrs.) Bolstaderen, and another 
(also 4-5 hrs.) to Evanger (p. 62). Several sseters on the route afford 
tolerable accommodation. 

To the W. of i&stenstf is a promontory (Ifccs) separating the bay of 
<?stens0 from the very narrow and picturesque Fiksensund , an arm of 
the fjord running towards the N. for a distance of I s ; 4 naut. M., at the head 

90 Route 11. UTNE. Hardanger 

of which lies Gaarden Botnen (reached by boat from 0stens0 in 3-3 ! /2 hrs.). 
High up on the mountain-side beyond the Nses is seen a huge giant-basin 
(Jwttegryde), called Gygrereva (Gygr, 'giantess'), from the popular 
tradition that a giantess standing on the mountain, and endeavouring to 
draw several small islands in the fjord towards her, failed from the 
breaking of the rope, and caused this indentation by falling backwards. 

— From Botnen a path (guide unnecessary), exceedingly rough and preci- 
pitous at places , ascends the Flatebegjel (Gjel, 'rocky ravine') to the 
P/2 M.) Lekedal sseter and the top of the hill beyond it (2000 ft.), after 
which it leads across more level ground to the ('/a M.) Vossestele (Stel, 
'sseter') at the N.E. end of the Humlegrevand, mentioned above. It then 
descends by the course of the river issuing from the neighbouring Thor- 

finvand to O/2 M.) Gaarden Skjeldal , whence a good road leads through 
pine-forest to C/2M.) Grimestad at the W. end of the Vangsvand. Distance 
thence by road IV2 M., or by boat 3 /4 M., to Vossevangen (p. 61). This 
interesting route from J0stens0 to Vossevangen takes 12-14 hrs. in all. 

Soon after quitting 0stens» the steamer commands a view, to 
the left, of the Indre Samlenfjord, a beautiful reach of the Har- 
danger. It either steers straight across the fjord to (I1/4M .) Herand, 
lying to the S. of the conspicuous and nearly isolated Samlenut 
or Samlekolle (2060 ft.), which may be ascended from Herand, 
or, passing the mouth of the Fiksensund (see above), it skirts the 
N.W. bank of the fjord and touches at (2 M.) Aalvik, near which 
is the picturesque Melaanfos. In the former case , on leaving 
Herand, it rounds the Samlenut, touches at Vinces, and skirts the 
Stenkorsncss with Gaarden Nesthammer. Whichever of these Toutes 
the steamers take, they all stop at — 

26 M. TJtne (*Inn), beautifully situated on the Utnefjord, from 
which the Samlenfjord, the Gravenfjord, the Eidfjord , and the 
Serfjord radiate towards the four points of the compass. A path 
ascends through the charming valley at the back of the village to 
the *Hanekamb, which commands an admirable survey of the Utne, 
Bide, and Ser fjords. — From Utne the steamer steers due N. into 
the Gravenfjord , a narrow and somewhat monotonous arm of the 
fjord, at the N. end of which, about 1 1 / 2 M. from TJtne, lies — 

27 M. Eide {Haukena>s Station, close to the fjord ; Maland's 
Hotel, on the river; Jainierii, 5 min. from the pier; all good), 
nestling prettily at the foot of rocky and wooded mountains which 
leave it exposed on the S. side only. Several of the streams and 
small lakes in the neighbourhood are said to afford good trout- 
flshing. This is the most frequented place on the fjord as a sum- 
mer residence, but the scenery is not very striking. From Eide to 
(2 3 / 4 M.) Vossevangen, see p. 61. 

From Kick to Ulvik (2 31., pay for 37s), a magnificent ride or walk, 
affording an admirable picture of Norwegian mountain-scenerv (4-5 hrs.; 
guide unnecessary). From Eide a good road leads to Oh 31.) Graven Kirke, 
on the Oravenvand, where the road to (IV2 31.) Ulvik. barely practicable for 
driving, and extremely steep at places, diverges to the right. Horses may 
be hired at Eide or at 0vre Seim, >/-i M. bevond the church. All super- 
fluous luggage should be sent round by steamer from Eide to Ulvik. — 
Pedestrians effect a saving of nearly an hour by taking the following route: 

— Immediately beyond the bridge", which the road crosses a few hundred 
yards from the pier at Eide, a bridle-path diverges to the right and ascends 
rapidly past Gaard"« *'.w/raa„,i alone the bank of the Kjellanselv, which 

Fjord. ULVIK. 11. Route. 91 

forms a small waterfall, to Gaarden Tveilo (Tveit, Engl, 'thwaite', 'a clear- 
ing') and (l'/2 hr.) the small Mauvatn; O/4 lir.) the Mauvatnswter, with a 
l Ljor" or opening for the smoke in the roof (milk procurable; also 'Grad', 
or rye -porridge; 'Setup' 1 , buttermilk; 'Prim", whey; ' Primstrumper'' are 
the drum-shaped vessels in which the whey is carried down to the valley), 
where our path bears to the left, ascending through a dreary valley to 
the (20 min.) Angerklev, and there uniting with the road from Graven. 
Following this road to the right, we reach the highest point of the route 
(about 1200 ft. above the fjord), which commands a magnificent "View 
of the Ulviksfjord. To the E. rise the Onen, from which the Degerfos is 
precipitated to a depth of upwards of 1500 ft., and the Balonefjeld, and 
to the N.E. the majestic Vasfjwren (5350 ft.). On the right side of the 
road rise the Oraahellerfjeld and the Grimsmit, and on the left the Kvas- 
hoved. On the descent to (l l /i hr.) Brakenees, which is very steep at places, 
the scenery becomes still more picturesque, particularly at the Furusceter 
and Lindebrcekke. On the hill, about 74 hr. before we reach Brakenees, 
is "VilUmseri's Hotel (Gaarden Sponheim) , beautifully situated, and often 
full. Pretty waterfalls by the mill behind the church. 

Brakenees and Ulvik, see below. 

The direct route from Eide to Ulvik across the mountains just 
described is i l /% M. in length, but by steamer the distance is about 
double (5 sea-miles). Some of the steamers go direct, while others 
call at Utne (p. 90) on the way; and it should be observed that 
they do not all touch at Ulvik. On emerging from the Gravenfjord 
the steamer steers to the S.E. past the Oxen (4120 ft.), a mountain 
which may be ascended from the S.E. side, and then enters the 
Eidfjord, the easternmost arm of the Hardanger. The banks are 
very rocky and abrupt, affording but scanty room for a few scat- 
tered houses at their base and in the valleys intersecting them. 
Passing the innermost bay of the Eidfjord on the right , we next 
enter the *Osefjord to the N., with its imposing mountain-back- 
ground (Vasfjaren, Skarafjeldet, Sotenuten). This fjord also con- 
sists of two branches, divided by the promontory of Stersnces, that 
to the right (N.E.) retaining the same name, and that to the left(N.) 
being called the Ulviksfjord ('Ulv-Vik', wolfs creek). These bays 
are generally frozen over in winter, the water being almost entirely 
fresh and not much affected by the tide ; in which case the steam- 
boat lands its freight on the ice. None of the steamers enter the 
N.E. bay of the Osefjord. Ascending the Ulvik, we next stop at — 

30 M. Ulvik, or rather at Brakenees (Station, at the pier, tole- 
rable, R. 80 ». ; *Sjur Brakenees Hotel, with baths, on the other 
side of the church, a few hundred paces to the W. ; *Villemsen's, 
on the hill, l/ 4 hr. from the pier ; beds sometimes obtainable at a 
new white house, to the right of the gate leading from the pier 
into the high road; all these houses are often full in the height 
of summer), beautifully situated, and one of the most picturesque 
spots on the Hardanger Fjord. Brakenees, with its conspicuous 
church, beyond which there is a fine waterfall, is the principal 
cluster of houses on this CTeek, the hamlets and farms at the head 
of which are collectively known as Vlvik. A pleasant walk may 
be taken along the shore to (10 min.) another group of houses, 
with a pier, near the head of the fjord, where visitors also fre- 

92 Route 11. OSEFJORD. Hardanger 

quently take up their quarters for the summer. Farther on lies 
Hagestad, beyond -which, on the N.E. bank, is Lekve , an ancient 
Kongsgaard, or royal domain, from which a path crosses the hill 
to the Osefjord in 1 hr. — An interesting excursion from Ulvik 
is the ascent of the Vasfjaren (5350 ft.), via Lekve; magnificent 
view from the summit (9 hrs. there and hack ; for a guide apply 
to M. Hjeltnaes at the Brakenaes station). — Pleasant walk of l^hr- 
to the N.W. to the ( 5 / 8 M.) Espelandsvand, a lake which is said to 
afford good trout-fishing. 

*Fkom Ulvik to Ose (i M. ; or all the way by boat 2 l /2 naut. SI.). The 
innermost creek of the "Osefjord, which none of the steamers enter, 
is one of the most striking parts of the Hardanger Fjord, and should if 
possible be visited. The excursion there and back may be made in one 
day; or the night may be spent at Ose. One route is by boat to Lekve, 
on the N.E. bank of the Ulvik, in 20 min., and thence by a path across 
the hill to the Osefjord in 1 hr., on which another boat is hired to 
( 3 /8 M.) Ose, a row of nearly an hour more ; or a boat may be taken di- 
rect from Brakentes, round the Stersnas, to (2'/2 naut. M.) Ose, a row of 
2'/2 hrs. or more ('Niste', i. e. a supply of food, desirable.). On rounding 
the Stersnass by boat we observe to the E. a waterfall of the Bagnaelv and 
(more to the left) the curious Degerfos, descending from the snow-clad 
Onen and the Degerdalsvand. We now enter the upper part of the im- 
posing Osefjord, the banks of which are almost uninhabited. On the 
right rises Onen and the Balonefjeld, and in the background tower Vas- 
fjceren (left) and Krosfjceren and the Nipahegd (right), the mountains 
bounding the wild Osedal in which the fjord terminates. From Ose 
(tolerable quarters at the house of Lars Ose) travellers usually visit the 
(10 min.) ■ Koldehuller' (cold holes', known as 'Windliicher' among the 
Alps), which are used as cellars, and where water freezes even in sum- 
mer. Close to them is a marsh (■Myr*), which, according to the natives, 
never freezes, and is dry during rain and wet in dry weather. Beyond 
Ose the valley contracts to a wild and narrow ravine, bounded by the Vas- 
fjseren and Nipah0gd, through which a path (guide obtainable at Ose) 
leads to the Oseswter and thence between the Oseskavl and Vosseskavl 
(right) and the Gangdalskavl (left) to the Gravahals (3710 ft.) and to 
Kaardal in the Flaamsdal (a walk of 10-12 hrs. ; comp. 58). — Another 
route, fatiguing and rarely frequented, leads from Ose across the Halling- 
skarv by Ulevasbotten (tolerable quarters) to Hoi in the upper Hallingdal 
in 2 days (comp. p. 34). 

From Ulvik to Aueland (10-12 hrs.). Travellers who have explored 
the whole of the scenery of the Hardanger Fjord may proceed either from 
Ose (see above), or from Lekve on the Ulvik, direct to the Sognefjord in 
one day. The path from Ulvik, very precipitous and fatiguing at places, 
ascends to the Solsivand and the Sloudalsvand (2560 ft.), at the end of 
which lies Klerene, the highest gaard in the Rundal , passes the base of 
the Gravahals, and descends to Kaardal in the Flaamsdal (comp. p. 58). 

Leaving Brakenaes on the Ulvik, beyond which the steamer does 
not proceed, we now return to the Eidfjord, rounding the promon- 
tory of Banknas, which separates the Osefjord from the Eidfjord. 
A certain spot on the Banknaes is known as the Berg fall , from the 
fact that a huge mass of rock , 400 ft. high and about the same 
width, once fell from it into the deep water of the fjord at its base. 
To the S. rises the lofty Bufjeld, so named from the solitary Gaard 
Bu, on which the sun never shines in winter. On the right, far- 
ther on, is Ordalen, with a saw-mill and a number of houses, 
where several old moraines and primeval beaches are distinguish- 

Fjord. VIK. //. Route. 93 

able. Above it rises the Ordalsnut. On the opposite bank of the 
fjord is the Hotlenut, beyond which lies the Simodal (p. 95), with 
the snowy plateau of the Hardanger Jekul (6530 ft.) in the back- 
ground. We next observe on the left the bare Vindaxeln, opposite 
which, on the right, rises the boldly formed 0kternvt (0kt, a 
'quarter of the day', or 'afternoon'). The scenery here is wild and 
grand, but is destitute of the softer characteristics of the Ulvik. The 
next station, Vik, is 2 3 / 4 M. from Ulvik, but is not farther distant 
from Stavanger or Bergen than Ulvik. 

30 M. Vik or Eidfjord (*Inn kept by the brothers Nasheim, 
somewhat dear), situated in a bay on the S. side of the Eidfjord 
or 0ifjord, is the starting-point for the Veringsfos, one of the finest 
waterfalls in Norway, and also" for other excursions of great inter- 
est. The church of 0ifjord, 10 min. from the pier , stands on a 
moraine (Vor), which is intersected by the river descending from 
the Bifjordsvand (see below). 

*ExcrKsioN to the VflRiNGSFOs (8-10 hrs., there and back). 
The scenery on the route to the waterfall , which was discovered 
by Prof. Hansteen in 1821 when on his way from the Hallingdal 
to the Hardanger, is very grand, as well as the fall itself. (Guide 
from Vik 4 kr. ; horse from Sseb» 3 kr. 20 e. ; neither necessary for 
good walkers ; actual walking 6-7 hrs. ; provisions should be taken, 
as little is to be had on the route.) We walk across the Eid, or 
neck of land between the fjord and the (20 min.) 0ifjordsvand 
(54 ft. above the sea-level), a lake enclosed by huge, abrupt, and 
barren rocks, over which several waterfalls are precipitated , and 
which glisten like silver after a fall of rain. Here we obtain a 
boat (80 e. • the boatman lives at Gjellero , a little to the right, 
and is usually attracted by shouting) to take us to the upper end 
of the lake (!/ 2 M. ; 1 hr.). On the right a path diverges to Gaarden 
Kvam (Kvam, 'rock-bound ravine'), whence the Kvamsfos de- 
scends ; and farther on we pass the Borgafjeld, where there is a 
fine echo. On the left is the 0ifjordsfjeld with the Trellefos. At 
the end of the lake we reach a fertile plain watered by the Byg- 
darelv, or Hjelmoelv, descending from the Hjelmodal on the S., 
and the Sabeelv, or Bjoreia, which our path skirts towards the E., 
traversing grand mountain scenery. Leaving Gaarden Gaaratun on 
the right, we soon reach the adjacent farms of Sabe, Megeletun, 
Lilletun , Varberg, and Reise, at all of which horses may be hired 
(horse and attendant 3 kr. 20 ».). From Ssebe the path , which 
cannot be mistaken, ascends the moraine to the left, and then de- 
scends into the wild Maab#dal on the left bank of the Bjoreia, 
which it afterwards crosses by means of a lofty bridge. In 1 hr. 
from Ssebe we reach Gaarden Tveithougen, beyond which the path 
ascends steeply, passing enormous blocks of rock and wild cataracts 
formed by the river here. In i/ 2 nr> more we reach — 

Maabc, a solitary house in the midst of a severe rocky land- 

94 Route 11. V0RINGSFOS. Hardanger 

scape, where the river is lost to view. (Coffee may be ordered to 
await the traveller on his return, 2-3 hrs. later.) The path con- 
structed by the Turistforening now crosses the river and ascends 
its precipitous left bank to the small, dark-green Maabevand, 
beyond which it continues to mount between walls of rock whence 
large fragments have been precipitated in all directions. A number 
of small waterfalls descend from these rocks , which seem almost 
to overhang the path. The vegetation is of an Alpine character. 
In 1 hr. from Maab0 we reach the **V«ringsfos, the roar of which 
has long been audible. The water is precipitated over the rocks 
at the head of the ravine in a perpendicular leap of 475 ft. into a 
basin enclosed by walls of rock on three sides. Two ridges of rock 
divide the river, which comes from the right, into three falls, 
which however soon re-unite. A dense volume of spray constantly 
rises from the seething cauldron, forming a cloud above it. The 
scene is singularly impressive. The traveller should approach the 
fall as closely as possible in order more thoroughly to realise its 
sublimity. Beautiful rainbow-hues are often observed in the spray, 
especially of an afternoon. — The Vflringsfos is usually considered 
the finest of all the Norwegian waterfalls. The Skjseggedalsfos is 
more pleasing and picturesque, but generally contains a far smaller 
volume of water, while the sublime Rjukan is too far distant from 
the spectator to produce an adequate impression of its grandeur. 

Before the construction of the path to the foot of the fall it was 
possible to view it from above only. In order to do this the tra- 
veller may ascend by a footpath between the fall and Maabe ; or 
he may return to Maabe and follow the bridle-path ascending the 
Maabegalder (Oald, 'rocky declivity') to Gaarden H«l (in 2 hrs. ; 
rough accommodation ; guide advisable for either route), situated 
on a dreary mountain-plateau, about 2200 ft. above the sea-level. 
In order to view the fall from the N. side, the traveller must cross 
the river by boat (40 m. there and back). The most conspicuous ob- 
ject on this lofty plain is the dense column of spray rising above 
the waterfall, which had long been observed by the natives of the 
district and led Prof. Hansteen to the discovery of the fall. 

From Hel we may now, instead of retracing our steps, proceed 
to the S. across the plateau to the Skisceter and Bmrrastel , and 
descend into the imposing Hjelmodai, through which a good path 
leads to Gaaratun and Saeb» (2 3 / 4 M., a walk of 7-8 hrs. in all). 
In this case the night must be spent at H«rl. — Or, leaving Hal 
early in the morning, we may cross the river, ascend the Isdal, 
descend a precipitous path, 3000 ft., to Oaarden r T p?.it, and through 
the SimodiU to the fjord, a rough walk of 10-12 hrs. (boat to Vik 
in 1 hr. more). A guide is necessary for all these expeditions, 
except the direct excursion to the fall and back. 

Excubsion to the Simodal (6-8 hrs., there and back). We 
row from Vik to (Y2 M.) the head of the fjord in 1 hr. ; on our way 

Fjord. GRIMO. 11. Route. 95 

thither we observe to the N. the loftily situated farm-house of 
Skaard, and, farther on, above the Simodal, the solitary Oaard 
Getaasen. To the N. from the head of the fjord runs the Aasendal, 
in which, a little beyond Oaard Aasen , rises a curious isolated 
rock resembling a tower, nearly 400 ft. in height. The Simodal, 
running from the head of the fjord towards the E., is an exceed- 
ingly wild, narrow, rocky ravine, Y2 M. long, the narrowest part 
of which, called Helvedet ('hell'), is at Oaarden Mehus, where the 
towering rocks above may be seen through the Ljor ('smoke-hole 1 ). 
At Tveit, the highest of the three gaards, tolerable quarters may be 
obtained. Near it are several Koldehuller( 'ice-cavities') resembling 
those in the Osedal (p. 92). A little above Tveit is the Skytjafos, 
a fine waterfall 2000 ft. high, part of which is a perpendicular 
leap of 700 ft. ; and at the head of the valley , which terminates 
abruptly in a huge wall of rock, is the imposing Rembisdalsfos, 
descending from the Rembisdalsvand, a lake to the N.E., to which 
a glacier of the Hardanger Jekul descends. — Pedestrians taking 
this fatiguing, but very interesting route to the Veringsfos, ascend 
from Tveit to the Isdal, a height of 3000 ft., and then descend 
past the Isdalsvand to Oaarden Hel (p. 94). 

From Vik to the Hallingdal, or to the Tinnse in Thelemarken, via 
the Vsrringsfos and H0l, or through the Hjelmodal, see RR. 2, 4. Ole Vik 
at Eidfjord is recommended as a guide; or application may be made to 
the owners of the inn. A horse and guide for the whole route (16-20 kr. 
each) are most conveniently engaged at Sset>0. 

From Eidpjokd to Odde. After leaving Vik, and before quit- 
ting the Eidfjord, some of the steamers touch at Ringe, on the E. 
bank, near the mouth of the fjord, a little beyond which we steer 
into the narrow arm of the Hardanger called the S«rfjord ('south 
fjord'), 6 M. (24 Engl. M.) in length, its entrance being formed 
by the Tronas on the W. and the Kirkences on the E. side. The 
next station, about 4 M. from Vik, is — 

27 M. Grimo (*Inn), a pretty place on the W. bank , which is 
well cultivated here, and yields the morella and other cherries in 
abundance. A beautiful walk may be taken to the S. to (20 min.) 
the top of the Haugsnms, and another to the N. to the (20 min.) Tro- 
nas, which affords a vie ,v of the Kinservik (see below). A rough 
path leads thence to Utne. The contrast between the wild and 
bleak mountains rising above the fjord and the fertile land at their 
bases is most striking on the Serfjord, and is most apparent when 
observed from the banks themselves. 

Opposite Grimo, immediately to the S. of the Kirkenzes, is the 
charming Kinservik (anciently Kingsarvik), to which the Husdal 
descends. The Tveitafos and the Nyastelfos, two fine waterfalls in 
this valley, are worthy of a visit. To the left rises the imposing 
Reenaas. As none of the steamers touch at the Kinservik, travellers 
intending to visit the place land at Grimo or at Lofthus. A beauti- 

96 Route 11. LOFTHUS. Hardanger 

ful road leads by Krosnces to ( 3 / 4 M.) Lofthus. Lars Trondsen at Kin- 
servik is a skilful wood-carver (Traskjcerer). — On the same side of 
the fjord , about l 1 /^ sea-miles from Grimo, is the next station — 

28 M. Lofthus, or Vllensvang (*Hans Helgesen Vtne's Inn, 
comfortable), charmingly situated. To the N. is the house of the 
Sorenskriver (district-judge, locally called 'Skrivare soren'), and 
higher up is Helleland ('Hedleland') with a curious old Regstue. 
To the S. of the inn is a large Girls' School, on the hill above 
which is Oppedal. — The name of the parish is TJllensvang , to 
the church of which a beautiful road leads through the valley of 
a river, which, l / 2 M. to the E., forms the waterfall called Bjerne- 
bykset (bear's leap). To the S. is the Skrikjofos, 500 ft. in height. 
The interesting old Church is an early Gothic building, destitute 
of a tower, with a handsome W. portal. At the E. end of the 
choir is a Gothic window ; above it is represented the head of a 
bishop , and on the right is a weeping and on the left a laughing 
face. The doorposts and window mouldings are also worthy of 
inspection. — By the Prcestegaard (parsonage) are several fine old 
limes and ashes. — On this part of the fjord mild W. winds usually 
prevail in winter, and the water never freezes ; but farther to the 
S., at Odde and in the neighbourhood, cold E. winds are more fre- 
quent. • — Near TJllensvang are several Koldehuller , or cavities in 
which the temperature never exceeds 38-40° Fahr. , and which are 
used by the natives as cellars. 

On the opposite (W.) bank of the fjord are several large farms, 
the chief of which are Jaastad, Vildure, andAga. The last-named, 
the property of a 'Storthingsmand' , the father-in-law of the inn- 
keeper at Lofthus , still contains an old hall lighted from above. 
Above Aga rises the Solnut , beyond which is the Thorsnut. The 
glaciers of the Folgefond are visible at frequent intervals. Beautiful 
excursions may be taken in every direction by boat. — On this 
side of the fjord, a little farther S., is the picturesque Vikebugt, 
on which are situated the station of (29 M.) Naae and the farm- 
houses of Bleie, where immediately above the luxuriant fields and 
gardens are the overhanging glaciers of the Folgefond, from which 
several waterfalls are precipitated. Unsuccessful attempts have 
been made near Bleie to quarry the ice for commercial purposes. — 
Path from Bleie over the Folgefond to Jondal, see p. 89. 

On the E. bank, a little beyond TJllensvang, we next observe 
Serve Naustad, splendidly situated. (Rooms at the Landhandler's.} 
A fine view is obtained here of the glaciers above Bleie and of the 
whole of the Serfjord. The numerous boat-houses (Nest) on the 
bank belong to the small farmers who live on the hill above. An 
excellent point of view is the pointed and prominent Beroenut 
(1 hr.) — The next places on the E. bank are Gaarden Sandste and 
Sexe; Hovland, with a spinning-mill ; Hvalnces, a promontory with 
a gaard ; and then, 2^2 M. from Naae, — 

Fjord. ODDE. 11. Route. 97 

30 M. Espen, with several small farms charmingly situated on 
the hill. 

On the W. bank, to the S. of Naae and Bleie, we next pass 
Oaarden Lindvik and a mountain torrent which disappears under 
a large mass of snow. Then Maage , situated on a thick deposit of 
detritus (Vr, Vrd), on the mountain above which is a rocky slope 
remarkable for its many colours. Still higher is a glacier, which 
once extended much farther down. The next places are Kvitnaa, at 
the entrance to the imposing Maagedal, with glaciers in the back- 
ground, and Gaarden Digrenas, with several waterfalls near it. Be- 
tween these places, on a commanding hill, stands Oaarden Aase, 
whence the Folgefond may easily be ascended. (Rowing-boat 
thither from Odde, 2 hrs.j Beyond Digrenses are Oaarden Apald 
and Aaen, with the waterfall of that name, also called the Ednafos ; 
then Eitrheim . with the peninsula of Eitnas , and Tokheim with 
its waterfall, commanded by the Tokheimsnut , on the S. side of 
which a path crosses the Folgefond to the Mauranger fjord (p. 88). 
— The background to the S. is formed by the Ruklenut on the 
right and the Rosnaas on the left. 

On the E. bank , a little beyond Espe, is Fresvik , with its 
spacious and picturesque amphitheatre of wood, bordered with 
meadows and corn-fields. On the same bank, opposite Kvitnaa, are 
Oaarden Skjelvik, situated in another wooded bay, and Gaarden 
Stana, at a dizzy height above which is Isberg. Farther on is the 
Tyssedalsnut, below which lies the hamlet of Tyssedal, where the 
captain of the steamer will usually stop to allow passengers bound 
for the Skjaeggedalsfos (see p. 99) to disembark. We next observe 
Oaarden Freheim, or Freim , on the hill , beyond which we soon 
reach (about 2 M. from Espen) — 

32 M. Odde(*OJe Prcestegaard' s Inn, near the pier; *Baard Aga, 
200 paces from the pier, a little inland; *Vetterhus, on the fjord, 
near Aga's; Christensen ; usual charges, R. 80 »., B. 1, D. 2 kr.), 
situated at the S. end of the Serfjord. The name ('tongue of land') 
applies properly to the large Church of the parish. The principal 
farms around the church are Bustetun , Opheim , and Bergeflot. 
The guide Thore Horre frequently plays national dance-music on 
the Hardanger violin for the entertainment of visitors. The 
peculiarity of the instrument consists in its having six strings under 
the four upper (g, d, a, e; the two lowest being encased in a coil 
of steel wire), tuned either in unison or in harmony with them, 
and so placed that they sound when the upper strings are touched, 
thus producing a pleasing effect. A highly skilled performer on 
this instrument (with twelve strings instead of six under the four 
uppei) is Kristian Suckow at Bergen. 

Walks. (1). To (72 hr.) Tokheim, on the W. bank, commanding 
fine views of the fjord. 

(2). To the (20 min.) * Sandvenvand (280 ft.), to the S. of Odde. 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 7 

98 Route 11. BUARBILE. Hardanger 

The route to it is by the high-road , ascending the Eid , an old 
moraine. At the top of the hill the Aaboelv , issuing from the 
Sandvenvand, forms a fine waterfall. On the right is the Strandsfos, 
and rising above the lake are the Eidesnut and Jordalsnut ; on the 
left is the Kjendalsfos, and above it rises the Kjendalsnut. The 
finest view is towards the N., embracing the whole of the S»rfjord, 
with the Oxen (p. 91) in the extreme distance. By following the 
road for 20min. more along the bank of the lake we obtain a view 
of the entire Buarbrse and the Folgefond. No one who lands at 
Odde should omit to take this walk or drive (l 1 /^-^ hrs.), for which 
a guide is of course unnecessary. 

Excursions from Odde. (1)To the *Buarbrae, a very interesting 
excursion of 5 hrs., there and back (guide unnecessary). We walk 
or drive to the (20 min.) Sandvenvand (see above) and cross the 
bridge ; then row across the lake (fare about 1 kr. 20 ». for one 
rower) to the (20 min.) entrance to the Jordal, where the boat 
waits , and where we obtain a view of the huge ice-masses of the 
Folgefond. We then walk, crossing the first bridge , to (5 min.) 
Gaarden Jordal, and afterwards cross (20 min.) a second bridge, 
beyond which the path follows the left bank of the Jordalselv. 
Easy walking and beautiful scenery. In 1 hr. more we pass Gaarden 
Buar (Hardanger beer and other refreshments) on the left, beyond 
which lies a small plain. From this point to the foot of the glacier, 
of which we are now in full view, 20 min. more. Travellers are 
particularly cautioned against attempting to enter the blue ice- 
grotto. By ascending the hill to the right we shall have an op- 
portunity of observing traces of the steady advance of the glacier, 
which amounted to 260 ft. in 1870, and to no less than 12 ft. in 
one week in 1871. The foot of the glacier is 1000 ft. only above 
the level of the fjord , or 700 ft. above the Sandvenvand , and in 
its immediate proximity are barley-fields and well-grown trees. 
The glacier is divided into two arms , which afterwards unite , by 
the Urbotten, a ridge of rock, and consequently has an unusually 
large central moraine. The Jordal itself is an object of attraction 
on this excursion , being bounded by picturesque and precipitous 
rocks , and enlivened with an abundant growth of birches , elms, 
and other trees. — Good mountain-walkers may ascend on the 
right side of the glacier to the Folgefond , skirt the Eidesnut and 
the liuklenut , and passing the Tokheimsnut descend to Tokheim 
and Odde, a very grand and interesting, but fatiguing expedition 
of 10-12 hrs. in all , somewhat resembling the Diavolezza Tour in 
the Bernina Alps. (Guide 4-8 kr.) 

(2). To the * Lotefos (6-8 hrs., there and back). A 'Stolkjserre', 
with seats for two persons, may be hired for the whole excursion. 
The route is by the high-road to the S., passing the Sandvenvand, 
where the scenery is particularly fine , and Hildal. Travellers 
were formerly obliged to row to Sandven, at the S. end of the lake, 

Fjord. LOTEFOS. 11. Route. 99 

but an excellent road now skirts the E. bank, passing the Kjen- 
dalsfos, commanding a noble survey of the Buarbrse, skirting bold 
rocky precipices at places , and traversing several Vre , or beds of 
detritus. On the opposite bank of the lake is seen the Strandsfos, 
descending from the Svartenut , with a bridge high above it. At 
the end of the lake is Ganrden Sandven. A little farther is ( 7 / 8 M.) 
Hildal(318ft.), a station, where horses may be changed, and. near 
which is the Vcefos or Hildalsfos. The valley is of a softer character 
here than lower down , and its beauty is enhanced by several 
remarkably fine waterfalls. Farther on we traverse the Djuo 
('ravine'), through which the brawling Grenstadelv (so named from 
the neighbouring Gaard Grenstad) forces its passage. About Y2 M. 
from Hildal we reach the *Lotefos and Skarsfos, the waters of 
which unite near the road. Opposite is the *Espelandsfos, 
descending in the form of a veil , and one of the most picturesque 
waterfalls in Norway. The traveller may now drive on for 20 min. 
more , alight , and walk to the gaards of Share , where several 
interesting old timber-buildings [Regstue , Stabbur , and Lee or 
granary) and picturesque costumes are to be seen. The interior of 
a Stabbur, or store-room, should be inspected. The natives here 
usually have four meals a day, Frokost at 6 a.m., Daur (called 
elsewhere Dagoerd, Davre, Degur) at 10 a.m., Nonsmad at 2 p.m., 
and Kvelsmad at 8 p.m. — The traveller may view the Lotefos 
from above by ascending from Skare to the (20 min.) Loteoand, 
from which first the Skarsfos and then the Lotefos issues. Several 
mills have been established by the side of the fall. The lofty cloud 
of spray , through which the Espelandsfos is visible, has a very 
curious effect. — If, as may conveniently be done, this excur- 
sion be combined with a visit to the Buarbrse , the vehicles are 
left at the N. end of the Sandvenvand until the travellers return 
from the glacier. 

Route to Thefcemarken via Beljestad and Reldal, see p. 26; to the 
fjords near Stavanger, see R. 10. 

(3). From Odde across the * Folgefond to the Mauranger Fjord 
(seep. 88), a fatiguing, but very interesting walk of 8-10 hrs. 
(guide 12-1 ti kr. ; Lars Olsen Bustetun and Svend Tollefssen are 
recommended ; horses may be hired at Odde). 

(4). From Odde to the * Skjseggedalsfos , or Ringedalsfos, 
10-12 hrs. , there and back. As in the case of the excursion to 
the Veringfos , the scenery on the route is very picturesque, and 
is almost as great an attraction as the fall itself. About one half 
of the excursion is performed by water, the remainder on foot, 
riding being impracticable. The actual walking takes about 5 hrs . 
only, but the path, though improved by the Turistforening, is 
at some places still very rough and steep. A guide (4 kr.) and a 
supply of provisions had better be taken from Odde. We row from 
Odde along the wild E. bank of the Serfjord, passing a group of 



rocks called 'Biskopen, Prcesten, og Klokkereri", and just beyond 
the mouth of the Tyssaa , which falls into the lake in a cascade 
framed with dark pines, we land at Plads Tyssedal ('/q Norw. M.; 
1 hr.). The gaard of that name lies prettily on the hill, to the 
left. We now ascend through wood, enjoying beautiful retrospective 
views of the fjord and the Folgefond and its glaciers. The woods 
of the Tyssedalsnut (to the N.) and the Thveitnut (to the S.) still 
contain numerous bears , which , however , are very rarely seen in 
summer. After l / t hr. we pass a second fall of the beautiful clear 
green river, and in another 1/4 hr. a third. The path ascends steeply 
over 'IV and roots of trees. In 1/2 nr - more we pass a small pasture 
on the left, where bilberries, the Caluna vulgaris, and other wild 
plants grow abundantly. We next reach (^4 hr.) a hay-hut, at the 
foot of the Svelberg , near which is a cavity in the rock used by 
the natives as a kind of kitchen. This is the highest point on the 
route, about 1800 ft. above the fjord. At a giddy depth , about 
1000 ft. below us, flows the brawling stream in its rocky bed. The 
path next descends by a rude flight of steps, traversing the Flad- 
berg, and skirting the stream, and in 3 /4hr. more reaches Gaarden 
Skjaeggedal (about 2 hrs. from Tyssedal; beer, coffee, milk, and 
a bed of hay if necessary ; good trout are sometimes to be had). 
On the left the Mogelifos descends from the Mogelinut , and on 
the right is the Vasendfos , the discharge of the Ringedalsvand. 
At the foot of the latter waterfall is the Vetlevand ('small lake'), 
which we cross by boat in a few minutes ; and ascending thence 
for 8 min. more across the Eid, or neck of land separating the two 
lakes , we reach the extremely picturesque and exquisitely clear 
Ringedalsvand (about 1500 ft. above the sea), with the huge 
Einsatfjeld rising towards the S. (A high wind sometimes prevails 
here, while the fjord below is quite calm, in which case the night 
must be spent at the gaard, or the excursion must be renounced 
altogether. A second rower is desirable, but not always procurable ; 
fee 1 kr. 80 0.). This magnificent mountain-lake is 3 / 4 M. in 
length , and the row to its upper end takes nearly l 1 /^ nr - ; about 
halfway we enjoy a fine retrospective view of' the huge snow- 
mantle of the Folgefond. (In crossing the Folgefond , when near 
the Hundser, Prof. Forbes heard the roar of the Skjaeggedalsfos in 
the distance.) On the left, farther on, the picturesque Tyssestrenge 
fall from a precipice nearly 1000 ft. high, uniting in one cascade 
about halfway down the face of the rock. Both in this fall and the 
Skjaeggedalsfos beautiful rainbows are formed by the spray in 
sunny weather. (Good walkers, if time permits, should land at 
the foot of the Tyssestrenge, and ascend the very steep hill for 
1 hr. to the foot of the higher fall , a magnificent point of view.) 
On landing at the upper end of the lake, we ascend past the lower 
fall in 20 min. to the foot of the upper fall of the stupendous 
* Skjaeggedalsfos, or properly Ringedalsfos, which descends in an 

HAEDANGER VIDDE. 11. Route. 101 

unbroken leap of 530 ft.; the volume of water is always considerable, 
but in the early summer, during the melting of the snow, the fall 
is overwhelmingly grand. (For the whole excursion, one of the 
finest in Norway, 8-10 hrs. from Tyssedal, or 10-12 hrs. from Odde 
should be allowed.) 

From Eidfjord, as already mentioned, and from Kinservik, 
UUensvang, Espen, and Skjceggedal, rough and fatiguing mountain- 
paths, rarely trodden except by reindeer-stalkers, cross the wild 
and desolate Hardanger Vidde to the Hallingdul and to Thele- 
marken in 2-3 days. All the Thelemarken routes unite at the 
base of Haarteigen (5550 ft.), a mountain of truncated conical form 
(Teig, Teigjen, 'an allotment of land', 'a clearing'), where an 
excellent idea of the extremely bleak and dreary character of 
the Norwegian 'Heifjeld' scenery may be formed. On every side 
extends a lofty and sterile table-land, rarely relieved by mountain- 
summits , while the distant snow-mountains (Gausta , Hardanger 
Jekul, and Storfonn) present a flat and shapeless appearance. 
Far and wide not a trace of human habitations , or even a valley 
suggestive of their existence, is to be seen. The angler, however, 
will be interested to hear that the numerous mountain-lakes teem 
with life (excellent 'Fjelderreter' or mountain-trout), while the 
sportsman will often have an opportunity of shooting reindeer and 
wildfowl. The atmosphere on this mountain plateau, 3000-4000 ft. 
above the sea-level , is exceedingly clear and bracing , but mists 
and storms are of frequent occurrence. — Travellers or sportsmen 
traversing this region must spend one or more nights in a saeter, 
in a reindeer-stalker's hut, or in a still more wretched Falager, 
or shepherds' hut, no other shelter of any kind being procurable. 

Routes to and from the Hardanger Fjord. As already 
mentioned , all ordinary travellers approach or quit the Hardanger 
Fjord by one of five different routes : - — 

1. From Odde to Thelemarken by a good carriage-road, and 
one day's journey by bridle-path (to Christiania 5-7 days ; see R. 3). 

2. From Eide to Gudvangen , carriage-road , and thence by 
steamboat to Lasrdalseren (to Christiania 6-8 days in all ; see 
RR. 6, 4). 

3. From Eide to Bolstad0ren by road and steamer, and thence 
by steamer to Bergen (2-3 days in all ; see R. 6). 

4. From Odde to Stavanger by steamboat, touching at inter- 
mediate stations (in l 1 /^-^ 1 /^ days; compare R. 11). 

5. From Odde to Bergen by steamboat, touching at inter- 
mediate stations (in l-l 1 /^ days; compare R. 11). 

We now take the last of these routes , returning by steamer to 
Terpen (p. 85), and steering thence towards the N.W. to Bergen 
(see below). 


12. Bergen and Environs. 

Arrival. The large sea-going steamers cast anchor in the harbour, 
whence passengers are conveyed ashore in small boats (20 0. each person). 
The smaller vessels lay to at the Holbergs Almending. Porter (Bmrer) 
to the principal hotels, V2-I kr. — Travellers leaving Bergen by steamboat 
should , if possible , secure berths by going on board in person several 
hours or the day before the vessel starts. 

Hotels. * Holdt's Hotel, at the K. corner of the Plads in the street 
called Engen, nearly '/s>hr. from the steamboat-quay, R. 172-2, B. I 1 /?, D. 2'/2, 
L. and A. 1 kr. 2C < f>. ; baths in the house. Scandinavie , well situated 
in the Plads called Klosteret , 20 min. from the quay; Nordstjernen, 
Raadstue- Plads , near the Exchange, and V2 hr. from the landing-place; 
these two are very fair hotels, but less pretending than Holdt's. — Hansen, 
Hollsender-Gaden, adjoining the Korskirke; Britannia and Campbell's, 
both in the Strandgade. immediately to the E. of the Nykirke; Smith's, 
Strandgaden, to the W. of the Nykirke; all second-class. Fku Stub's 
Hotel, Markeveien 12, is a so-called 'Bergensk Hotel', or second-class 
pension. — Lodgings at Leervig^s and Stockfleth's in the Nykirke-Almending ; 
another house opposite Stockfleth's. — The innkeepers supply wine and 
beer , but spirituous liquors must be purchased at a shop. — Restaurants 
at the hotels. — Madsen, confectioner. Torv-Almendingen. 

Carriages to be had of Heyer, a 'Vognmand' in the Mussegade. Bergen 
does not boast of a cab-stand. 

Boats, here called Flet (Flelmand , 'a boatman'), according to tariff 

Post Office, Smaastrandgaden. Telegraph Office at the back of the 
Exchange, which faces the Torv. 

Shops. "Hammer, Strandgaden, Norwegian antiquities. Giertsen, Ny- 
gaard, and Floor, booksellers, all in the Strandgade; also Beyer, Kong 
Oscar's Gaden, opposite the Korskirke. Yedeler, Torvet, figures in Nor- 
wegian costumes. — Spirits and Liqueurs at the not very numerous shops 
belonging to the company which monopolises the trade in spirituous li- 
quors. At some of the shops liquors are sold in bottles only, at others 
by the glass. The shopkeepers are the servants of the company, and 
derive no profit from the sale. After payment of a dividend of 5 per 
cent, the surplus profits are paid to the municipality. The 'permissive 
act' under which the company has bought up all the licenses to sell spi- 
rits, has been adopted by many other Norwegian towns and parishes, and 
is said to have produced most beneficial results. 

Banks. A'orges Bank, Credit-Kassen, and Privatbank, all in the Torv. 

Baths. Warm, in the Sygehus and at Holdfs , both in the Eng. Sea- 
baths at the Setyst, at Bontelabo, by the fortress; for gentlemen 7-9 and 
3-8 o'clock; for ladies 10-2 o'clock." 

Music in the Park on Sundays, 12-1; also near Christie^ Statue. 

Consuls. British, Mr. H. D.' Janson, Strandgaden, S.W. side, a few 
doors S.E. from the Sm0rs-Almending. American, Mr. A. N. Oran. 
German, Hr. C. Mohr. 

English Church Service in summer in the L 6amle Musaium' school- 
house, on the N. side of the Lille Lungegaards-Vand, near the Park, and 
5 min. from Holdt's Hotel. 

Points of Interest : Walks on the Frederiksberg and JVordnws to the 
W., and across the Torv to Bergenlms, to the N. ; the Museum; walk out- 
side Stadsporten. 

Bergen (N. lat. 60°23'), one of the oldest and most picturesque 
towns in Norway, with 39,281 inhab., lies on a hilly peninsula 
and isthmus hounded on the N. by the Vaag and the Byfjord, on 
the S.E. hy the Lungegaards-Vand, and on the S.W. by the Pudde- 
fjord. In the background rise four mountains, about 2000 ft. in 
height, Blaamanden (Fleifjeldet) to the N.E., Vlriken to the S.E., 

History. BERGEN. 12. Route. 103 

and Levstaken and Lyderhorn to the S.W. ; but the citizens, 
on the analogy of the seven hills of Rome, enumerate seven 
(Sandviksfjeldet, Fleifjeldet, Vlriken, Levstaken, Damsgaardsfjeldet, 
Lyderhorn, and the Askefjeld in the island of Aske to the N.W.). 
The armorial bearings of the town also contain seven hills (form- 
erly seven balls). The climate is exceedingly mild and humid, 
somewhat resembling that of the W. coast of Scotland ; the frosts 
of winter are usually slight and of shoTt duration, the thermometer 
very Tarely falling below 15-20° Fahr., and the average rainfall is 
72 inches (in the Nordfjord about 78 in., at Christiania 20 in. 
only). The mean temperature of the whole year is 45° Fahr. 
(Christiania, 41°), and that of July 58° (Christiania, 62°). Owing 
to the mildness of the climate the vegetation in the neighbourhood 
is unusually rich; flowers are abundant, while grain and fruit in 
ordinary seasons ripen fairly well. Like most of the Norwegian 
towns and villages, however, Bergen and its smiling environs are 
closely hedged in by sterile, rocky mountains. The town is rapidly 
extending to the S.E., towards the Lille and Store Lungegaards 
Vand, picturesque sheets of water, which, however, are apt to have 
an unpleasant stagnant smell in warm weather, especially at low 
tide. They are both connected with the sea, and each is crossed 
by a bridge at its outlet, the mouth of the latter being called 
Slremmen. The older and more interesting part of the town, which 
still bears traces of its antiquity, lies on the S. and E. sides of the 
Vang, a bay of the By fjord, and the chief harbour of the town. 

The older part of the town, situated to the S.E. of the har- 
bour, having been burned down in 1855, has been rebuilt in a 
handsome modern style, but the other quarters (Kvartaler) consist 
of closely built wooden houses painted white. Many of the houses 
are roofed with red tiles, which present a picturesque appearance. 
The streets running parallel with the harbour are called 'Gader', 
the lanes and passages 'Smug' or 'Smitter', and these are inter- 
sected at right angles by wide open spaces called 'Almendinger', 
destined chiefly to prevent the spreading of conflagrations. Not- 
withstanding this precaution , Bergen has been repeatedly de- 
stroyed by Are, as for example in 1702, the disaster of which year 
is described by Peter Dass in two pleasing poems ('Samlede 
Skrifter', i. 1874). A conduit now supplies the town with water 
from Svartediket, a lake on Ulriken, affording much greater faci- 
lities for extinguishing fires than formerly existed. It is from 
these open spaces only, and from the Tydskebrygge, that a view of 
the harbour is obtained, the greater part of its banks being occu- 
pied by warehouses (Seboder). — Persons in want of a boat hail 
one by shouting l Flet\ to which the boatman usually replies, l Ja 
vel, Mosje'. A trip towards the N."W. is described as udover , to- 
wards the Torv at the head of the bay as indover, towards the 
N.E. side (Fleifjeld) as opover, and to the S.W. as nedover. 

104 Route 12. BERGEN. History. 

The inhabitants of Bergen,like the Hordlsndinger andVossinger, 
are more vivacious in temperament than those of other parts of 
Norway, and are noted for their sociability and light-heartedness. 
On holiday occasions their merry songs and lively chat testify to 
the buoyancy of their spirits, while at the same time they are a 
sober and frugal race. Waterproofs and umbrellas are quite as 
much in vogue here as in England, and they are certainly far more 
necessary. — Most of the better-educated inhabitants speak Eng- 
lish or German, or both these languages. 

Bergen (from Bjeirgvin, 'pasture near the mountains') was 
founded by King Olaf Kyrre in 1070-75 on the site of the old royal 
residence of Aalrekstad, at the E. end of the present harbour, 
which at that period ran inland as far as the Cathedral. The town 
must soon have become an important place, as the greatest battles 
in the civil wars of the subsequent centuries were fought in its 
neighbourhood. In 1135 Magnus Sigurdss»n was taken prisoner 
here and deprived of his sight by Harald Oille, who in his turn 
was slain by Sigurd Slembedegn the following year. In 1154 Ha- 
rald's son Sigurd Mund was killed by the followers of his brother 
Inge on the quay of Bergen. In 1181 a naval battle took place 
near the Nordnaes between kings Magnus and Sverre; and in 1188 
the Kuvlunger and /Sfskjegger were defeated by Sverre at the naval 
battle of Florvaag (near the Aska). Ten years later, during the so- 
called 'Bergen summer' the rival parties of the Birkebeiner and the 
Bagler fought against each other in the town and neighbourhood. 
In 1223 a national diet was held at Bergen, at which Haakon Haa- 
konsen's title to the crown was recognised (a scene dramatised in 
Ibsen's Kongsemnerne, Act i.). During his reign Bergen was the 
largest and busiest town in Norway, and boasted of no fewer than 
thirty churches and monasteries, and of many handsome buildings, 
of which but few traces now remain. For its subsequent commer- 
cial prosperity the town was indebted to the Hanseatic League, 
which established a factory here about the middle of the 15th cen- 
tury. From the Comptoir of the factory the German merchants 
were known as Kontorske, and the nickname of Oarper (probably 
from garpa, 'to talk loudly') was also applied to them. These 
settlers having obtained various privileges from the Danish govern- 
ment, gradually succeeded in monopolising the whole trade of 
northern and western Norway, and in excluding the English, 
Scotch, and Dutch traders, and even the Norwegians themselves, 
from all participation in their traffic. Down to the beginning of 
the 17th cent. Bergen was a much more important commercial 
place than Copenhagen, and even at the beginning of the 19th 
cent, it was more populous than Christiania. (At the present day 
Christiania carries on 32 per cent of the whole trade of Norway, 
while Bergen's proportion is 16 per cent only.) 

These foreign monopolists, however, after having wielded their 

Kongshalt. BERGEN. 12. Route. 105 

authority with great oppressiveness for upwards of a century, were 
successfully opposed by Christopher Valkendorf in 1559, after which 
their power gradually declined. Their 'Comptoir' continued to 
exist for two centuries more, but at length in 1763 the last rem- 
nant of their property was sold to a native of Norway. 

Among the natives of Bergen who have attained celebrity may 
be mentioned Ludvig Holberg, the traveller, social reformer, and 
poet(d. 1754), Johan Welhaven, the poet (d. 1873J, J. C. Dahl, 
the painter (d. 1857), and Ole Bull, the musician. 

Fish has always been the staple commodity of Bergen, which 
is the greatest fish-mart in Norway. The Hanseatic merchants 
compelled all the northern fishermen and traders to send their fish 
to Bergen, and down to the present day the trade still flows mainly 
through its old channels. In May and June occurs the first Nord- 
far-Stavne ('arrival of northern seafarers'), when the fishermen of 
the N. coasts arrive here with their deeply laden Jagter, vessels 
which still retain the shape of the ancient dragon-ships of the 
"Vikings. Their cargoes consist chiefly of train-oil (manufactured 
from the liver of the cod or the torsk, and either 'blank', i. e. co- 
lourless, 'brun-blank', or 'brun') and roe (Rogn) ; and in July and 
August (the second 'Stcevne'), they bring supplies of 'Klipfisk' and 
other kinds of fish. (Comp. p. 226 ; see also O. N. Leberg's 'Norges 
Fiskerier' ; Christiania, 1864; pp. 135, 139, et seq.) Bergen also 
possesses a considerable mercantile fleet, including several steamers 
trading with New York, and the largest shipbuilding yards in Nor- 
way (as that of Brunchorst $ Deekes on the Puddefjord ; Braadbcenken, 
by the Tydskebrygge ; another at Laksevaag ; and a Mekanisk Vark- 
sted or engine-factory on the Solheimsvik. 

Public Buildings. The most interesting are the Kongshall 
and *Valkendorfs Taarn near Bergenhus. (Permission to be 
obtained from the commandant ; fee to the soldier who acts as a 
guide, Y2-I kr 0- 1 fle historically interesting hall, erected in the 
13th cent., and once a royal banquet-room, is now sadly disfigured, 
the portal and the windows alone being to some extent preserved. 
Its restoration, however , is projected. Valkendorf s Tower , also 
known as the Rosenkrantz Tower, originally built by Haakon 
Haakonsan in the 13th cent., was enlarged by Rosenkrantz in 
1565, and restored in 1848. The name includes two towers, 
of which the older is on the S. side. The interior, which con- 
tains several handsome chimney - pieces , is now used as an 
Arsenal (interesting flags). The gallery at the top commands an 
excellent survey of the harbour and the town. The parapet bears 
the inscription: 'Patientia fertilis arbor'. — The adjoining fortress 
of Bergenhus now contains the House of Correction ( l Slaverief), 
to the N. of which is the ancient *Sverresborg, now converted into 
a pleasant promenade. 

Off the fortress of Bergenhus a naval battle took place in 1665 be- 

106 Route 12. BERGEN. Cathedral. 

tween an English fleet of fourteen frigates, commanded by Admiral Thomas 
Tiddiman, and a Dutch mercantile fleet of sixty Fast Indiamen, under 
the command of Admiral van Bitter. The Dutch vessels had sought refuge 
under the guns of the fortress, the Danish commandant of which, Gen. 
Cicignon, without special instructions, took the part of the Hollanders. 
The English vessels were ranged in a semicircle extending from Bergen - 
hus to Nordnffis , while the Dutch lay between Braadbsenken and the 
Nvkirke. After a contest of three hours, during which several cannon- 
balls (now gilded) struck Walkendorf's Tower , the Cathedral, and the 
Sladport , the united Dutch and Danish arms were victorious, and the 
British fleet was compelled to retreat with a loss of 900 killed and wounded. 
On the hill on the opposite side of the harbour rises Fort 
Frederiksberg, now a Brandvagt or fire-station, adjoining which is 
the Observatory. On this hill there are also several excellent 
points of view, one of the finest being the neighbouring For- 
skjennelse, between the Nykirke-Almending and the Holbergs-Al- 
mending. The latter 'Plads' derives its name from Ludvig Holberg, 
who was born in a house here (now demolished") in 1684. (See 
Prutz, 'Ludwig Holberg, sein Leben und seine Schriften', Stutt- 
gart, 1857). 

Churches. Bergen is said to have once boasted of no fewer 
than 32 churches , the largest of which were the Christkirke, in 
which Haakon Haakonsen (1264) and other Norwegian kings are 
interred, the Apostelkirke, an imitation of the Sainte Chapelle at 
Paris, St. Olafs, St. Nicholas's, and St. Columbus's. It also 
possessed several monasteries , including that of Munkliv on the 
Nordnses , the foundations of which were recently discovered in 
the Plads called Klosteret, but are not now visible. None of these 
buildings, however, now exist, and there are four or five churches 
only worthy of notice. The St. Marise Kirke, or Tydsk Kirke, to 
the E. of Bergenhus, built in the 12th cent, and extended in the 
13th, has a Romanesque nave, a Gothic choir, and two modern 
towers, and contains an interesting pulpit and altar. For a long 
period the services in this church were conducted in German ex- 
clusively, afterwards in German and Danish alternately, and now 
in Danish alone. Several of the interesting Tombstones bear 
German names , some of which date from the first forty years of 
the present century. "When the Kuvlunger were dispersed by King 
Sverre in 1188, Jon Kuvlung , their chief, was slain, and his re- 
mains were buried in this church. In 1206 the Birkebeiner 
(Haakon Jarl and Peter Steyper) signally defeated the "Bag\ei (Philip 
Jarl and Erling Steinvag) on the ground between this church and 
that of St. Lawrence , a little to the N., and a number of the 
latter were also interred here. 

The Cathedral, or St. Olaf i Vaagbunden ('at the head of the 
creek'), originally a monastery-church, erected in 1248, was 
rebuilt in 1537 and restored in 1870. The interior, consisting of 
a nave with a single S. aisle, contains nothing worthy of notice. 
The Gothic windows and the portal in the lower story of the tower 
are interesting. The font consists of a basin inserted in a laurel- 

Tydskebryggen. BERGEN. 12. Route. 107 

wreath borne by an angel suspended from the ceiling. — Near the 
Cathedral are the Kathedral-Skole, or Latin-Skole, the Sefarendes- 
Fattighus (sailors' hospital), and the Spetal, or St. Jergeris Hospital, 
for the reception of 'Spedalske' or lepers. 

The Korskirke, or Church of the Cross, in the Hollsendergade, 
where Nils Klim, famous for his 'Subterranean Journey', was once 
sacristan, is uninteresting. — In the neighbourhood are the streets 
of the Skomagere , Skinnere , Bagere , Ouldsmede , and Barberer, 
deriving their names from the 'flf Amten' or five handicrafts of 
the German artizans once settled here. The great Are of 1855 
extended as far as this point. • — ■ The Nykirke on the Nordnass is 
a plain edifice , but the Roman Catholic St. Paulskirke is worthy 
of notice. 

At the head (S.E. end) of the harbour, lies the Torv, or 
Market Place, adjoined on the N. by the Vitterlevs-Almmding, and 
on the S. by the Torve-Almending. In the former is situated the 
new Covered Market, usually known as the Basar, a handsome 
edifice in brick and stone, completed in 1877. From this point a 
winding road ascends to the spurs of the Fleifjeld, or we may 
proceed to the left through the 0vre Gade to the Mariaekirke. In 
the opposite direction is the Torve-Almending, ascending to the 
S., and containing the handsomest modern buildings in the city, 
including the Exchange, the principal banks, and some of the best 
shops. At the top of the hill rises the Statue of Christie, the 
president of the first Norwegian Storthing , which concluded the 
convention with Sweden in 1814. The statue is by Borck. The 
right hand holds a scroll bearing the words, 'Norge Riges Grund- 
lov' ('fundamental law of the Kingdom of Norway'). At the S. end 
of the Flads is the Town Library. — From the Torv, at the head 
of the harbour, projects a pier called Triangelen from its shape, 
at which the fishermen of the neighbourhood, called Striler, and 
said to be of Scotch origin , usually land their fish. The *Fish 
Market held here is very interesting, especially on Wednesdays 
and Saturdays, from 8 to 10 o'clock. 

To the N. of the Torv, on the N.W. side of the harbour, ex- 
tends *Tydskebryggen, or the German Quay, bordered with a long 
series of warehouses, painted white, with large windows. In front 
of each rises a wooden Vippebom, or crane of simple and primitive 
construction, used in unloading the fish brought to Bergen by the 
Northmens' smacks. The Tydskebrygge , the ancient Hanseatic 
quarter, assumed its present form after the fire of 1702. Here 
resided the clerks of the Hanseatic merchants of Bremen, Lubeck, 
and other towns belonging to the League. Owing probably to the 
jealousy subsisting between the rival nations, these clerks were for- 
bidden to marry. There were sixteen different gaards, named as 
follows (reckoned from the Torv) : Finnegaarden , Dramshusen, 
Bratten, Leppen, Ra>velsgaarden, Solegaarden, Kappen, Kjalderen 

108 Route 12. BERGEN. Museum. 

(which contained the old Exchange), and the Holmedals, Jacobs, 
Svends, Enhernings, Breds, Bue, Engel, Seister, and Guldsho Oaarde. 
Each gaard was subdivided into Stuer, or suites of apartments, 
belonging to different proprietors, who met on certain occasions 
in their Skyttningsstue, or council-room. A chamber of this kind 
is still preserved in the Dramshus. In the Klever, or small rooms 
on the second or third floor, were lodged the servants of the 
establishment. Yngvar Nielsen, in his history of Bergen (Christia- 
nia, 1877), points out that the Skyttningsstue and the whole ar- 
rangement of these gaards are of genuine old Norwegian origin, 
and were not imported from Germany as might have been supposed. 
Each gaard is presided over by a Bygherre, and as in ancient times 
the modern merchants usually have a clerk and one or more ser- 
vants resident here. 

On the peninsula of Nordnaes, extending from the Torve- 
Almending to the N.W., lies the greater part of the town, the 
principal street in which is the long and busy Strandgade. In the 
Muralmending is an old building called Mvren ('the wall'), with 
a passage through it. One of the finest views in Bergen is obtained 
from the Frederiksberg (see above), the highest part of the Nord- 
nses. At the S.E. end of the Nordnaes , and a little to the W. of 
the Torve-Almending, lies Engen (formerly Jonsvold~), the largest 
'Plads' in the town, where the Theatre (W. angle) and the Picture 
Gallery of the Kunstforening (near the E. corner) are situated. 
The latter (adm. 20 ».) chiefly contains modern works, including 
a number by Tidemand, Bodom, and Eckersberg. Among the older 
are: Mary, Princess of England, by Van Dyck; an Entombment, 
by T. Mengs ; and the Rugianer seeking to purchase their liberty 
from the Holsteiners, a drawing by Carstens (1779). 

The *Museum, a handsome building completed in 1865, on 
the Sydnashoug, a hill rising to the S. of Engen, contains several 
valuable collections. It is reached either by following Olaf 
Kyrre's Gaden, which passes on the left the large and handsome 
building of the Arbeider-Forening (artizans' club), and then turn- 
ing to the left into Christie's Gaden; or by the latter street, which 
passes the small Park on the N.W. side of the Lille Lungegaards- 
Vand and the tastefully built Roman Catholic Church on the left. 
The Museum is open to the public on Mondays, Wednesdays, and 
Fridays, 11-1 o'clock; on Sundays 11.30 to 1.30 and (in summer) 
4-6 ; at other times admission 25 e. each person (antiquarian 
catalogue 50, zoological 25 ».). On the ground-floor is the Library 
(Tues., Thurs., Sat., 11-1). 

In the entrance-hall , to the right , are two carved wooden Church- 
portals from Sognedal, probably 16th cent., and several Runic monuments. 
The Antiquarian Collection (good catalogue by Lorange), on the ground-floor, 
consists chiefly of tankards, and carved cabinets, wardrobes, and beds, 
including a handsome bedstead of the 17th cent. , probably of Dutch 
workmanship, and a curious writing-desk of the same period. — The 
Ethnographical Collection comprises china, drinking-horns, guns, early 

Walks. BERGEN. 12. Route. 100 

frescoes , well-preserved ecclesiastical vessels, fonts in soapstone, and a 
fine altar-piece in carved oak with wings, probably Cologne workmanship 
of the beginning of the 16th cent. ; also implements of the flint and early 
iron periods. 

The Natural History Collection (first floor) comprises an interesting 
and very complete set of specimens of Norwegian fish and marine animals 
(several fine seals and walruses , curious sun-fish, etc.), all of which are 
labelled with the Norwegian and the Latin names. 

Walks. The most extensive view of the town and environs 
is obtained from the Fleifjeld (820 ft.), to the N.E. of the harbour, 
which derives its name from the iron vane ('Fleieri') at the top. A 
road to it ascends at the back of the Marieekirke, and another from 
the Vitterlevs-Almending (p. 107). — An interesting walk may be 
taken to the N. of that church, passing to the E. of the Sverres- 
borg, to Skudeviken, and along the coast to Sandviken and Store- 
melle. We may return thence by ascending the bank of the 
Mulelv, which issues from the Skr&dderdal, as far as Smaamellen, 
and crossing the hill by a road which passes the Rothoug and de- 
scends to the harbour by St. Mary's Church. A number of pleasant 
villas are passed, and a fine view obtained of the Skjaergaard 
( 'belt of islands', of which the Ask» is the most important) and of 
the mountains to the S. of Bergen. At the end of the Rothoug is 
the cavern ( l Hulet'J through which Nils Klim in Holberg's romance 
descended to the nether regions. 

A very favourite walk is from the Cathedral by Kong Oscar's 
Gaden, past the pretty Cemetery of St. Jacob, which contains a 
monument to Christie , to the Stadsport , where the municipal 
archives are preserved. To the right, farther on, is the finely 
situated Cemetery, whence we obtain a beautiful view of Ulriken, 
Levstaken , and other hills rising beyond the Store Lungegaards- 
Vand. To the left, at the base of the Fleifjeld, amid rich vege- 
tation, are a number of pleasant villas. We next observe the 
public promenade called Forskjennelsen , and on the right the 
Pleiestiftelse for lepers and Lungegaards Hospital. About 10 min. 
walk from the Stadsport is Kalfaret ('Calvary' ; connected with 
which there was formerly a 'Jerusalem' and a 'Nobiskrug'). The 
road in a straight direction leads to Fleen and Mellendal. That 
ascending to the left leads into the Kalvedal (refreshments). 
Farther on , about */4 M. from the gate, is *Svartediket, formerly 
called Aalrekstadvand , a lake enclosed by barren rocks, whence 
Bergen is supplied with water. The Vlrik is a very conspicuous 
object from this point. The scene here is so bleak that it is 
difficult to believe that we are almost within a stone's throw of 
rich vegetation. We may now follow the road leading past the 
lake into the Isdal, a genuine specimen of Norwegian mountain- 
scenery, and return to Bergen over the Borgerskar. — Instead of 
ascending the Isdal, we may cross the outlet of the lake, proceed 
to the right to Mellen, and descend by a beautiful shady road to the 
Store Lungegaards- Vand (formerly Aalrekstadsvaag), whence a road 

110 Route 12. BERGEN. 

leads back to Kalfaret, while another leads to the S. round this 
picturesque sheet of water to the Nygaardsbro, the bridge crossing 
the Store Strem. This 'stream' connects the Lungegaards-Vand 
with the Solheimsvik (and the Pudde fjord"), and the tide which 
Hows in and out serves as a motive power for several mills, which 
are thus always kept going except at high and at low water. A 
pleasant avenue called the Nygaards-Allee (planted in 1750) leads 
from the Nygaardsbro past the Museum into the town. 

A short excursion may be taken from Nestet, to the W. of 
Engeii, by a small steamer which starts from the landing-place 
here- every 1 /^ hr., across the Pudde fjord to Laksevaag, with its 
considerable shipbuilding - yards and dry docks. We may then 
walk to the pretty Gravdal at the foot of the Lyderhom (1350 ft.), 
which may easily be ascended from this point, or to the E. along 
the bank of the fjord , passing pleasant villas , to Solheimsviken, 
with its extensive Mekanisk Vcerksted, and to the Nygaardsbro. 

A pleasant trip by boat may also be taken on the Lille and the 
Store Lungegaards - Vand (see above), , which are connected by 
the channel called Lille Stremmen. Boats may be hired on the 
former sheet of water, by the Park. 

Excursions. Although several interesting excursions may be 
taken in the neighbourhood of Bergen, the traveller will employ 
his time better in exploring the far finer scenery of the Hardanger 
or the Sognefjord, and he is therefore recommended not to extend 
his walks or drives beyond the immediate environs of the town. 
An afternoon may be pleasantly spent in driving to Fjesanger on 
the Nordaasvand , and back by Houkeland and Fantoft (fine view 
from the Lyksalighedshoug) , 3 hrs. in all. — Or from Fjesanger 
the high road may be followed to Hop, with its interesting marble- 
quarries , and Midtunbro , whence we may return by the Oamle 
Postvei ('old road') to Fleien on the Lungegaards-Vand (4-5 hrs.). 

Three roads diverge from Midtunbro: one to the S.W. to Fane 
on the Fanefjord, l l / 2 M. from Bergen; another to the S. to Os 
(2 3 / 4 M. from Bergen) on the Bjeirnefjord (Hardanger); and the 
third to the N.E. to Qarnas (2 5 / 8 M. from Bergen; post-route to 
Vossevangen ; see p. 62). About 1 M. short of Os a road diverges 
to the ruins of the Lysekloster. On the neighbouring Lyse is a 
villa of Ole Bull. 

13. From Bergen to Molde by Steamer. 

Steamboat 5-6 times weekly in 30-40 hrs., usually touching at Floreen, 
Moldaen, and Aalesund. Distances in sea-miles from Bergen: to Flor0en 
20 M., Moldpen 27 M., Aalesund 42 11., Molde 51 M. (cabin fare 40 0. per 
mile, steerage 25 0.). Voyage chiefly within islands , except for two or 
three hours when off the Statt, between Moldtfen and Aalesund. There 
is also a steamer weekly from Bergen to the Sundfjord, and there are 
six monthly to the Nordfjord. — If time permits, the voyage from 
Bergen to Vadheim on the Sognefjord, or to FfJrde on the Fjarrdefjord, 

SKJERGEHAVN. 13. Route. 1 1 1 

and thence by the inland route to Molde (see E. 14) is far preferable to 
the direct steamboat-voyage. 

Most of the coasting voyages in S. Norway are uninteresting, 
but from Stavanger northwards their attraction gradually increases. 
Between Stavanger and Bergen there are several line points of 
view, particularly at the mouth of the Hardanger Fjord (R. 11 J. 
Between Bergen and Molde the most interesting points are the 
mountain called Hornelen (or Srnalsarhorn) , the promontory of 
Statt, and the entrance to the beautiful Molde-Fjord with a view 
of the Romsdals - Fjord in the distance. The grander northern 
scenery between Throndhjem and the N. Cape is described in 
RR. 22, 23. — The traveller who dislikes a long , and at places 
often very rough, sea-voyage should select the interesting Vadheim 
and Hellesylt route, as above mentioned ; or he may join the same 
route by proceeding from Bergen by steamer to Sveen on the Dals- 
fjord (once weekly in 13 hrs.), or to Ferde on the Fardefjord (once 
weekly, by the same steamboat, in 22 hrs.). Or, lastly, he 
may take one of the Molde steamers as far as Moldeen or Saternas 
(in 15-18 hrs.), and make his way thence to Bryggen, Aahjem, 
and Aalesund by small boat, by land , and by steamboat (comp. 
Excursions from Aalesund , in the present Route). Any one of 
these routes is more attractive than the direct voyage , the finest 
scenery being , as we have repeatedly observed , generally to be 
found in the inner recesses of the fjords, and not at their mouths. 

: Special Map : i Kart over Nordre Bergenhus-Amt, iii. (N. W. 

The coasting steamers skirt the districts of Nord-Hordland and 
iSend-Hordland, which together constitute the ancient Herdafylke. 
Beyond the mouth of the Sognefjord they pass the Sendfjord, 
comprising the Dalsfjord and the Ferdefjord , and the Nordfjord, 
extending as far as the promontory of Statt, after which they reach 
the Sendmere and Bomsdal districts. As the greater part of the pop- 
ulation is to be found in the principal valleys in E. Norway, where 
communication with other parts of the country is easy , so on the 
W. coast the banks of the larger fjords are generally well-peopled, 
while the inland districts are sterile and almost uninhabited. 

11 M. Skjergehavn , the first station of any importance to the 
N. of Bergen, lies on one of the islands forming the uninteresting 
'Skjsrgaard', a little to the S. of the Sognefjord. We next pass 
the entrance to that fjord, which shows no sign here of the magni- 
ficent scenery of its inner ramifications. The shapeless mountains 
have all been worn down by glacier-action , and most of them are 
entirely barren. To the N. of the Sognefjord the steamer crosses 
the Aafjord, and then the Dalsfjord, at the entrance to which is 
the Prceste station. Some of the vessels do not touch at Prajste, 
but steer towards the W. to Var0, from which a visit may be paid 

112 Route 13. FLOR0EN. From Bergen 

to the interesting island of Alien (1550 ft. in height), which is 
known as the 'Norske Hest\ The proprietor of the island who 
lives on the "W. side, possesses upwards of 1000 sheep. He and 
his two 'Husmand', who live on the E. side, spend the whole year 
in the island. Near the highest part of the island is an inland lake. 

On leaving Pr*st» the steamer traverses the Granesund (with 
the Atlee on the left) and the Stang fjord , passes Stavnces , the 
westernmost promontory of Norway, and reaches the Stavfjord, 
which forms the entrance to the Ferdefjord. 

The steamer that touches at Vaera skirts the E. side of the is- 
land of Alden and steers thence to the Stavfjord. 

The 'Dalsfjord runs inland to a distance of 4'/2M.; at the entrance 
rises the massive Atlee (upwards of 2000 ft. in height). The steamer 
plying on this fjord passes Stremsnais and Dale plnn) , which lies on the 
o. side, about halfway up the fjord. Above Dale rise the Dalshest (2365 ft.) 
and the dome-shaped Kringlen (2468 ft.). Farther on are the Lekelands- 
hest, behind which rises the flat and generally snow-clad Bleien ("mantle 1 ; 
4400 ft.) , and the imposing " Kvamshest (4120 ft.). The last steamboat- 
station on the fjord is Sveen, near the E. end, from which a hilly road 
leads to (1 M.) Langeland and (1 M.) Ferde (p. 123). About 1 /e M. beyond 
Sveen is Osen, whence a road leads to (1 M.) Sande (p. 122). From Sande 
the traveller may continue to ascend the valley towards the E. and pro- 
ceed past the Viksvand and the Haukedalsvand to MJell in the upper Haiike- 
dal ^quarters for the night), whence a mountain-path leads to the Svcere- 
fjord, a branch of the Sognefjord (a day's walk; comp. p. 65). 

The *F0rdefjord, 511. in length, though less striking than the Dais- 
fjord, also abounds in bold mountain-scenery. The most important place 
is Xausidal on the N. bank, whence we may proceed to Streme on the 
Hyenfjord (Nordfjord, p. 113) in one day by following the Naustdal as far as 
Aamol, and then the Hydal; passing the Rambergervand (1510 ft.), and 
finally descending the Ommedal to the Hyenfjord. At the end of the 
fjord rises the majestic Kvamshest, at the foot of which lies Ferde (*Inn), 
mentioned at p. 123. 

The Dalsfjord and Ferrdefjord are embraced in the name Sendfjord 
(as distinguished from the fjords further to the N. comprised in the name 
Nordfjord) , and are traversed once weekly by a steamboat from Bergen 
(Wednesdays, at midnight). This steamer, however, goes considerably 
beyond the limits of the S/Jndfjord. After leaving F0rde it proceeds to 
Floreen, Bryggen , on the Nordfjord, near its mouth, MolcUren (or Sceter- 
nas), and Sele , on the Ulfsvaag (with the ruined convent of St. Alban, 
founded in the 12th cent.; see below), where the traveller who dreads 
the open sea-voyage round the Slatt may disembark in order to cross the 
Mandseid from Hove to ( 3 /i M.) Aahjem, from which he may proceed to 
Aalesund by the small local steamer (Wed., 6 a.m., and Frid., 10 a.m.). 
The S0ndfjord steamer takes 34 hrs. to reach Sel0 (departing thence for 
Bergen on Fridays at 10 a.m.). 

20 M. Floreen (Inn), an island about halfway hetween the Sand- 
fjord and Nordfjord , is an important station, being touched at by 
the direct steamers to and from Molde and Throndhjem four times 
weekly each way , and also by the Sendfjord (once weekly each 
way) and Nordfjord steamers (six times monthly each way). This 
station , which has rapidly assumed the dimensions of a small 
town (490 inhab.), forms the E. focus of the traffic of the Nordals, 
Eike, and Hedal fjords, and partly owes its prosperity to its former 
success in the herring-fishery. On a solitary rocky islet to the W. of 
Floreen is the Stabbensfyr (lighthouse), the communication between 

to Molde. NORDFJORD. 13. Route. 113 

which and Flora is often interrupted for many days at a time, on 
which occasions the watchmen are sometimes left dependent on 
showers of rain for a supply of water. 

The coasting steamers, which now run between the mainland 
and the belt of islands consisting of the Skorpe, the llutalde, and 
the Hevde (or Aralde), next touch either at Kalvaag on the Freje 
or at Kjelkences on the large island of Bremangerland , which lies 
at the mouth of the Nordfjord. At the E. end of the island is the 
perpendicular and apparently overhanging *Hornelen (2470 ft.), 
rising immediately from the water. An attendant of Olaf Tryg- 
vessen (end of the 10th cent.) is said once to have attempted to 
scale this mountain and to have been rescued by the king himself 
from imminent peril. On the W. side of Hornelen is the lake 
Berle.pol : on the E. side the rocky island of Mare. The steamer 
then traverses the often very rapid Skatestrem,, the Nordfjord, and 
the Vaagsfjord, and stops at the station of (27 M.) Mold*, or the 
opposite village of Satemas, on the Vaagse. 

Like Flore, this is an important station, being touched at both 
by the Molde and Throndhjem steamers and by those plying on 
the Sendfjord and Nordfjord. From Molde or Sseternaes a visit 
may be paid to the picturesque Nordfjord. 

The "Nordfjord, extending to the E. of MoldO for nearly 8 M., is one 
of the finest fjords in Norway , the innermost arms being especially 
picturesque (comp. p. 125). A steamer from Bergen plies on this fjord 
six times monthly (leaving Bergen on Tuesdays and alternate Fridays). 
The first station on the N. hank is Bi'yggen , from which a road crosses 
the lofty Maurstadeid (2060 ft.) to (1 3 / 4 M.) Aahjem on the Vanelvsfjord. 
A little beyond Bryggen, on the S. bank^ is Dnviken, where Clans Frimann, 
the poet (d. 1829), once lived. On the N. side, to the E. of Daviken, di- 
verges the Eidsfjord , running towards the E. , with lYaustdal on its N. 
bank, and Nordfjordeid at its head (both steamboat -stations). From 
Naustdal, which must not be confounded with the place of that name on the 
Fffrdefjord (p. 112) , a road leads N. to (2 5 /s M.) Kile (p. 114). The geological 
prolongation of this arm of the fjord is the Hornindalsvand , separated 
from it by the Nordfjordeid, a lake 2 M. in length, 185 ft. above the level 
of the sea, and 1490 ft. in depth, at the E. end of which lies Hornin&al (or 
Grodaas) on the road between Faleide and Hellesylt (p. 126). The central 
part of the Nordfjord is now called the Isefjord and Himdviksfjord , from 
which to the S.W. , diverges the Aalfotenfjord and beyond it the grand 
"Hyenfjord, at the entrance to which rise two imposing mountains, the 
Hyen or Skwringen on the W. , and the Eikenceshest on the E., each about 
4000 ft. in height. This fjord deserves a visit, and good quarters are ob- 
tainable at Slreme at its upper end. The extensive snow-fields and 
glaciers on the E. and W. sides of the fjord have hitherto been almost 
entirely unexplored. 

From Strdme to Naustdal on the Ftfrdefjord* see p. 112. 

A little beyond the Hyenfjord, to the S.E., diverges the Gloppenfjord, 
at the head of which lies Sandene , charmingly situated. A road leads 
thence past the Eidsfos, and up the river which forms that waterfall and 
intersects the 'Eid' , to ('/a M.) Vasenden ('end of the lake'), lying at the 
N.W. end of the 'Bredheimsvand (or Breumsvand . probably from Bret! 
and Heim, 'home of glaciers'), a beautiful lake, l'/sll. in length, and 
200 ft. above the sea. The huge mountains enclosing it are Kjeipcn 
(4120 ft.) and Eggenipen (2060 ft.) on the E., and the Sljorta (4120 ft.) on 
the W. side. From Vasenden we may row either to Red on the E. bank 
(in 1 hr.) or to Ferde at the S. end (in 3 hrs.). Comp. p. 124. 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 8 

114 Route 13. VOLDEN. From Bergen 

The upper part of the Nordfjord (Udvik , Faleide , Visnfes) is de- 
scribed in R. 14. — The whole of the fjord, together with the S0ndfjord, 
formerly constituted the Firdafylke. 

Beyond Molda the Sendfjord and Nordfjord steamers touch at 
Osmundsvaay, on the mainland, and the Sele (or Selje), the birth- 
place of Claus Frimann, the poet (p. 113), and once the residence of 
the bishops of the Gulathing. It contains the ruins of a Monastery 
of St. Alban (12th cent.) and the shrine of Sunniva, an Irish saint, 
and afterwards the patroness of Bergen, in the cathedral of which 
her remains were once preserved in a richly decorated reliquary 
on the high altar. (From her is derived the common Norwegian 
baptismal name of Synnave.) On the mainland, near the Sele, is 
the church of Hove , at the foot of the narrow and lofty Mandseid, 
the isthmus which connects the peninsula of Stattland with the 
mainland. A subterranean canal through the Mandseid is .pro- 
jected, in order that vessels may thereby avoid the circuitous and 
often stormy passage round the Statt. At the head of a small bay 
of the Ulfsvaay , about '/j M. from the Sel», lies Fide , whence a 
road crosses the Mandseid to ( l /-> M.) Aahjem (see below). 

After leaving Moldtf or S;etern<es , the Molde and Throndhjem 
steamers steer to the N., cross the Ulfsvaag, and stand out to the 
open sea, rounding the peninsula of *Stattkmd, the exposed coast 
of which is often visited by tremendous storms. (The natives de- 
clare that the breakers here are sometimes 20 fathoms in height!) 
This peninsula separates Vestenfjeldske from Nordenfjeldske Nor- 
way, and at the same time the ancient Firdafylke (Se>ndfjord and 
Nordfjord) from the districts of Sendmere. — To the N.E. of the 
Statt lies the Sande , containing the famous *Dolstens Cavern, 
about 200 ft. above the sea. The cavern consists of a lofty outer 
chamber and another within it, which is said to contain a sub- 
terranean lake. The inner chamber (torches necessary) has never 
been thoroughly explored. 

Beyond the promontory of Statt the larger steamers cross the 
Vanelvsyab , pass Sundshavn on the Sandtf, and touch at Here, 
where their course is again sheltered by islands. They then skirt 
the large island of Hadreidland, passing Ulfsten on the right, cross 
the unprotected mouth of the Bredsund, and soon reach Aalesund. 

The smaller steamers take a longer, but more interesting route. 
They steer from the promontory of Statt to the E. , passing to the 
S. of the Sande, and touch at Larsnces, on the S.W. coast of the 
large durske; then, farther to the E., at Volden (!/2 M. from the 
v Ue>dsfH Station), beautifully situated in a fertile district, and 
the most important place in the S. part of the Sandmere district. 

From Volden or i;.0dsiet the traveller may proceed to the S. by boat 
to Kile in about 2 hrs. , and thence by the road to (2'/2 il.) Naustdal on 
the Euls/jord (an arm of the Nordfjord, p. 113); or he may drive to the 
N. to ( 3 / 4 M.) 0rtlen, and thence to the E. to (i'/s M.) Scebe on the strik- 
ingly picturesque Hjerendfjord (p. 117). Or we may row up the pictur- 
esque Austefjord in 3 hrs. to Ferde , at its S.W. end, and drive to the 

to Molde. AALESUND. 13. Route. 1 1 5 

Skydsstation Kaldvaln (p. 124). Thence we may either walk across the 
Kviven to Grodaas in the Hornindal, to the S. (p. 126), or drive by a good 
road to Bjerke on the HjUrendfjord, to the B. (p. 117). — Travellers pro- 
ceeding to the S. may take the Aalesund steamboat from Volden to 
Aahjem (to the W. of Statt) , and drive thence across the Maurstadeid to 
Bryggen on the Nordtjord (p. 113). The passage round the Statt, which 
is often rough, is thus avoided. 

Leaving Volden , the steamer passes the Liadalshom on the 
right, traverses the Vartdalsfjord and the Bredsund, and stops at - — 

42 M. Aalesund (Hotel Scandinavie , S., R., and B. 5 kr. ; 
Schjelderup s Hotel), a thriving commercial town with 5807 inhab., 
founded in 1824, and picturesquely situated, partly on the main- 
land, and partly on islands which protect its harbour. The neigh- 
bouring fishings of Storeggen, to the W., are in great repute, even 
attracting fishermen from Sweden. The town forms the capital of 
the Storfjord, the numerous arms of which all unite here , and is 
also the great mart of the torsk Ushery. The fish are caught in 
large and coarse nets, about 7 ft. in width, with green glass buoys 
attached to them. A breakwater affords additional protection to 
the harbour. The principal part of the town lies on the \ ar0, and 
the church is in Heloigen. The (xode and the Valderei are each 
provided with a lighthouse. The Aalesundsaaxel, a hill surmounted 
with a vane ('Fleie'), commands a good survey of the town. The 
well-constructed reservoirs which supply the town with water are 
situated here. — A walk may be taken to the E. to the church of 
Borgund (which of course must not be confounded with Borgund 
in the Laerdal, p. 44). — Farther distant, to the S., is the old 
castle of Hrolf Gangr , the ancient conqueror of Normandy. — A 
good road leads from Aalesund to (5 7 / 8 M.) Vestnces on the Molde- 
Fjord via {S 1 /^ M.) Seholt (comp. p. 129). 

The large steamers run from Aalesund to Molde in 4-5 hrs., 
without stopping. The small local steamer which plies between 
Aalesund, Molde, and Veblungsnaes twice weekly (starting on 
Sundays and Thursdays at 7 a. m.) touches at 0stnces , Hildre, 
Drennen, and Gjelsten (on the Tombrefjord~), and reaches Molde in 
6 hrs. (p. 129). — Instead, however, of proceeding to Molde direct, 
the traveller is strongly recommended to take the following circuit 
of 3-5 days, which may also be taken in the reverse direction. 

From Aalesund to Hellesylt by 0rstenvig and 0ie. 
(Hjarendfjord and Norangsfjord. Nebbedal.) 

This beautiful route, part of which is by water and part by land, 
traverses the district of Sendmere. If the traveller, after arriving 
by this route at Hellesylt, proceeds to visit the Geiranger Fjord and 
ascends from Merok to Stavbrekkene, he will then have seen some 
of the grandest and most interesting scenery in the whole of Norway. 
The district of S®ndm»re, with its fjords and snow-mountains, 
comprises all the characteristic features of the country, the pictur- 


116 Route 13. 0RSTENVIG. From Aalesund 

esque, the sublime, and the severe, while the inhabitants ("A/#- 
ringer), many of whom are prosperous and wealthy, are still noted 
for their primitive honesty and simplicity. — On the route from 
0rstenvig to the Nebbedal there are as yet no 'fast' stations , so 
that the traveller must either send 'Forbud', or run the risk of wait- 
ing several hours for horses at the end of each stage. If possible, 
therefore , horses should be engaged for the whole journey from 
0rstenvig to Siebe (or Riise), without stopping at Brautesset , the 
intermediate station. A supply of provisions for the journey should 
be procured at 0rstenvig. 

Strom's 'Sf»ndm0res Beskrivelse' (1762-66), a copy of which the station- 
masler at Brautesset possesses, though an old work, is recommended to 
the notice of the traveller as containing the best existing description of 
this most attractive district. Another interesting work is Peder Fylling's 
'Folksagn fra Stfndmerre' (2 vols. ; Aalesund, 1874-77). 

Steamboat to 0rstenvig. A steamer usually leaves Aalesund 
twice weekly (Mondays at midnight, Thursdays at 10 a.m.) for 
Aahjem (on the Vanelv), in the Stattland, touching at several 
stations on the way, including 0rstenvig and Voider), places with 
a considerable and thriving population. The vessel first steers across 
the exposed Bredsund or Breisund. To the N. lies the Valdere, to 
the W. the Godes, and to the E. the Hese with the pointed Sukkertop 
('sugar-loaf). It then traverses the Brandalsfjord to the Hadreidland, 
with the Hadreid-Kirke, an island with mountains nearly 4000 ft. 
in height, and crosses thence to Sere Vartdal, on the Vartdalsfjord. 
Imposing mountain scenery. Ancient coast-levels and terraces of 
detritus, interesting to geologists, are frequently observed. We next 
pass the Liadalshorn, rising on the mainland to the E., and enter the 
0rstafjord, at the head of which we stop at the station of 0rsten- 
vig (*Svendseris Inn), magnificently situated at the base of the 
Saudehorn (or Vikskaala, 4320 ft.), and affording a view of the 
picturesque mountains farther inland. Both this station and the 
following, Volden, 3 / 4 M. to the S., rea ,'hed either by road or by 
steamboat from J0rstenvig , are recommended as headquarters for 
excursions in the neighbourhood. The valleys are clothed with 
rich vegetation. 

Road to Smbih £2 l / s M.). From J0rstenvig we now drive through 
the beautiful 0rstadal or Aamdal, passing the church of 0rstenvig, 
and traversing a smiling district commanded by a noble background 
of mountains. By Qaarden Aam a road diverges to the left to Standal 
on the HjOTf-ndfjord, 2 AT. from 0rstenvig, but for the last 3/ 4 M. 
is not practicable for driving. 

From Standal on the Hj**rendfjord to Scebe 3 / 4 M. ; steamer fortnightly. 
Opposite Standal rises the Molaup. According to tradition, there once dwelt 
in the '■Trolgjel Molaup'' a giantess COygre"), who was wooed by a giant 
(■JutuV) dwelling in the Raamandsgjel to the S. of Sa?b0. One day she 
paid him a visit, by boat., but found him in so weakly a condition that 
she spat at him in disgust and thus converted him into stone. On her 
way back she was overtaken by a storm , and sprang out of the boat 
between the gaards of Nses and Molaup with such violence that her foot- 

toHellesylt. ^NORANGSFJORD. 13. Route. 117 

print CGygrefelef) is still to be seen on the spot. With her other foot 
she pushed off the boat so vigorously that it dashed across the fjord, 
made a deep indentation in the mountain by Oaarden Stavsict, and then 
sank. It still lies there in the form of the Stavswtflu, a rock where the 
best fishing in the HJ0rendfjord is obtained. 

Our road to Saebe next crosses the Folstaddal and ascends an 
ancient moraine. To the S. towers the majestic Snetind. 

3 /4 M. Brautesaet (primitive station; walls adorned with Ger- 
man prints). We next pass the school-house, and then, on the 
right, the Vattnevand. On the other side of the valley lies Oaarden 
Houyen, near which mussel-pearls are frequently found in the 
Aamdalselv. The road gradually ascends to a height of 900 ft., 
passing the entrance to the Bjordal on the right, through which a 
path leads to the Austefjord. From the top of the hill and on our 
descent to Saebe< we enjoy a superb **Vibw of the Hjerendtjord 
mountains, the most conspicuous of which are the Saksa and the 
Eingdals and lirkedals-Tinder, all about 4800 ft. in height. From 
a lower point the conical Slogen (5200 ft.) and the still higher 
Smerskredfjeld are also visible. The Bonddal, which we now de- 
scend, contains several farms. On the left the valley is bounded 
by the Stokkehom, the Gretdalstinder, the LUkdaishom, and the 
Scebeaxla; on the right by the Aasathorn, the Storehom (4485 ft.), 
the LiUehom, and the Lilleskaardalstinder, which somewhat re- 
semble the Trolltinder in the Romsdal. On the right, between 
these mountains, lie the SUdal and Kvistadal. 

l 3 /g M. Riise (a fair station, kept by the Lensmand), 2 l /$ M. 
from 0rstenvig, is about 10 min. drive from Seebtf, with its old 
church, situated, on the Hjerendfjord. 

Saeb0 forms the best starting-point for a visit to the magnificent 
* HJOTendfjord , which the Norwegians themselves usually con- 
sider the finest of all their fjords. From its entrance, about 2 M. 
to the S.E. of Aalesund, it extends towards the S.E. to Bjerke, a 
distance of S 1 /^ M., and is bounded by huge rocky precipices and 
wild mountain-slopes, above which peep a number of snow -clad 
summits. Here, as in other parts of Sendmere, the flattened 
mountains so characteristic of Norway are replaced by bold and 
picturesquely formed peaks, separated from each other by profound 
ravines and sharply denned indentations, reminding the traveller 
of the dolomite mountains in the Tyrol. The fjord, as usual, is 
really a long, narrow valley filled with water. Nearly opposite 
Saoba is the entrance to the **Norangsfjord, the only bay of the 
Hjerendfjord on the E. side, and the finest part of it. A scene 
from this fjord by Frich is one of the pictures with which Oscars- 
hall is embellished (p. 10). On the right side of the Norangs- 
fjord rise the Stolbjerg (4490 ft.) and the Jakta (5240 It.), on the 
left the Leknaynakken and Slogen, and at the head of the fjord 
lies a glacier. On the S. bank of the Norangsfjord also rises the 
Sailen or Sadlen (3415 ft.). — Above Sajbe and the Norangsfjord 

118 Route 13. N0KANG8DAI-. From Aalemnd 

the Hjerendfjord becomes narrower and wilder, being a huge ra- 
vine bounded by almost perpendicular mountains nearly 5000 ft. 
in height. Above Bjerke, at the S. end, rise the Kolsenashom and 
the Tyssa. From Bjerke, which lies several hundred feet above 
the fjord, the traveller may pay a visit to the Tyssefos, and drive 
across the Bueid (430 ft.) to Kaldvatn, and thence over the Kviven 
to Hornindal (p. 126). An interesting trip by boat may also be 
taken to the Raamandsgjel with the Raamand rising to the S. of 

From S«b» to 0tr ( 7 / g M.). A boat for the trip should be 
ordered beforehand at the boat-station, which is 20 min. walk from 
liiise (two rowers necessary). Crossing the Hjerendfjord, and look- 
ing back, we observe on the W. bank Oaarden Skor and the fine 
waterfall of that name. At the entrance to the magnificent Nor- 
angsfjord, on the left, lies Oaarden Leknas. This bay, which, as 
well as that of Sseba, is frozen over in winter, while the main fjord 
continues navigable throughout the year, resembles a large and 
sequestered Alpine lake. On the left, beyond Leknses, opens the 
Vrkedal, with several gaards situated on an ancient tidal terrace, 
and traversed by a path to Stranden (Slyngstad) on the Storfjord 
(p. 128). On the right, at the base of the lofty and menacing 
Stolbjerg , is Sienna's , with its two gaards, the cattle belonging 
to which are pastured far above , at the foot of the Flogja (or 
Flau , Swiss Flue, 'rock'). Farther on is the Elgenaafos. 

0ie, at the head of the Norangsfjord, is a poor station. A road 
now leads inland to the Stavberg-Satre, beyond which there is a 
bridle-path only. It is, therefore, usual to ride from 0ie all the 
way to the Sunelv. Saddles have been provided by the Turist- 
forening for the use of travellers. If 'Forbud' has not been sent 
to 0ie, travellers must be prepared to wait several hours for horses, 
as in summer the men and horses are engaged in the fields, while 
the women are often in the pastures with their cattle, leaving their 
children at home alone. The traveller is often expected to fasten 
his own baggage to the 'Hest' ; and as a diminutive urchin of ten 
years is often the only attendant, the hirer will generally prefer 
to walk and allow the child to ride. 

There are two gaards at 0ie, one to the left, belonging to four 
different families, and another to the right, with eight proprietors, 
all of whom gain their livelihood by cattle-breeding. Some of the 
interesting houses have the old-fashioned Ljor, or aperture for 
smoke in the roof. To facilitate the carrying of pails the peasantry 
here use a L Hisse\ or leathern strap over the shoulders, with a 
transverse piece of wood across the chest, from which the pails 
CDailf) are suspended. 

From 0ie to Hellesylt (2 3 / 4 M.). Leaving 0ie, we ascend 
the strikingly wild and picturesque **Norangsdal, which forms 
the prolongation of the fjord. The road ascends gradually to an 

to Hcllesylt. NEBBEDAL. 13. Route. 119 

upper plateau of the valley with a series of lakes, immediately 
beyond which the Nebbedal descends to the E., the highest ground 
between the two valleys being about 940 ft. above the sea-level. 
A little way from 0ie the road crosses a l Bcelte\ or rising neck of 
land , and enters a broad basin , once occupied by a lake, now 
containing the hamlet of Skylstad, from whose inhabitants the sun 
is shut out during the greater part of the year. 

A fatiguing path leads hence across Skylstadbreliken (2575 ft.), between 
Slogen and Smsrskredfjeldel^ to the K.E. to Stranden on the Sunelv (p. 
128), and thence to the N.W., via Gaarden Brunstad to Sekelven (p. 128). 
Imposing scenery. 

The valley is bounded on the S. by the Konnehorn (4200 ft.), 
the Nonshorn, and the Middag shorn (4450 ft.), and on the N. by 
the Smerskredfjeld, culminating in tie Skruven (5280 ft.), and 
by the Slogen (5210 ft.). The road now quits the inhabited part 
of the valley and ascends through a stony wilderness (TJr), tra- 
ditionally said to be a haunt of robbers, under which several moun- 
tain-torrents disappear. The Norangsdalselv is crossed twice. By 
the second bridge the scenery is singularly impressive. The moun- 
tains vise perpendicularly from the valley, and avalanches which 
have descended from them cover the river at places , forming 
bridges of snow. Above us rises the precipitous Staven (4960 ft.), 
under the shade of whose rocks the cattle seek refuge from the 
midday heat. Farther on, the valley suddenly expands , and we 
reach the Stavbergsvand, which we pass on the N. side. At its E. 
end are three sseters (Stavberg-Smtre), where cream may be obtained 
(Remme, 'cream'; Kolle, the round wooden vessels in which the 
milk is kept). This lake is the first of a series of five, situated 
one above the other, which the road passes. The Uravand, the 
Hjuvvand, and the Hjelstrevand are the following lakes. The road 
terminates at the s«ters, and the bridle-path now skirts the hill 
to the S., while the river is often lost to view among the rocks 
and ceases even to be audible. The last lake but one loses most 
of its water in dry seasons, when it is reduced to a single pool 
near its outlet. 

1^4 M. f Fibelstad-Hougen (poor quarters, civil people), a 
gaard 1210 ft. above the sea, lies in the upper part of the Nebbe- 
dal, which gradually descends hence to the road to Hellesylt. 
The station is surrounded by most imposing mountains. To the S. 
rise the Meraftamibba ('afternoon peak'; Merafta being a form of 
Midaften), the Islenibba (isle, or vesle, 'small'), and the huge 
Kvitegg ('white ridge'; 5590 ft.). To the N. is the Fibelstndnibba, 
with its abrupt wall of rock, and to the W., beyond the Skar, towers 
the Smerskredfjeld. Prom the Kvitegg descend immense glaciers, 
the birch-woods below which are still infested with bears. 

Leaving Fibelstad-Hougen , so called to distinguish it from 
Indre Hougen on the road to Grodaas (p. 126), we observe to the 
left, beyond the Fibelstadnibba, the Sa-tredal and Trygyestad-Nnk- 

120 Route 13. THYGGESTAD. 

ken, and to the right the Blaafjeld. The Nebbedal, with its pastures 
sprinkled with birches, presents a pleasant enough appearance in 
summer, but is described by M. Thoresen in her village-tales as a 
most dismal and dangerous place in winter and spring, when 
avalanches are frequently precipitated into it. About ^2 M. from 
Hougen we reach Tryggestad on the Hellesylt road , whence a 
retrospective view is obtained of the double-peaked Fibelstad- 
nibba. From this point a good Toad descends to (1 M.) Hellesylt 
(see p. 127). 

From Hellesylt to Molde, see R. 14. 

14. Overland Route from Bergen to Molde. 

Vadheini, F«rde, Faleide, Hellesylt, Stfholt. 

Steamboat from Bergen lo Vadheim (19 sea-miles) 4 times weekly 
in 7-10 hrs. — Road from Vadheim to Ferde i Bredheim 8 M. — Boat 
from F0rde to Red 1','s 31. (a row of 2'/j hrs.)- — Road from Red to Udvik, 
over a very steep and high hill, l>/2 31. — Boat from Udvik to Faleide 
1 M. (a row of 2 hrs.). — Road from Faleide to Hellesylt 4 M. — Steam- 
boat from Hellesylt twice weekly to Seholt (8 sea-miles) in 9'/2 hrs. — 
Road from Soholt to Vestnces 2^,'s 31. — Steamboat from Vestnses to 
Molde (nearly 2 sea-miles) twice weekly (or by small boat in 2 hrs.). 

As the scenery between Vadheim and Fetrde on the Fjardefjord is of 
little interest, while the Dalsfjord and the Fi-frdefjord are well worth 
seeing, the traveller may prefer, if the S#ndfjord steamboat suits, to 
travel by it as far as Sveen on the Dalsfjord (13 hrs.), or to Ferde on the 
Fprdefj i ird (22 hrs.), and begin his overland journey from one of these 
points. The Siimdfjord steamer usually leaves Bergen on Wednesdays at 
midnight. — The distance from Sveen (slow station) to Furde by road, 
via Langeland, is 2 31. only. 

Travellers by this route from Bergen to Jlolde should bear in mind 
that most of the stations are 'slow', and that many of them afford neither 
food nor quarters for the night. It is therefore essential to the success 
of the journey that a plan should be carefully laid down beforehand, 
and that Forbud should be sent to those of the stations where detentions 
would otherwise occur. It need hardly be said that a week or a fort- 
night might very pleasantly be devoted to this route and the excursions 
which may be made from it, but 4-5 days only are allowed for it by most 
travellers. The journey should, if possible, be so planned that Hellesylt 
is reached in time for the steamboat to 3Ierok (at present Wednesdays, 
5 a.m., and Saturdays, 4.45 p.m.). In the reverse direction passengers 
by Tuesday's steamer from Aalesund or S0holt pass the night at Helle- 
sylt, take the steamer early next morning to Merok , and order a small 
boat to await their return at the mouth of the Geiranger Fjord about 
7.30 a.m., thus regaining Hellesylt about 9 o'clock. Passengers by Satur- 
day's steamer from Aalesund or S#holt are conveyed into the Geiranger 
Fjord the same evening, spend the night at Merok, and take the steamer 
on Sunday morning to Hellesylt. — Those who can devote 10-12 days or 
more to this route should make Faleide, or better, Visnses or OldWen 
their headquarters for the three magnificent mountain-excursions men- 
tioned below , and Hellesylt their starting-point for a visit to the Xor- 
angsfjord (see R. 13) and the mountain-pass at the head of the Geiranger 
Fjord. The tour thus extended will then embrace far more of Norway's 
sublimes t scenery than could be seen in any other part of the country 
in the same time. 

Plan of Excuesion. This route may easily be accomplished by a 
good walker in five or six days, if he so times his departure from Bergen 
as to catch the steamer from Hellesylt to Merok. The following outlines 

VADHEIM. 14, Route. 121 

may be useful for ordinary travellers with luggage, and especially if 
ladies are of the party, but they may be modilied at pleasure, and they 
are of course dependent on the steamboat time-tables, with reference to 
which they are framed. Comp. Communicationer. 

Five Days (vid Vadheim). 1st. On .Saturday from Bergen by steamer 
to Vadheim, and drive to Nedre-Vasenden. 2nd. Sunday at Nedre-Vasenden. 
(Or on Saturday to Sande only, and on Sunday to Nedre-Vasenden.) 3rd. 
On Monday to Udvik. 4th. On Tuesday to Hellesylt. 5th. On Wednesday 
by steamer via. Merok to Seholt, drive to Veslnces, and cross by boat to 
Molde (or by steamer from Hellesylt to Aalesund). — Or : — 1st. On 
Wednesday (Bergen being left at 2 a.m.) to Nedre-Vasenden. 2nd. On 
Thursday to Udvik. 3rd. On Friday to Grodaas or Hellesylt. 4th. On 
Saturday to Merok. 5th. On Sunday to Aalesund or Molde. (Or spend 
Sunday at Seholl, and drive early next morning to Vestnws in time for 
the steamer to Molde at 11 a.m.) 

Seven Days (vid Vadheim). 1st. On Monday morning by steamer from 
Bergen to Vadheim , and drive to Sande. 2nd. On Tuesday to Nedre- 
Vasenden. 3rd. On Wednesday to Udvik. 4th. On Thursday to Grodaas. 
5th. On Friday to Hellesylt. 6th. On Saturday to Merok. 7th. On Sunday 
to Aalesund or Molde. (Or spend Sunday at Seholt, as above suggested.) 

Four Days (vid Sveen on the Dalsfjord). 1st. On Wednesday at mid- 
night from Bergen to Sveen, and drive on Thursday to Nedre-Vasenden. 
2nd. On Friday to Faleide. 3rd. On Saturday to Hellesylt and Merok. 
4th. On Sunday to Attlesund or Molde. (Or spend Sunday at Seholt, as 
above.) — Or : — On Wednesday night by the same steamer to Ferde. 
2nd. To Udvik. 3rd. To Merok. 4th. To Aalesund or Molde. 

|In the reverse direction : 1. On Monday from Molde to Sefholt. 2. On 
Tuesday to Hellesylt. 3. On Wednesday visit Geiranger Fjord by steamer ; 
return part of the way by rowing-boat to Hellesylt, and proceed to Udvik. 
4. On Thursday to Nedre-Vasenden. 5. On Friday to Sveen. 6. On Satur- 
day by steamer to Bergen. (Or on Friday to Ferde , and thence by the 
evening steamer to Bergen. Or on Friday to Sande, and on Saturday to 
Vadheim, and thence by steamer to Lwrdalseren; or from Vadheim to 
Bergen by steamer on Sunday or Monday.) — Or: — 1. On Friday to 
Seholt. 2. On Saturday to Hellesylt. 3. On Sunday to Merok, Hellesylt, 
and Udvik. 4. On Monday to Ferde. 5. On Tuesday to Vadheim and 
thence by steamer to Bergen. (Or spend Sunday at Hellesylt, and proceed 
to Vadheim in time either for the Wednesday steamer to Lcerdal, or for 
the Friday steamer to Bergen.)] 

Forbud should be sent by travellers who desire to avoid long delays 
at miserable stations to all the slow stations on the route, which may be 
done by post-cards addressed to each 'Skydsskaffer', stating the day and 
hour of the traveller's expected arrival. Unless much pressed for time 
(as on the four days' route), the traveller will, however, find the follow- 
ing arrangement suitable : 1st. Send Forbud from Bergen a day or two 
in advance to all the slow stations on the first day's journey except the 
place where the night is spent. 2ndly. Order horses in good time for 
next day, and send Forbud the same evening or very early next morning 
to all the slow stations as far as Udvik. 3rdly. Send Forbud from Fa- 
leide (at least a couple of hours before starting) to Kjos and Grodaas. 

In the reverse direction: 1st. Send Forbud from Molde to Vestnaes. 
2ndly. From Hellesylt to Grodaas and Kjos. 3rdly. From Udvik at a 
very early hour to Ardal and intervening stations, ithly (if time is limited). 
From Nedre-Vasenden or from F0rde to Langeland and Sande , or to 
Langeland only if the steamer is to be taken at Sveen. 

On very hilly routes like the present the traveller will find it prudent, 
with a view to avoid miscalculations and disappointment, to allow 2 hrs. 
for each Norwegian mile of driving; and for rowing he should allow 
2-2'/2 hrs. for each mile. 

Charges : At the slow stations 94 0. per mile for horse and Stol- 
kjcerre' for Forbud 80 0. per mile and 14 0. to each station-master for 
'Tilsigelse'. At the fast stations 1 kr. 60 0. per horse per mile. Rowers 
94 0. each per mile. The only Fast Stations are the first Ferde, Faleide, 

122 Route U. VADHEIM. From Berycn 

Itidri' Ilouifea , and Kjclsladlid; also Seiholf, and Ellhigsgaard. The only 
Goon In.n.s are at Sonde (also at fivtrn), Ferde on the Fffrdefjord, JYeclre- 
Vasenden, Udvik, Fafeiife. Grodaas, Hellesylt, Mevok. and Setholl. 

The 'overland route' from Bergen to Molde (or to AalesinicV), 
a considerable part of which, however, is by water, is far prefer- 
able to the direct steamboat-voyage. It passes some of the grandest 
and wildest glacier and fjord scenery in Norway, all of which lies 
so near the road that it is easily surveyed from the traveller's 
Stolkjierre or boat. Until recently the roads were so bad and the 
stations so miserable that this magnificent region was comparatively 
unknown, but the facilities for traversing it are now so improved 
that the journey presents no difficulty or privation worthy of 
mention, and is frequently undertaken by ladies. Between Vad- 
heini (or Sveen , or Ferde) and the Nordfjord the road skirts the 
W. side of the imposing mountains which are covered by the im- 
mense Jostedalsbrse , the largest glacier in Norway, whence a 
number of offshoots descend to the vicinity of dark green fjords 
and lakes. Beyond the Nordfjord the route traverses the spurs of 
the Langfjeld, a group of mountains deeply indented with pictur- 
esque sheets of water, including the Geiranger Fjord and the 
Hjerendfjord with the Norangsfjord, a bay of the latter. The 
finest points on or near the route are the Jelstervand; the Bred- 
Iteimsvand ; Faleide, with the three valleys to the E. ; the Nebbedal, 
with its prolongation the Norangsdal and Norangsfjord , which 
may be visited from Hellesylt (comp. R. 13); the Geiranger Fjord 
and the mountain-pass and waterfalls at its head. 

Via the SeNDFJORD. The traveller may perhaps find it more 
convenient to take the steamer from Bergen, as above suggested, 
cither to Sveen (Inn) on the Dalsfjord, or to ■'■■Ferde (*Inn) on the 
Ferdefjord (see R. 13). In the former case, Forbud had better be 
sent from Bergen at least as far as Sveen and (1 M.) Langeland ; 
in the latter case that precaution need not be taken until Ferde is 
reached. In both cases, however, Forbud should be sent from 
Ferde onwards as far as Red or Moldestad. This Ferde on the 
fjord of that name must be carefully distinguished from Ferde on 
the Bredheimsvand (4-5/ 8 M. to the N.E. ; p. 1'24). 

Via Vadiieim. Steamboat from Bergen to Vadheim on the 
Sognefjord, see p. 66. 

Vadheim {Inn , close to the pier , very tolerable) is prettily 
situated at the head of a northern hay of the Sognefjord. To the 
W. is a waterfall with a manufactory. Several valleys converge 
here, the most important being that to the N., forming a con- 
tinuation of the fjord, and through which our route leads. The 
road ascends gradually past two lakes, passes over a considerable 
hill, crosses the Gula or, and reaches — 

l 3 /g M". Sande ^Sirer.ten's Inn, comfortable and reasonable) in 
the Indre Holmedal, with a church and several thriving gaards, 
pleasantly situated. The river and the Viksvand, a little to the 

to Molde. F0I?DE. U. Route. 123 

E., afford tolerable trout-flshiiig. The road descending the valley 
leads to (1 M.) Osen on the Dalsfjord (p. 112"). 

Our road, soon after leaving Sande, quits the Gula and ascends 
to the right. This stage and the next are very hilly , and not 
particularly interesting. The finest feature in the landscape is 
the majestic Kvamshest fp. 112), which rises to the left (W.). 

1 M. (pay for l l /i) Langeland, where no accommodation of 
any kind is to he had, lies at the S. end of a lake about 3 / 8 M. in 
length, the hilly W. bank of which our road traverses, while the 
road to (1 M.) Sveen (p. 112) diverges to the left and then descends 
rapidly to the Dalsfjord. A little beyond Langeland our route 
reaches its highest point (about 1000 ft.) and descends steeply 
thence towards the Ferdefjord with its imposing imountains, of 
which it commands a fine view. 

1 M. F-erde (*Inn) is picturesquely situated at the head of the 
fjord of that name, about 25 min. walk from the steamboat-pier. 
The smiling valley is well cultivated at places. On the opposite 
side of the river rises the church of the parish. — The next stage 
is comparatively level. The road traverses a pleasant valley aiid 
passes the Movand, beyond which, to the right of the road (E.) is 
seen the picturesque Mofos or Hulefos. At the end of the lake 
we pass the Oaard Mo, where the scenery begins to assume a more 
severe character, and then enter a wooded tract. 

l 3 / 4 M. Nedre - Vasenden (*Station, primitive, but very fair), 
the 'lower end of the water', is beautifully situated at the W. end 
of the *J«lstervand , a lake 2 M. in length, deservedly famed for 
its grandeur. Several glaciers descend to it from the Jostedalsbrae 
on the E. side, the finest being the *6lacier of Lunde, which is 
best seen from the church of Aalhus (see below). The lake and 
the stream flowing out of it contain excellent trout. For the 
journey between Nedre- Vasenden and Udvik a supply of provisions 
had better be taken. — The two next stages may be performed by 
boat, which, if the traveller is anxious to avoid detention, may be 
previously ordered by Forbud from Bergen. This, however, is 
unnecessary if the night is spent here, in which case Forbud 
should be sent very early next day to all the stations as far as lied. 
— The road, which is new and level for the next 2 M., follows 
the N. bank of the lake, which is sprinkled with pleasant-looking 
gaards, and is well cultivated at places. About halfway along the 
lake we pass on the left the hamlet and church of Aalhus, where 
the glacier of Lunde on the opposite bank of the lake becomes 
more conspicuous. A little farther on we reach — 

l 3 /g M. Ardal, a very poor place, commanding a fine view of 
the lake and the opposite mountains. The next stage, like the 
last, is nearly level, the road having recently been reconstructed. 
A boat may be taken from Ardal to Skei for the sake of variety, 
unless the traveller has already ordered horses by Forbud. The 

124 Route 14. UDVIK. From Bergen 

road continues to follow the N. bank of the lake , passing the 
hamlet of Helgheim, a little beyond which it reaches — 

3 / 4 M. 0vre Vasenden, or Skei, the 'upper end of the water', 
another very poor place, at the E. end of the Jelstervand. — The 
road now becomes more hilly, and enters a strikingly grand and 
picturesque valley, flanked by enormous and nearly perpendicular 
cliffs , and strewn with huge blocks of rock. The whole of the 
land-route from Skei to Hellesylt is well worthy of the notice of 

3 /4 M. Ferde, a poor hamlet, lies near the S. end of the *Bred- 
heimsvand, or Breumsvand (200 ft. ; comp. p. H3j, a magnificent 
lake about IU2 M. in length, enclosed by imposing mountains, 
one of the most conspicuous of which is the Skjorla (4120 ft. J on 
the left. ■ — A little beyond F»rde the road terminates , and we 
embark in a rowing-boat, in which we skirt the E. bank of the 
lake. About halfway, on the right, we pass a group of huts on 
the brink of the lake, where a halt for a bathe and luncheon may 
conveniently be made. After a row of 2-2^2 hrs. in all, we reach — 

I'/y M. Red, a hamlet picturesquely situated on the E. bank, 
near the church of Iiredheim. Horses are frequently engaged here 
for the whole journey to Udvik , in order to save the trouble of 
changing again atMoldestad, and this may also be done by Forbud. 

From lied tile traveller may row to Vasenden , the X.W. 'end ol the 
lake', and drive thence to C/2 M.) Sandene (Inn), from which a steamer 
goes to Udvik on Wednesdays at 3.30 a.m., and to Bergen on Wednesdays 
at 0.30 p.m., and on alternate Sundays at 8.30 p.m. (comp. p. 113). 

From Ked the road gradually ascends a picturesque valley to — 

'/i M. Moldestad, a group of farms about 500 ft. above the 
lake , with a fine mountain-background. Between Moldestad and 
Udvik a very steep hill , about 2000 ft. in height, is crossed by 
the road, and most travellers will prefer walking the greater part 
of the way (not quite 1 M.). The pony-carts usually take about 
3 hrs. to cross the hill, while a good walker will easily cross it in 
2 hrs. ; but those who walk should insist on being preceded by 
the carts and their attendants, who, if left to themselves, are apt 
to be unconscionably slow. As we approach the top of the hill, 
about 1300 ft. above Moldestad and 2000 ft. above Udvik, we 
obtain a most striking **Vibw of the glaciers of the Jostedalsbra? 
to the right, and of snow-mountains in every direction. Far below 
lies the small (Jaasemyruand. The road now descends rapidly to — 

1 M. (pay for i 1 /^ Udvik (*Hammers Inn), prettily situated 
on the S. bank of the Nordfjord. Travellers proceeding to the S. 
should take provisions for the journey to Nedre-Vasenden. 

Steamboat from Udvik to Faleide and. Yisnass, at present Wednesdays, 
(i a.m., and alternate Saturdays, 7.30 p.m.; leaving Visnses on Wednes- 
days at p.m., and alternate Sundays at 4 p.m., and touching at l'aleide 
i'yj hr. later. 

If the steamboat does not suit, we now row from Udvik, pass- 
ing the church and hamlet of lnvik in a bay to the right, to — 

to Molde. OLDENPAL. 14. Route. 125 

1 M. -J- Faleide(* Tenden's Inn, often crowded in summer; Sven 
is a good guide to the valleys towards the E.), pleasantly situated 
on the N. hank of the fjord, and a good starting-point for several 
very fine excursions. If the inn is full, the traveller may pro- 
ceed to Visnces (Inn), i/ 2 M. farther up, and the last steamboat- 
station; or, hetter, row across the fjord direct to (l 1 /^ M.) 01- 
deren, a favourite resort of anglers, where good quarters are ob- 

Excursions. From Oldsren, situated in the S.E. bay of the 
head of the Nordfjord, the following excursions, two of the grand- 
est in Norway, are most conveniently made (each about 10-12 
hrs. ; guide 4 kr.). 

(1). Crossing the 'Eid' to the N.E. of Olderen, we reach Sande 
on the Loensvand , a lake about 1 M. in length, forming a basin 
of the *Lodal, which we ascend by boat. From Nas we ascend the 
Ncesdal to the *Na>sdalsbrtt, an offshoot of the Jostedalsbrae. Farther 
to the E., in the Bedal, lies the Bedalsbra, which may also be 
visited. To the N.E. of these two glaciers towers the huge Lodals- 
kaupe (6600 ft. ; Kaupe or Kaabe, 'cape' , 'mantle'), which may 
be ascended from the Bedal (about 12 hrs. there and back; the 
previous night being spent in the BedaU-Sceter). 

(2). Another and still grander excursion is to the **01dendal, 
to the S. of Olderen. A carriage-road leads from Olderen to ( 1 / / 2^0 
the Oldevand, a lake nearly 1 M. long. At a gaard here we 
obtain a boat (Y 2 kr. ; the guide acts as one rower; a second rower 
2 kr.) to convey us to the S.E. end of the lake (in 2 hrs.), on the 
way to which we enjoy a striking view of the * Cacilienkrone 
(6690 ft.), the Synsnipa (6180 ft.), and lastly of the *Glacier of 
Melkevold, with several waterfalls. In the middle of the lake 
there is a strong current where vigorous rowing is necessary. 
Landing at the head of the lake, we walk to the Gaard Melkevold, 
pass the glacier of Aabrekke on the left, cross a bridge, and ascend 
to Oaarden Brigsdal, the name of which is sometimes applied to the 
whole valley. The path then ascends to the *Glacier of Brigsdal 
(2-3 hrs. from the lake), part of the route being steep and fati- 
guing. The mountain and glacier scenery of this valley and of 
the Lodal are perhaps unsurpassed in Norway. ■ — The inhabitants 
of the Brigsdal are primitive , and their dwellings dirty. Their 
usual greeting is, l 8igne MedeV, i. e. i Gud velsigne vort Meidg ('God 
bless our meeting'). 

From Faleide to Jostedal. This very grand, but rough and 
fatiguing mountain and glacier -route takes two or three days 
(guide 24 kr. or more; a supply of provisions should be taken 
from Faleide or Visnais), but an excursion may be made from 
Faleide , or better from Visnses , to the Glacier of Greidung and 
back in one day. The" starting-point is Vim<v* or Tanning (Inn), 
about an hour's row (i/ 2 hr. by steamboat) from Faleide, whence 

126 Route 11. GRODAAS. From Bergen 

a rough road leads to (',2 M.) the *Opstryn- Vand, a boat on which 
takes us in 2'/2 hrs. to the ( t 1 /^ M.) Gaard Greidung. From this 
point to the *Oreidungsbra is a walk of l 1 /^ h 1 *- more. — Travellers 
hound for the Jostedal spend the night at the Greidungs-Sceter, 
and ascend to the glacier by a very rugged path past the Skaarene. 
The passage of the glacier itself is free from danger. The route 
passes to the S. of the majestic Lodalskaupe, and descends to the 
Faabergstel in the Jostedal (i'2-14 hrs.), from which the Prieste- 
gaard of Jostedal is reached in 4-5 hrs. more (comp. p. 55). 

From Gaarden Grof, near Greidung, a bridle-path ascends the Sundal 
and crosses the mountains to Grjotlid on the Ottaelv in the Gudbrands- 
dal (p. 106). Another and finer pass crosses from Jlerok (see below) to 
Grjotlid. Each of these routes takes about 12 hrs. 

From Faleide to Hbllbsylt (4 M.). The road ascends in 
zigzags over the lofty hill at the hack (N.)of Faleide, commanding 
tine retrospective views, and then descends to the Hornindals- 
Vand (p. 113), at the S.E. angle of which we reach — 

I'/gM. (pay for l 1 /^) Kjos. The next stage, from Kjos to 
Grodaas, also a very hilly one, may be performed by water as 
quickly as by the road. (A boat or horses should be ordered by 
Forbud from Faleide.) The road crosses a picturesque wooded 
hill, affording glimpses of the lake at intervals, to the station of ■ — 

Y2 M. (.pay for 3 / i ) Grodaas (*Naoelsakers Inn ; Raftevold's ; 
the station-master is Otto Knudsen), with the church of Hornindal, 
near the E. end of the Homindals- Vand : a line sheet of water 2'/4 
M. in length. The scenery here assumes a more smiling character. 

From Grodaas a path crosses the Kriren (2780 ft.) to (i-5 hrs.) the 
Skydsstation Kaldvaii/.. whence we may drive towards the E. to (i 3 /4 M.) 
Bjer/ce on the Hjarendfjord (p. 117). From Kaldvatn a good road leads 
to the \V. to (1 M.) Ferde on the Auslefjord , on which a boat may be 
taken to (l 5 /s M-l Volden (p. 114). — Bjerke may be made the starting- 
point for a visit to the Hjereiulfjord and Norangsfjord , after which the 
traveller may rejoin the Grodaas and Hellesylt road at Thronstad (see 
below . and conip. K. 13). 

From Grodaas the road ascends the somewhat uninteresting 
Hornindal to — 

8/4 M. (pay for 1) f lndre Hougen (no accommodation). Tra- 
vellers on their way to the N. do not usually stop at the next 
station — 

3 /4 M. 7 Kjelstadlid (1300 ft.), another very poor place, while 
those proceeding towards the S. change horses at Kjelstadlid, but 
are not required to change again at Hougen. 

From Kjelstadlid the a Hornindalsrok (5010ft. ; Rok, 'distaff'), an appar- 
ently inaccessible pinnacle of rock, commanding a magnificent view of 
the Langefjeld to the E. and the S#ndm0re mountains to the X., may be 
ascended in 5-6 hrs. (there and back, 10 hrs.). The traveller drives for 
3 /4 M. up the Hornindal, ascends by a path through birch-wood, and fin- 
ally has a steep climb to the top. 

Beyond Kjelstadlid we enter another grand mountainous region. 
The road descends to Thronstad (1130 ft.), formerly a station, a 
little to the X. of which opens the picturesque iXebbedal, through 

to Molde. HELLESYLT. 14. Route. 127 

which a path leads to the Norangsdal and 0ie on the magnificent 
Norangsfjord (p. 119). The road now descends very rapidly 
through a wild and picturesque valley to — 

7 /g M. Hellesylt (*'Sandberg's Inn; *J&rgen Tryggestad's , who 
is the tenant of the Helsetvand, Y2 M. distant, which affords good 
fishing), with the church of Sunelven, grandly situated at the head 
of the Storfjord, this arm of which is known as the Sunelvsfjord. 
Steamboat to Merok , Saholt, and Aalesund twice weekly. If the 
steamer does not suit, the traveller should row from Hellesylt to 
Merok, about l 3 / 4 M. (in 3-4 hrs.). 

The steamboat arrangements are at present as follows: from Hellesylt 
to Aalesund via, Merok, and Soholt, Wednesdays, 5 a.m. ; to Aalesnnd via 
Saholt, Sundays, 10.30 a.m. ; to Merok, Saturdays, 4.45 p.m. — From 
Merok to Hellesylt, Sundays, 9 a.m. ; to Swholt and Aalesund, Wednes- 
days, 6.30 a.m. 

About V2 M. to the N. of Hellesylt, on the E. side of the Sun- 
elvsfjord, diverges the **Geiranger Fjord, one of the most magni- 
ficent fjords in Norway, which should on no account be missed. 
At the entrance to it is the Nockenceb (Nab, 'beak',), on the right, 
and Qaarden Matvik on the left. In winter when the avalanches 
descend from the Stabbefonn , above the Nockenaeb, the windows 
at Matvik are frequently broken by the concussion. On the right, 
farther up the fjord , rises Lysurnabbet, and on the left is Lang- 
fltuifjeldet, both upwards of 4000 ft. in height. We next observe 
the isolated Orautanab , and pass the Heroedragsfjeld , beyond 
which the fjord contracts. On the N. (left) side , near Gaarden 
Knivslaa , are the graceful Knivslaafosse or 'Seven Sister Water- 
falls', formed by the Knivselve (really four or five falls only), 
opposite which are perpendicular cliffs assuming the shapes of 
grotesque profiles. On the S. bank lies (ruarden Skaggeflaa, 
in an apparently inaccessible site, about 1600 ft. above the fjord, 
and reached by a precipitous and dizzy path. Near the gaard is 
the Skaggeflaafos or Gjeitfos. In the vicinity is a deep ravine with 
the Jutulbro ('giant bridge'). On both sides of the fjord are seen 
numerous small waterfalls , some of which descend in the form 
of spray or mist, betraying their existence only by the disturbed 
state of the water into which they fall. Others descend from 
overhanging cliffs in a veil-like form, and are best seen from one 
side. In cloudy weather, when the tops of the mountains are 
shrouded in vapour, the waterfalls seem to fall directly from the 
clouds. — The scenery of the Geiranger Fjord surpasses that of 
the NeerMjord (p. 59) in picturesqueness and interest, although 
the latter is perhaps wilder and more severe. — If possible, the 
traveller should take one excursion at least on the Geiranger Fjord 
in a rowing-boat. At the head of the fjord, about 3 sea-miles 
from Hellesylt, lies — 

Merok (*Martin Merok's Inn), picturesquely situated. An 
interesting excursion may be taken hence to the * Storsitterfos 

128 Haute U. S0HOLT. From Bergen 

('2000 ft. above the sea-level, about 3 hrs. there and back, a 
stiff climb). 

In the background , behind Merok, rises the flolenirbbn, the base of 
which is passed by the path to Grjotlid (p. 156) and Skeaker (p. 154) in the 
Gudbrandsdal. This magnificent route should if possible be visited from 
Merok (on foot or on horseback) as far as the 'Fjeldstue' or refuge-hut 
on the Slarbrekkene (10-12 hrs. there and back; comp. R. 16). 

Grande, a gaard on the N. bank of the fjord, about •/< M. from 
Merok, is the starting-point of an exceedingly grand mountain route 
to Yttredal (1 3 A M.). The path ascends, very steeply at first, to Bide, 
about halfway, from which a carriage-road descends through a beautiful 
valley to the Norddalsfjord. From Yttredal to Suite (see below) a row 
of ly, hr. 

The steamer returns from Merok to the main fjord, and soon 
again turns to the E. into the * Norddalsfjord, another arm of the 
Storfjord, where it touches at Yttredal, Eelling, with the Korddnh- 
kirke, and Sylte (Monsen Sylte's Inn). 

Fi:om Sylte to Aak (about b l /4 M.). This interesting route to Aak 
or to Veblungsna?s leads through the Valdai and the Istidal. The first 
2'/4 M. of the route is by a carriage-road, passing Rem (horses and re- 
freshments obtainable), to the Gaard Fremre Grening (about 4 hrs. drive), 
where the night may be spent. Thence a beautiful walk of 7-8 hrs. to 
Hotel Aak or to Veblungsnws (p. 132). 

A visit may also be paid from Sylte to the imposing "Tafjord, the 
easternmost bav of the Norddalsfjord. whence paths rarely frequented lead 
to Grjotlid (p. 156) and to Stueflaaten (p. 13i). The Tafjord, though inferior 
to the Oeirani^er. also boasts of very grand scenery. After leaving Sylte 
we observe the solitary farm of Kaste on the hill to the right. On the 
left is a fine waterfall ; and on the same side, farther on, is the Muldals- 
fos, descending from the inhabited Muldal. The steamer steers through a 
strait into a kind of amphitheatre. A waterfall on the right rebounds 
from a projecting rock, which divides it into two parts. In the back- 
ground is the village of Tafjord, on the hill above which, to the right, 
are iron-mines belonging to an English company. Lofty snow-mountains 
peer over the banks of the fjord in every direction. 

The steamer touches at 'Bygden' Lcenge, with its picturesque 
gaards, and at the Liabygd. A fine view is obtained as far as 
Hellesylt to the S., and the mountains of the Geiranger Fjord 
become particularly conspicuous. The steamer then crosses to the 
W. to the Slynyrtad or Stranden station, situated on a large penin- 
sula between the Storfjord and the Hjerendfjord. 

7 S#h.olt (*Abrahamsen's Hotel, on the hill, in the upper part of 
the village ; Station, in the lower part of the village ; also several 
lodging-houses and small restaurants), with the new church of the 
parish of fifr.skog , is charmingly situated, and is a favourite 
summer-resort of the Aalesunders. The tramway ascending the 
hill near the village belongs to an iron-mine. Both here and 
lower down the fjord we occasionally see the 'Laksvcerp' (called 
'Oilge' in the Sogn district), or apparatus for catching salmon, 
with a white board in the water to attract the fish. 

To Aalesuxd (steamboat in 4hrs.). The next stations are Langskibse 
and Aure (or Sekelven), a beautiful place with grand surroundings, whence 
the interesting ascent of Makken. (1338 ft.) may be made. The inn here is 
often filled in summer with visitors from Aalesund. Quarters may . if 
necessary, be procured at Tusvik. 1/2 M. distant (a row of 1 hr.). Passing 
the Hjerendfjord on the left, the steamer steers to the X.W., between 

to Molde. MOLDE. 14. Route. 129 

the mainland on the right and the Sule on the left, and soon reaches the 
beautifully situated town of Aalesund (p. 115). — The following interesting 
works may he mentioned in connection with the above route: Finn's 
"Turistbref fran en Resa i Norge, Sommaren 1875 (Stockholm, 1876); 
L. Dane's 'Norske Bygdesagn' (Christiania , 1872) ; Magdalene Thoresen's 
'Billeder fra Vestkysten af Norge' (Copenhagen, 1872). 

From Seholt a hilly and picturesque road leads inland to 
(l 3 / 8 M.) -j- Ellingsgaard, and descends thence to (1 M.) Vestnas 
(tolerable station), a scattered village with a church, beautifully 
situated near the Moldefjord. Steamboat three times weekly to 
Molde (at present Mondays and Fridays, 11 a.m., and Saturdays, 
5 p.m. ; to Veblungsnses Sundays and Thursdays at 2.30p.m., and 
Saturdays at 10 a.m.). If the steamer does not suit, we cross the 
fjord by boat in 21/2-3 hrs. to (I1/4 M.) — 

Molde. — Simonsen's Hotel, at the W. end of the village, near the 
pier of the small local steamboats, with fine view, somewhat dear; 
Holm's Hotel , in the main street, near the anchorage of the large 
steamers, fair. — Steamboats to Bergen 4 times weekly, to Throndhjem 
4 times, to Aalesund 6 times, to Vestnaes 3 times, to Veblungsnces 4 times, 
to Eidsvaag and Neste on the Eidsfjord or Langfjord twice, to Bod on the 
W. coast usually twice weekly ; to the Hare , Sonde, and Ona twice 

Molde, a small town with 1717 inhab., is charmingly situated 
on the N. bank of the Moldefjord. Being sheltered by hills of con- 
siderable height from the N. and W. winds, the vegetation in the 
neighbourhood is unusually luxuriant. Roses and other flowers 
are more abundant than in most other parts of Norway, and some 
of the houses are picturesquely overgrown with honeysuckle. The 
predominant pine and birch are mingled with horse-chestnuts, 
limes, ashes, and cherry-trees. The main street of the little town, 
running parallel with the bank of the fjord, presents a trim and 
clean appearance. Some of the principal commercial firms once 
settled here have migrated to Aalesund. — At the back of the town, 
a little above the main street, is a road skirting the hill-side, and 
commanding beautiful views. On this road is situated the Church, 
from which we follow the road to the E. as far as a mill and small 
waterfall , near which we observe a very large cherry-tree. A 
branch of this road descends again to the coast-road, which leads 
to the E. along the Fanestrand , as this part of the bank is called, 
nearly l fa M. in length, where a number of the merchants of 
Christiansund possess pleasant villas. — To the W. of the church 
the upper road leads to 'Dahls Have 1 , a beautiful private garden, 
immediately beyond which a path to the right ascends in 3 / 4 hr. 
to the *Varde on the Moldehei (about 800 ft. ; several finger-posts 
'til Varden'~), a magnificent point of view, and one of the finest in 
Norway. At our feet lies the beautiful fjord, with Molde nestling 
on its N. bank; on the opposite bank, beyond Vestnaes, rises a 
long range of picturesquely shaped mountains, partially covered 
with snow, the most prominent of which is Lauparen (4735 ft.) ; 
to the left of these (S.E.), in the distance, rise the Trolltinder, 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 9 

130 Route 14. STOR TUEN. 

'Hornet', and Vengetinder in the Romsdal, and still more to the 
left (E.) the Skjoita in the Eikisdal. (See the 'Udsigt fra Molde', 
a good panorama, originally published in the Turistforening' s 
Aarbog for 1875, to be had at the bookseller's at Molde, and at 
Cammermeyer's in Christiania.) Returning from the Varde to 
Dahls Have , we may now cross the upper road, descend through 
an avenue of line birches , turn to the left, and regain the main 
street near the telegraph -office. — Those who have not time 
to ascend to the "Varde should follow the upper road for a few 
paces beyond Dahls Have, turn to the right, and ascend the 
*Ra , knmshaug , a knoll commanding a charming view similar to 
that from the Varde , though less extensive (from the inns to this 
point and back 1 J2- s /i hr.). 

To the 8. W. of the town, at the foot of the hill just mentioned, 
is the leper-hospital of Raknas , beautifully situated. The large 
harbour of Molde, where the small local steamers to the Romsdal 
and to Aalesund touch twice weekly in each direction, and larger 
steamers to Bergen and to Throndhjem about four times weekly in 
each direction , is admirably protected by the Hjorte and Selere, 
two long islands lying opposite the town. — Molde, though 
lacking good hotel-accommodation , is a charming spot for a pro- 
longed stay. Pleasant excursions may be made by water and by 
land to Klungenas, where Col. Sinclair and his Scotch troops landed 
in 1612, to Eringstad and Franen, to Strande, the Boise, and 
Vestnas ; also , by a steamer plying weekly , to Bod on the W. 
coast, 4 M. to the N., or to the Hare, Sande, and the Ona light- 
house, in the Atlantic, about 4 M. to the N.W. of Molde. Lastly, 
a grand excursion may be taken via Neste (steamboat thither twice 
weekly) to the Eikisdal, and thence to Sundalseren (see p. 188). 

To the N. of Molde rises *Stor Tuen ('great hill'; about 
3000 ft.), another remarkably fine point of view, which should be 
visited if time permits (3-4 hrs. ; guide unnecessary if the follow- 
ing directions be noted). The route ascends on the farther bank 
of the brook at the E. end of the town, passing a few houses and 
traversing a partially cleared wood. The barren 'Tue' forms the 
background of the valley. After 3 / 4 hr. the valley divides; we 
keep to the right, and in 1 / i hr. more cross a bridge. The path 
then ascends towards the summit in a straight direction, through 
pines, birches, juniper-bushes, and ferns, and is marshy at places, 
but presents no difficulty. The dying and dead pines, with their 
silver-grey trunks, on the (l 1 /^ hr.) upper boundary of the wood 
are very picturesque. Thence to the summit about 20 min. more. 
The flora here is of an Alpine character. The very extensive view 
embraces the fjord and the mountains to the N., E., and S., while 
the boundless Atlantic stretches to the W. — On the mountain 
are several small lakes or tarns (Tjem) which form the source of 
the brook by which we have ascended. 


15. From Molde to Christiania by the Romsdal, 
Gudbrandsdal, and Lake Mjasen. 

42 3 /4 M. Steamboat to Veblungsnws and Noes (about 3>/s M. or 5'/2 sea- 
miles) four times weekly in 2 l /4-4'/» hrs. (at present Sund. 1.30 p.m., Tues. 
4 p.m., Thura. 1.30 p.m., and Sat. 9 a.m.; from Veblungsnees Mon. 6 a.m., 
Tues. 7.15 p.m., Frid. 6 a.m., and Sat. 2.30 p.m.; all except the Tuesday 
boat touching at Vestnses, both in going and returning). Diligence from 
Veblungsnces to (24 3 /s M.) Lillehammer 3 times weekly in three days (at 
present Sund. 7 p.m. and Tues. 8 p.m., spending the first night at Aak, 
and Thurs. 7 p.m., spending the first night at Horghem; from Lilleham- 
mer Sund. 7 a.m., Tues. 6.30 a.m., Frid. 7 a.m.; fare 40 kr.). Pedestrians 
should drive to Ormeim at farthest, walk from Ormeim (or all the way 
from Aak) to Laurgaard, and drive thence to Lillehammer (comp. p. 141). 
Steamboat from Lillehammer to (9 1 /* M.) Eidsvold daily at 10 a.m. in 7'/2 
hrs. (from Eidsvold daily at 12.50 p.m.). Railway from Eidsvold to (6 M.) 
Christiania in 2 l /z-3 hrs. (daily at 6a.m. and 3.30 p.m.; from Christiania 
at 8 a.m. and 4.24 p.m.). 

The whole journey may therefore be accomplished in 4'/2-5 days. The 
diligence, however, is not recommended. The traveller will find it far 
preferable to drive by carriole from Veblungsnses to Lillehammer (which 
costs about 50 kr.), devoting 4-5 days to the journey, in which case the 
night should not be spent at the places where the diligence stops (see 
'Communicationer'). All the stations are fast (horse and carriole 1 kr. 80 0. 
per mile), and most of them afford good accommodation. The whole of 
the magnificent scenery of the Romsdal is seen by the traveller on his 
way from Veblungsnses or Aak to Throndhjem over the Dovrefjeld. 
Those who have reached Molde via Bergen and intend proceeding to 
Throndhjem by one of the other routes, are recommended to take the 
steamer to Veblungsnses, drive up the Romsdal as far as Ormeim only, 
walk thence to the Slettafos in 1 hr., and return by the same route, to 
Molde, a delightful excursion of two or three days, embracing the finest 
points on the present route. 

Carriages with hoods and open 'Triller' are sometimes obtainable at 
Veblungsnses for the journey to Lillehammer, at a charge of 150-200 kr. 

The Steamboat, after leaving Molde, usually crosses the fjord 
to Vestnses (tolerable station) , very beautifully situated on the 
Tresfjord, a few hundred paces from the landing-place. 

From Vestnses to Seholt , a steamboat-station on the Nordfjord, see 
p. 129. The steamer to the Geiranger Fjord and Hellesylt at present 
leaves S0holt on Tuesdays and Saturdays at 10. — Travellers arriving at 
Vestnses from the S. on a day when the steamer does not ply, and de- 
sirous of proceeding to the Romsdal without delay , may row to Gjer- 
mundsn&s, drive thence to Vaage, and take another boat from Vaage to 
Veblungsnais, a journey of 5-6 hrs. in all. 

The mountains at the head of the Tresfjord are very pictur- 
esque. The next stations are Ojermundsnas, at the mouth of the 
Tresfjord, opposite Vestnaes ; Vestad, in the island of Sekken ■ and 
Vaage, on the mainland. To the N.E. extends the Langfjord (at 
the head of which are Eidsvaag, whence a road leads to the Sun- 
dais fjord, and Neste at the entrance to the Eikisdal; see p. 186). 
We now quit the broad Moldel'jord and steer to the S.E. into the 
narrow and picturesque *Eomsdalsfjord, on the N. side of which 
is the Nordvig station. In the vicinity rises the rounded hill of 
Klungences, at the base of which Col. Sinclair and his Scots are 
said to have landed in 1612. To the S. of Nordvig, on the opposite 
bank, is Void, situated on a fertile plateau {Void, 'alluvial soil') 


132 Route 15. ROMSDAL. From Molde 

at the mouth of the Mandal, each of the inhabitants of which 
possesses a boat-house ('Nest') on the beach here. The outlines 
of the mountains continue to be very picturesque. The next places 
are Sevig on the Indfjord, a S. bay of the Romsdalsfjord ; Torvig, 
on the N. bank; and to the E. of it, on the S. bank, — 

f Veblungsnees (*Onsum , s Hotel ; *Enkefru Gryd, in the village, 
unpretending). The 'Skydsslation' is at Setnces, near the Praeste- 
gaard of Gryten, 20 min. walk from the pier. No fewer than four 
different well-defined coast-levels are observable here. 

From Setnses through the Isterdal by a bridle-path , and down the 
Valdai by a road, to Sylte, a steamboat-station on the Norddalsfjord, in 
11/2-2 days (see p. 128). 

Veblungsnaes commands a finer view of the Romsdalshom, and 
particularly of the Vengetinder, than Aak, but the situation of the 
place itself is far less picturesque. Most travellers disembark here, 
and drive at once to Aak, y 2 M. distant. 

The steamer now passes the mouth of the Rauma and rounds 
a promontory to f Nces (*Aandal's Inn), beautifully situated, com- 
manding an admirable view of the Romsdal mountains and of the 
fjord. The branch of the fjord stretching to the E. of Naes is called 
the Isfjord. Salmon -fishing is obtainable in the mouth of the 
Rauma; and a hill-lake, about V2M. distant, affords trout-fishing. 
There is no pier here as at Veblungsnaes. — From Naes to ( 3 / 8 M.) 
Aak there is also a good road, joining that from Veblungsnaes at 
the bridge over the Rauma. 

Road to Lillehammbr (24 3 / 8 M.). At Veblungsnaes or at Nses 
we enter the far-famed **Romsdal, or valley of the Rauma, which 
rises near Stueflaaten, about 4y 2 M. to the S.E. , where the finest 
scenery on the route terminates. The road from Veblungsnaes, 
above which rises the Setnces fjeld , on the right , soon crosses the 
Rauma and unites with the road from Naes. It traverses old glacier- 
moraines, now forming a pleasant park-like tract. To the right 
opens the Isterdal, through which a path, mentioned above, leads 
to Sylte on the Norddalsfjord. On the W. side of that valley rise 
several fine peaks, and on the E. side, at its junction with the 
Romsdal, begin the strikingly picturesque *Trolltinder ('witch- 
pinnacles' ; 5860 ft.), from which avalanches (Sneskred) and rocks 
are frequently precipitated in winter. On the E. side of the Roms- 
dal , opposite the Trolltinder , rises the bold and majestic *Roms- 
dalshom (5090 ft.), an enormous mass of rock towering almost 
perpendicularly above the valley , and riveting the eye of every 
spectator. Adjoining the 'Horn' on the N. are the picturesque and 
still more lofty * Vengetinder (6035 ft.). 

Aak (^Landmark's Hotel, with baths, comfortable, charges rea- 
sonable), a gaard on an eminence to the left of the road , charm- 
ingly situated, and pleasantly shaded with trees, is justly a favou- 
rite place for a prolonged stay (salmon and trout-fishing in the 
neighbourhood). The name (pronounced ofce) is probably a con- 

to Christiania. ORMEIM. 15. Route. 133 

traction of 'Aaker' (cultivated land), and occurs in Meraak, Berk- 
aak, and several other names. Aak is about Y2 M. distant from 
Veblungsnaes, s /g M. from Nses, and 7 /s M. from Horgheim. Though 
not a station, horses, carrioles, and sometimes carriages are pro- 
curable here. ■ — Beyond Aak the road ascends on the right bank 
of the impetuous Rauma, with the magnificent Trolltinder on the 
right, and the Romsdalshorn on the left, and passes Oaarden Fiva, 
in a plantation of birches. Beautiful retrospective view of the well- 
wooded valley with its rich pastures. The valley contracts and 
assumes a wilder character, and the mountains, with their pictur- 
esque pinnacles and frequent patches of snow, now rise almost 
perpendicularly to a height of 5000 ft. above the road. Through 
the bed of the stream runs a stony track which is used in winter 
as being less exposed to avalanches, but is generally under water 
in summer. On every side lie huge masses of rock which have 
fallen from the neighbouring cliffs. 

l 3 /§ M. jHorgheim (poor station), grandly situated, lies on an 
ancient moraine. The road next traverses a marshy tract, once the 
bed of a lake, beyond which the valley again contracts. On the 
right we observe a waterfall, and, farther on, Oaard Rennen. On 
the left we next pass Monge and the picturesque * Mongefos , de- 
scending from the mountain called Mongejuret. Another fine retro- 
spective view embraces the Trolltinder to the W. and the snow- 
clad Olmafjeld on the E. side of the valley. The road and the 
Rauma next thread their way through a chaos of enormous blocks 
of rock, the result of some tremendous landslip. The scene is 
most impressive and picturesque , and is one of the finest of its 
kind in Europe. 

1 M. -j- Fladmark (a fair station) lies, as its name ('flat field') 
indicates, in a broader and more smiling part of the valley. The 
scenery continues to be very grand. On each side are several 
waterfalls, precipitated from rocks 2000-3000 ft. in height, but 
most of them are unimportant in dry seasons. On the left are the 
Styggefondfos, the Gravdefos, and the Skogefos ; on the right the 
Dentefos, and then the imposing Vermofos. 

1 M. 7 Ormeim (*Station, unpretending, but good and reason- 
able), beautifully situated on the right bank of the Rauma , and 
several hundred feet above it, commands an admirable view of the 
picturesque * Vermofos, or Vermedalsfos, a waterfall on the oppo- 
site bank, nearly 1000 ft. in height, and of the mountain called 
the Alterhei. After rain, and during the melting of the snow in 
early summer, the fall assumes most imposing dimensions. The 
windows at the back of the station afford a good survey of the fall. 
If time permits, a day should be devoted to inspecting the fall 
more closely and ascending the *Storhatte (5885 ft.). Travellers 
visiting the Romsdal from Molde, and intending to return thither, 
are recommended not to drive beyond Ormeim, as the road higher 

134 Route 15. STUEFLAATEN. From Molde, 

up the valley is steep and trying to the horses. A walk, however, 
should he taken as far as the *Slettafos, about 2 3 / 4 Engl. M. from 
Ormeim (see below). Artists and anglers frequently make a pro- 
longed stay at Ormeim. 

The ascent of the Storhcette occupies about 4 hrs., and riding is prac- 
ticable for three-quarters of the way (guide 4, horse 4 kr.). The route 
descends from the station to a bridge over the Rauma, crosses it', turns 
to the right, and ascends by the side of the Vermofos to a (l'^hr.) Sceler. 
After l'/a hr. more the path terminates and riders dismount. In another 
hour, the last half of which is spent in clambering over loose stones, we 
reach the summit. The view, like those from most of the Norwegian 
'Fjeldnuter 1 , is deficient in picturesqueness, although extensive. — The 
best point for surveying the Vermofos is a rocky knoll on the, right (E.) 
bank of the Eauma, exactly opposite the fall, and easily found without 
a guide. It is reached by traversing the pastures at the back of the station. 

Beyond Ormeim the road ascends more rapidly and continuously, 
so that the next stage, though less than 7 Engl. M., usually takes 
fully two hours. The river continues to flow through a profound 
and picturesque ravine on our right About 3 / 8 M. above Ormeim 
we come to a finger-post on the right indicating the way to the 
*Slettafos (properly the Lower Slettafos, as there is another fall of 
the same name higher up), '80 ells' from the road. "We alight 
here, cross the new bridge above the fall, and follow the path for 
a few hundred paces to a spot below the overhanging rocks, where 
the imposing cascade is seen to the best advantage, and where its 
roar is loudly reverberated. The rocky walls of the gully have been 
worn into deep cauldrons ('Jsettegryder') by the action of the water. 
— Above this point the road ascends the once dreaded *Bjerneklev 
('beaTs' cliff') in numerous windings, some of which the pedestrian 
may avoid by means of short-cuts. From the mountains on the 
right several different streams, the chief of which is the Vlvaa, 
the discharge of the Ulvevand , are precipitated into the ravine, 
contributing to form the Rauma. At the head of the ravine is the 
picturesque Upper Slettafos, which is imperfectly seen from the 
road. The ravine contains three or four other waterfalls, well 
worthy of being explored, but not visible from the road. 

7 /g M. (pay for 1 M.) f Stueflaaten (*Station, good and moder- 
ate), in a wild and bleak situation at the head of the Romsdal, 
lies near the watershed between that valley and the Gudbrands- 
dal, to which last it is considered to belong, about 2050 ft. above 
the fjord, and 700 ft. above Ormeim. The last retrospective view 
of the Romsdal mountains is obtained here. The forms of the 
mountains in the Gudbrandsdal are generally unpicturesque, and 
the valley comparatively tame. The Ulvaa and some of the other 
streams afford good trout-fishing. 

From Stueflaaten to the Eikisdal, towards the N. , a fatiguing moun- 
tain-path, see p. 186. — Another mountain-route, little frequented, leads 
hence towards the W. to the Norddalsfjord, a branch of the Stor/jord in 
the Smdmere district. It ascends the course of the Vlvaa, which de- 
scends from the Ulvevand. crosses the mountains, and descends by the 
Bodalselv to the Ta/jord, the innermost bay of the Norddalsfjord, where the 

to Christiania. GUDBRANDSDAL. 15. Route. 135 

steamer touches once weekly on its way to Aalesund. Spite, on the N. side 
of the entrance to the Tafjord, and Belling on the S. side, about 1 M. 
distant, are touched at twice weekly by a steamer to Aalesund, and twice 
weekly by one to Hellesylt. (Comp. R. 14.) 

The road continues to traverse a bleak and wild region , and 
crosses the watershed between the two valleys. Near Gaarden Ei- 
nabu is an ancient 'Bautastein'. King Olaf, 'the Saint', is said to 
have halted at this gaard in 1029, when pursued by the rebellious 
peasantry , shortly before the final struggle to regain his supre- 
macy which terminated with his death at Stiklestad near Levanger 
(p. 207). The scenery of the Gudbrandsdal, into which we are about 
to descend , is picturesque and interesting at places , though in- 
ferior to that of the Romsdal. The descent is very gradual. 

iy 8 M. f M.fflmen (*Station) lies near the church of Lase- 
skougen, as this district is called, and at the upper end of the three 
small lakes known as the Lceseskougen - Vand (2040 ft.), from 
which to the W. the Rauma descends to the Atlantic , and to the 
E. the Lougen to the Skagerrak. In the vicinity a picturesque 
waterfall. The fishing is well spoken of. 

Two ascents sometimes made from M0lmen, though lacking the ele- 
ment of picturesqueness, are well calculated to convey an idea of the 
vastness and dreariness of the Norwegian mountains as compared with 
the inhabited regions : that of the Storhe (6690ft.) to the N., and thnt of the 
Digenarde (5660ft.) to the S. (4-5 hrs. in each case; horse and guide 8kr.). 

From M0lmen to Gaard Reiten in the upper Eikisdal (10-12 hrs.), a 
fatiguing mountain-path, see p. 186. 

From M0lmen to Aanitad or Skeaker and the Jolunfjeld, see p. 144. 

178 M. f Lcesevcerk (*Station), at the S.E. end of the lake, 
derives its name from the iron-mine formerly worked here, but 
abandoned about the beginning of the century owing to want of 
wood. — The road now descends to — 

7 /g M. f Holsat (*Station), on another small lake called Lcese- 
vand (1700 ft.), which has of late been partially drained. 

A bridle-path ascends from Holsset by the Loraelv to the Storsceter 
and the Nysaster (about 5 hrs.), and crosses the mountains thence to Aan- 
stad (or Skeaker), a long day's journey, which may be broken by spend- 
ing a night at the Nysseter, a pleasing specimen of the Norwegian chalet 
(see p. 145). 

l 3 /g M. f Holaker (*Station , comfortable), an uninteresting 
place, also lies in the district of Lsesa. The road again ascends. 

1 M. f Dombaas, or Domaas(*Station, a comfortable, well-built 
house, but dearer than most of the others ; telegraph-office), where 
the scenery becomes more attractive, is an important place owing to 
its position at the junction of the Gudbrandsdal and Dovrefjeld 
routes, and lies high above the ravine of the Lougen (about 
2000 ft. above the sea). White fox and other skins and reindeer's 
antlers are offered for sale here. The air is fresh and exhilarating, 
and the place is suited for a prolonged stay. 

A pleasant excursion of 4-5 hrs. may be taken from Dombaas to the 
Haregsswter on the S. bank of the Lougen, where a fine view of the valley, 
of Sneheetten, and other mountains is enjoyed. 

From Dombaas over the Dovrefjeld to Throndhjem, see R. 18, a. 

136 Route 15. BRJ5NDH0UGEN. From Molde 

The road now descends the valley of the Lougen (Laagen , or 
Laugen, 'river'), commanding a fine view of its profound Tavine, with 
the Kjelen rising above it. Looking hack, we observe the pointed 
Horung rising above the Lsesevand, on the N. side. "We next pass 
Oaarden Lid , the buildings of which are roofed with birch-bark 
(Naver) covered with green turf. The scenery becomes very un- 
interesting, and the road descends over huge deposits of detritus. 

1 M. \Toftemoen (*Station) lies at the head of the Gudbrands- 
dal in the narrower sense, the road we have just traversed from 
Dombaas being considered to belong to the Dovrefjeld region. The 
name signifies an inhabited site ( Tuft) on a sandy plain (Mo). 
The word 'toft' occurs in England and Scotland in a somewhat 
similar sense. The station-master traces his descent from Harald 
Haarfagre, and possesses a number of interesting old curiosities. 
A saeter about 1 hr. distant, belonging to his father, is interesting. 
— A little beyond Toftemoen we pass the church of Dovre, which 
Prof. Forbes calls a singular and ugly structure ('Norway', p. 11), 
situated on an ancient moraine. Like many of the Norwegian 
churches, it is built in the form of a Greek cross. In the centre 
rises the tower. At the end of each arm of the cross is a small 
projecting addition. The whole structure is covered with large 
dark slabs of slate. Some of the tombstones in the churchyard are 
interesting. — The farms, as usual, are all placed on the sunny 
side of the valley, while on the other side rise dreary masses of 
mountain and rock. — Farther on we cross theLoug by a new bridge. 

1 M. -j- Brandhougen (*Station) still belongs to the parish of 
Dovre. The station contains a curious old wardrobe, painted and 
gilded, a table dating from 1763, and several specimens of wood- 
carving. The station-masters here and farther up the valley some- 
times allow travellers to go without a 'Skydsgut' , leaving the 
horses to return when an opportunity offers , in which case the 
traveller enjoys more independence. 

The Jetla (5430 ft.) which rises to the W., is sometimes ascended 
from Breendhougen. It commands an imposing view of the Dovrefjeld, 
the Rondane, and the Jotunfjeld. 

Below Braendhougen the road traverses a dreary paTt of the 
valley, covered with deposits of stones and sand , and partially 
overgrown with stunted pines. As late as July large patches of 
snow are frequently seen by the road -side. On the right rises 
Kjelen, on the left the Bustenfjeld. The cultivated land which 
now begins to appear, with the cuttings used for its irrigation, is 
of a very poor description. The road, which is here about 1850 ft. 
above the sea-level, soon begins to descend over the rocky barrier 
of the Rust ('wooded hill'), through which the Lougen has forced a 
passage for itself. The old road crossing this hill was a toilsome 
and sometimes dangerous route. We now descend, skirting the 
cascades of the Lougen, into an imposing pine-clad *Ravine, the 
finest point of which is at the *Bridge which carries the road to 

to Ohristiania. LAURGAARD. 15. Route. 137 

the right bank of the river. A little beyond the bridge a path 
to the Hevringen Salter diverges to the left. The traveller is re- 
commended to walk from the bridge to Laurgaard, a distance of 
about l /i M. 

1 M. f Laurgaard (^Station, comfortable), where the scenery 
becomes less interesting, lies about 1000 ft. above the sea-level. 
From this point the road is good and nearly level all the way to 

An interesting excursion may be made hence by a bridle-path to the 
Hevringen Soetei; fitted up as a small inn, the property of the station- 
master at Laurgaard, about 1 M. distant. Near it rises 'Formokampen 
(4835 ft.), a fine point of view, easily ascended. The whole excursion 
there and hack occupies 7-8 hrs., and conveys a good idea of the wild 
and desolate character of the Norwegian mountain-scenery. 

From Laurgaard to Sietrdm (or Vaage, l'/s M.). The picturesque, 
but hilly road crosses the mountains to the W. of Laurgaard to (l'/g M.) 
Nordre Snerle and ( 3 / 4 M.) Serum (p. 142). Other roads to S0rum, 
see p. 138. 

Below Laurgaard the river is again crossed, and we pass a large 
deposit of stones and detritus (Skred), and several others farther 
on, the ends of which from some unexplained cause rise in the 
form of knolls. 

7 /g M. f Moen (tolerable station) lies at the confluence of the 
Lougen with the Via, which descends from Lake Via at the foot of 
the *R6ndane (6920 ft.), and forms the Daanofos ('thunder-fall') 
close to the road. The wall of the neighbouring Churchyard of Sel 
is curiously constructed of slabs of slate , while most of the old 
tombstones are of Klcebersten or soapstone. — The pigs of the 
Gudbrandsdal, sometimes adorned with triangular pieces of wood 
(SuleJ round their necks, enjoy perfect liberty, and are a sturdy, 
wholesome-looking race. 

Half-an-hour may be pleasantly spent here in ascending the inter- 
esting valley of the Via for about '/8 M- — The fine mountain-group of 
the Rondane is sometimes visited from Moen, but the expedition is a 
long and fatiguing one. It may also be reached from the Atna railway- 
station in the valley of the Glommen (p. 203). 

On the left side of the road, nearly halfway between Moen and 
Bredevangen, is the steep hill called Kringelen, which was form- 
erly traversed by the old road. On 26th Augtist, 1612, when Col. 
George Sinclair with his 900 Scotch auxiliary troops, who had 
landed a few days previously at the Klungenses on the Roinsdals- 
fjord, were attempting to force their way through Norway to join 
the Swedes, who were then at war with the Norwegians, they were 
intercepted by an ambush of 300 Norwegian peasants at this spot. 
The natives had collected huge piles of stones and wood on the 
hill above the road, which they hurled down on the invaders when 
they reached this part of the road. Most of the ill-fated Scots 
were thus destroyed, while the survivors, with a few exceptions, 
were put to the sword. (See Laing's 'Norway'.) The massacre is 
commemorated by a tablet in the rock to the left, bearing the in- 

138 Route 15. LIST AD. From MoUt 

scription, ' Erindring om Bendemes Tapperhed'. ■ — To the right is 
the confluence of the Ottaelv and the Lougen. 

A little beyond Kringelen, halfway between Moen and Bredevangen, 
a road diverges to the right, crosses the Lougen, and ascends the valley of 
the Ottaelv to (1 M. from Moen or from Bredevangen) fAasoren, (l 3 /s M.) 
fNordre Snerle, and ( 3 /4 M.) tSjBrum (or Vaage), on the main route from 
the Gudbrandsdal to the western fjords (p. 142). 

Passing a lake-like expansion of the Lougen, we next reach — 
3 / 4 M. f Bredevangen (*Station , small), beautifully situated. 
(Road to Serum, see above.) Near the station is the prison of the 
district. The background of the Alpine picture, looking up the 
valley, is formed by the lofty Formokampen. — About halfway 
between this station and the next the Sjoa-Elv falls into the Loug. 
The road, which is here about 1000 ft. above the sea-level, or 
600 ft. above Lake Mj«sen, now bends to the E. 

Immediately above the confluence of the Sjoa and Lougen a road di- 
verges to the right, crosses the Lougen, and ascends the valley of the Sjoa 
to (2'/4 M. from Bredevangen; 2 5 /s M. from Storklevstad) fBjalstad, one 
of the largest and most interesting gaards in Norway, the proprietor of 
which claims to be of royal descent. The next stations are (i. l h M.) 
^cNordre Snerle and ( 3 /4 M.) f Serum (p. 143). 

The road traverses a poor district, partially wooded with stunted 
pines and birches. The fields are irrigated by means of numerous 
cuttings (Rcenner). The cottages of the Husmand, or farm-la- 
bourers, called Stuer, are usually roofed with turf. The large 
slabs of slate common in this district are used for making walls, 
for Toofing purposes, and for the drying of malt. A number of 
small gaards are perched on the hill-side in apparently inacces- 
sible situations. The magpie (Skjer), an object of superstitious 
veneration among the Norwegian peasantry, is frequently seen 
here. The river forms numerous rapids and cataracts. 

l'/2 M. fStorklevstad (*8tation) lies a little below the church 
of Kvam, situated on the left. Below the church , on the right, 
is a stone near the road-side recording that Col. Sinclair is buried 
there. Road to Bjalstad, see above. About Vs M. to the S.E. of 
the station is the *Gaard Vik , formerly the station , and still an 
inn. The road again turns towards the S., and descends to — 

7 / 8 M. f Byre (tolerable station). 

A road to the right, crossing the Lougen, and ascending the valley of 
the Vitistra, leads from Byre to (1 M.) t Harildstad i Kvikne and Skabo, 
whence a dreary track ascends to the Jotunfjeld (R. 17). 

The Toad next passes (^ M.) 0ie or Setorp, formerly a station, 
and the scenery becomes more pleasing. The picturesque houses, 
roofed with turf, generally have a Sval, a kind of covered pas- 
sage ot porch adjoining them. On the right, farther on, is Gryting, 
a pleasant-looking gaard. On the left rises the Skudal , a pre- 
cipitous Took. The river, after forming several picturesque cata- 
racts, gradually loses the character of a mountain-torrent. 

lt/g M. fListad i Sendre Fron (*8tation, comfortable ; * Gaard 
Lillehove, a little farther on), near which is the church of Fron, 

to Christiania. SK.LEGGESTAD. 15. Route. 139 

prettily situated, is a good place for spending a night. Beyond it 
is Oaarden Hove, once the scene of heathen sacrificial rites. Far- 
ther on is Gaarden Huntorp, once the seat of Dale Gudbrand , the 
powerful heathen opponent of St. Olaf. We next observe the 
Gaard Steig, picturesquely and loftily situated, once the resi- 
dence of the 'Foged' Lars Gram, the leader of the peasants who an- 
nihilated the Scottish invaders commanded by Col. Sinclair. The 
road soon passes, on the left, the church of Venebygden. The valley 
now becomes somewhat marshy. We cross the Vaalaelv (fine view)'; 
on the left rises the Vaalhaug. Near this point a bridle-path di- 
verges to the Atne-Vand (see below). 

l!/ 4 M. f Skjaeggestad (^Station ; walls adorned with photo- 
graphs, including 'Col. Sinclair's Landing' from a picture by 
Tidemand) is picturesquely situated , but the environs are some- 
what marshy. On a hill to the left, a little beyond it, stands the 
old church of Ringebo. The horns of the cattle here are frequently 
tipped with wooden or metal knobs to prevent them from doing 
injury. On the road-side are seen numerous snow-ploughs (Sne- 
plouge). The Klinkenberg (3080 ft.) is sometimes ascended hence 
for the sake of the view (6-8 hrs. there and back; horses at the 

Between Venebygden and Skjaeggestad, near the influx of the Vaal, 
a bridle-path diverges to the E. to Solliden and the "Atne-Vand (a day's 
journey), whence the traveller may either proceed to Foldal and Jerkin, 
on the Dovrefjeld by a tolerable road, or descend the valley of the Atne- 
Elv to the Glommen. Comp. p. 203. 

The road next passes through a ravine bounded by the preci- 
pitous and furrowed Elstaklev and a similar rock opposite. Farther 
on we pass the Djupdal on the left, above which is Gaarden Upsal. 
On the right rises the picturesque mountain called Tuliknappen. 
Near Kirkestuen the height attained by the river during an inun- 
dation (Flow.) on 16th and 17th June, 1860, is marked on the 
rocks by the road-side. 

lt/gM. -j- Kirkestuen (Station, small) lies near the upper end of 
Lake Losna, a narrow lake formed by the Loug, about l*/4 M. in 
length, and formerly navigated by a small steamboat. The lake 
contains excellent fish (0rret, or trout; Tral, roach; Horr, gray- 
ling; Siik, Coregonus lavaretus , or fresh-water herring , a fish of 
the salmon tribe; and Laka, Lota vulgaris, burbot). — About 
1 M. from Kirkestuen the road crosses the Moxa, and soon reaches 
the church of Tretten and Holmen (Inn), formerly a station, near 
the lower end of Lake Losna. A ferry here crosses the Lougen to a 
road leading to^/sil.) Nerstevold and(lM.) Veisten(see below). 
A hoTse-fair of considerable importance is held at Holmen annu- 
ally on 15th-17th August. We next reach (Vs M - from Holmen) — 

l l / t M. fFormo (small station), from which a retrospective view 
is obtained of the snow-capped peaks of the Rdndane. The pea- 
sants here wear red caps, and frequently carry a peculiar kind of 

140 Route 15. FOSSEGAARDEN. From Molde 

pannier on their backs (Bagmeis , elsewhere called Naverkont). 
On the road-side are a number of Kvilesteller , ot open stalls for 
resting horses. The posts flanking the road (called Rodestolper) 
mark the portions (Roder) which the adjoining landowners are 
bound to keep in repair. 

The vegetation now becomes richer, and the valley better cultivated. 
The predominating pines and birches are interspersed with the maple 
(Lenn), the aspen (Asp), the mountain-ash (Rogn, 'royne 1 , 'rowan'), and 
the alder (Oldre). Among the wild flowers may be mentioned the rose 
(Klungerkjer), the violet aconite (Ltcshat , 'louse-hat'), and the Linnaea 
horealis (Oiegenfede, 'cuckoo-food'). 

On the right, beyond Formo, rises the Dreshula, a picturesque 
cliff. The road now traverses a ravine where the Loug has forced 
its passage through a barrier of rock. 

l 5 / 8 M. -j- Fossegaarden (*Jnn, often filled with anglers and 
tourists in August) is beautifully situated above the Loug, which 
here forms a fine fall called the *Hunnerfos, where the famous 
Hunnererreter, or lake-trout, are caught in large numbers. The 
Neverfjeld, a fine point of view, may be ascended hence in 2 hours. 
The numerous heaps of stones on the road-side testify to the 
trouble which the farmers have had in preparing their land for 
cultivation. The syllables rod, rod, or ryd in which names of 
Norwegian places so frequently terminate have reference to the 
'uprooting' of trees and removal of stones. — The road runs at a 
considerable height above the Loug, and passes smiling green 
slopes with forest in the background to the left. To the right, about 
1 M. from the last station and ^ M. from Lillehammer , a road 
descends into the deep valley of the Loug, crosses it by a bridge, 
and ascends the Oausdal. 

The Gausdal Road ascends to (l'/s M.) \Diserud, from which N#rste- 
vold, to the right, is ls/ B M. distant; (l 3 /sM.) iVeisten, (V/i M.) iHelleberg, 
and (l>/4 M.) + Kvisberg , beyond which mountain - tracks , rarely used, 
lead to the Jotunfjeld (R. 17). A little beyond Diserud is a gaard be- 
longing to Bjernstjerne Bjeifnson, the poet and novelist. — From Veisten 
a road leads to (1 M.) iNerslevold and (i l /a M.) Holmen (see above). 

The ''Gausdal Sanatorium, a large hotel and pension near the Skei- 
saster, and a favourite resort of Norwegian visitors, is finely situated on 
the hill to the right of the Gausdal, about 3000 ft. above the sea-level, 
or 2600 ft. above Lake Mj0sen, and 3 ! /2 M. from Lillehammer. An omni- 
bus runs to the Sanatorium in summer from the Victoria Hotel at 6 a.m. 
daily (in 6'/-^ hrs.), returning thence to Lillehammer at 4 p.m. (in 5 hrs. ; 
fare 8 kr.). It may also be reached by carriole : (l'/s M.) iDiserud, (l 3 /s M.) 
iNerslevold, (1 M.) Sanatorium (where horses are also generally procur- 
able). Travellers from Lillehammer on their way up the Gudbrandsdal 
may visit the Sanatorium and descend thence to N0rstevold and Holmen 
(see above). Visitors making a prolonged stay at the Sanatorium pay 
about 6 kr. per day for board and lodging ; passing travellers are charged 
hotel-prices. Among the many pleasant walks and excursions which may 
be taken from the Sanatorium, one of the finest is to the (2 hrs.) summit 
of "Prceslekampen (4090 ft.), which commands an admirable view of the 
glaciers and peaks of the Jotunfjeld and other mountains. 

l l /i M. -j-Iiillehammer. — "Victoeia Hotel, well situated, near the 
bridge over the Messna ; 'Madame Okmseud, in the main street , on the 
lsft, a little farther on , whose son-in-law , Hr. Ingeni0r Lyng, is most 
intelligent and obliging; charges at both, R. l-l'/a, B- or S. l'/2, D. 2 kr. ; 

to Christiania. LILLEHAMMER. 15. Route. 141 

Hammer's pleasant hotel , lower down , near the church , was closed in 
1878. The steamboat-pier is fully 1 Engl. M. from the hotels ; omnibus 
to and from the pier gratis. — F. Frisenberg, on the E. side pf the main 
street, sells well-executed silver plate and trinkets at moderate prices; 
tastefully carved meerschaum-pipes, etc. at G. Lai-sen's, on the opposite 
side of the street. 

Diligence to Aak and Veblungsnws on Sundays at 7 a.m., Tuesdays 
at 6.30 a.m., and Fridays at 7 a.m. ; a journey of 3 days (spending two 
nights on the road ; fare 40 kr.). In the height of the season all the seats 
are sometimes engaged a week or a fortnight in advance (a telegram may 
be sent from Christiania) ; but early or late in the season there is less 
difficulty, and the diligence is then a pleasant and inexpensive conveyance 
for a party engaging all the four seats. — Over the Dovrefjeld to Steven 
on Wednesdays at 7 a.m. ; a journey of three long days (spending two 
nights on the way; fare 48 kr.). Same remark as above. — Omnibus to 
Gausdal Sanatorium, see above, — Carriage with pair of horses from 
Lillehammer to Aak or Veblungsnms (24 3 /s M.) 150-200 kr. ; to Steren 
(28'/4 M.) 200-250 kr., according to the demand. A Trille, or carriage 
without a hood, is cheaper. The journey may be performed in one of 
the following ways, a distinct bargain being made beforehand with the 
driver in each case, and the halting-places fixed. The same horses may 
be taken for the whole journey, in which case the pace is very moderate, 
and the journey to Aak or to St0ren takes 4-5 days or more; or horses 
may be changed at each station, in which case the whole journey to 
either of these places may be performed in 3 days. The charge is about 
the same for either plan. The driver expects a fee ('Drikkepenge') of 
5-6 kr. in each case. — The Carriole journey to Veblungsnoes, including 
fees to the post-boys ('Skydsgutter'), changing horses in the usual way, 
costs about 50 kr., to Sleren about 59 kr. — The last mode of travelling 
is the least expensive and most independent, and is specially recommended 
to Pedestrians, a party of whom may pleasantly vary their journey by 
driving on the more level and downhill stages, and walking on the others, 
on which last one cart (Stolkjcerre) will generally suffice for their luggage. 
The finest points in the Gudbrandsdal are Fossegaarden (with the Hun- 
derfos), the stage from Formo to Kirkestuen, Laurgaard and the ravine 
above it, and Dombaas; in the Komsdal the whole valley from Ormeim 
to Aak; on the Dovrefjeld Jerkin, the stage from Kongsvold to Drivstuen, 
and that from Austbjerg to Bjerkaker. The journey, if judiciously varied 
as suggested, will be found very enjoyable, especially from Dombaas 
either to Aak or to St/zrren, or in the reverse direction, and may in either 
case be accomplished in 4-7 days. 

Steamboat to Eidsvold in V-fa hrs., daily at 10 a.m. ; fare 5 kr. 

Lillehammer is beautifully situated on the Messna, on the 
E. bank of Lake Mjesen (comp. p. 36), about 150 ft. above the 
lake, and i/ 8 M. below the influx of the Lougen (Laug , Laag, or 
Log, i. e. 'river' ; Laagen, 'the river' ; Hhe Logen', though gene- 
rally used, is grammatically speaking , a pleonastic expression). 
The town (1560 inhab.), which presents a modern appearance, 
has enjoyed municipal privileges since 1827 only. It is called 
Lillehammer ('little hill') to distinguish it from Hamar or Stor 
Hamar. The principal building is the substantial and handsome 
Grammar School (Latinskole) , at the S. end of the main street, 
overlooking the church and the lake. A cotton-mill (managed by 
Hr. Ingenier Lyng), saw-mills, flour-mills , and a manufactory of 
agricultural implements add to the importance of the place. Lille- 
hammer is a pleasant point for a short stay, and being the terminus 
of the Mj»sen steamboats and the starting-point of the Gud- 

142 Route 15. LILLEHAMMER. 

brandsdal route , is a very busy place in summer and a great 
rallying - point for travellers. — The turbulent Messna forms 
several beautiful * Waterfalls (the Helvedeshel, or 'hell-cauldron', 
and others) about 1 / i M. to the N.E. of the town (1 hr. from the 
hotels there and back). Pleasant walk of i/ 2 nr - to the S., passing 
the Grammar School, to a bench on the road-side , commanding a 
tine view. To the E. of Lillehammer stretches a vast tract of for- 
est, wild and almost uninhabited. The Messna and the Messna 
Lakes, in a sequestered situation 1 M. to the E. (reached by a 
rough, and at places swampy forest-path), afford good trout-fishing. 
On the W. bank of Lake Mjesen, which is here less than y 8 M. 
in width, opposite Lillehammer (ferry adjoining the steamboat- 
pier), lies ■fOaarden Vingnms, a posting-station, prettily situated, 
from which f Diserud in the Gausdal (see above) is 7 / 8 M. distant. 
A good, but somewhat hilly road , with the stations f Grytestuen 
and fSveen, leads from Vingna^s to(3 3 /4M.) f Gjevik (p. 37), a plea- 
sant route, following the bank of the picturesque lake , but rarely 
frequented by travellers. The steamboat-trip from Lillehammer to 
Gjavik takes 2^2 hours. Thus far the lake is narrrow, and is 
bounded by picturesque and partially wooded hills of considerable 
height. Beyond Gjevik it expands, and the scenery, though still 
pleasing, becomes tamer. — Gjevik, and the routes thence to 
Christiania and through Valders to Lserdalstfren , see B. 4, ii, a. 

16. Routes from the Gudbrandsdal to the Jotunfjeld, 

and to the Sognefjord, Nordfjord, and Storfjord. 


Ekdsheim is reached by one of four different routes from the Gud- 
brandsdal: 1. Road from Storklevstad (p. 138) diverging between that sta- 
tion and Bredevangen, to Nordre Snerle 4'/s M. •, 2. Road from Bredevan- 
gen (p. 138), diverging between that station and Moen , to Nordre Snerle 
2 3 /8 M. ; 3, Road from Laurgaard (p. 137) direct to Nordre Snerle V/e M. 
From Nordre Snerle to R0dsheim 5 3 /s 11. more. 4. Bridle-path from Mel- 
men (p. 135) to Aanstad, about 5 M. (1-2 days) , and thence by road to 
Rtfdsheim 2 3 /4 M. (see below). Travellers from the S. are recommended to 
take the third of these routes , those from the N. the fourth. — From 
R0dsheim to the Sognefjord there are bridle-paths only, but part of the 
journey may be performed by road as far as Grjotlid. No time should 
be lost in reaching Stamstad or Lorn (though a digression may be made 
to the picturesque Oxe/os near Storvik) , but beyond that point ample 
time should be allowed for the enjoyment of the magnificent scenery. 
— As the roads are all somewhat rough and hilly , good walkers will 
probably prefer to perform the greater part of the journey on foot, hiring 
a Stolkjserre for luggage. ^ 

From Snerle, where the first three of the above-mentioned 
roads unite, the road follows the somewhat monotonous valley of 
the Otta to — 

3 /t M. fS«rum, or Serheim (*Inn, comfortable), Vs M. to the 
W. of which is the curious old church of Vaage or Soee. In the 

SJkTRUM. 16. Route. 143 

distance rises the snow -clad Lomsegg (p. 148). The road now 
follows the S. hank of a lake 4 M. in length, called the Vaage- 
vand as far as Stamstad, and the Ottavand farther on , passing a 
number of gaards , some of which are historically interesting. 
Storvik, one of these gaards, where tolerable quarters are obtain- 
able, about iy 8 M. from Serum, is prettily situated. Immediately 
above the lake rises the Skardhe (5340 ft.). The Thesse , which 
falls into the lake near this point, descends from the Thessevand, 
a lake abounding in fish, and on its way forms several tine cas- 
cades. The most picturesque of these is the *Oxefos, which may 
be reached without a guide in i 1 ^- 1 ^ hrs. by following the E. bank 
of the stream. — The scenery is fine all the way to R<edsheiru. 

2!/ 8 M. \Qardmo, the next station, also lies on the S. bank of 
the lake, beyond which the road runs more inland. 

1 M. fSendre Stamstad, or Andvord (*Station), lies near the 
influx of the Bmvra into the Vaagevand, which above this point 
is generally called the Ottavand. 

A view is obtained of the valleys of the Baevra and Otta, se- 
parated by the huge Lomsegg. By the bridge of Lorn the Baevra 
forms a waterfall, the milky colour of which indicates that it de- 
scends from glaciers. The alluvial deposits at the mouth of the 
stream have formed a considerable delta, which confines the Otta 
to the N. side of its valley. About l /t M. from Stamstad we 
reach the — 

*Church of Lorn (1290 ft.), one of the ancient Norwegian 
Stavekirker , built entirely of resinous pine - wood , and dating 
from the 13th or 14th century. The architectural forms recall the 
Byzantine style. The once open roof is now concealed by a flat 
ceiling, and there are other modern disfigurements. The Pulpit, 
with its sounding-board, and a silk Flag with a hand holding a 
sickle are noteworthy. Hr. Brodahl, the pastor, who often oblig- 
ingly shows the church himself, states that the flag was presented 
by a neighbouring farmer who introduced the system of irrigation 
many years ago. This must have been a great boon to the commu- 
nity, as rain is scarce in this district. — The curious dragons' 
heads on the outside of the church, the scale-like roof, the cen- 
tral tower, and the N. portal should also be noticed. The external 
woodwork is coated with tar, which has become as hard as stone. 
The restoration of the edifice is contemplated. — The churchyard 
contains interesting Tombstones of 'Klaebersten', or soapstone, in 
the form of crosses encircled with rings. — A Stabbur at the 
Praestegaard, or parsonage, is also worthy of inspection. — A fair 
held here annually in July is largely attended by the natives of 
the W. coast with their sturdy ponies. — The ascent of the Loms- 
egg from Lorn is not recommended. 

Beyond Lom the road continues to ascend the valley of the 
Otta, while our route here turns to the left. 

144 Route 16. R0DSHEIM. From Molmen 

The Road from Lom to R»dsheim ascends the narrow and at 
first 'well cultivated *Bavradal, with its brawling stream , a pic- 
turesque valley, especially when seen by morning light. One of 
the bridges is a curious old Norwegian structure, and another near 
Redsheim is also an object of interest. 'At one point called the 
*8taberg, where there is a mill, the ravine is extremely narrow, 
and huge blocks of rock have fallen into it from the hills above. 
Higher up, the valley expands ,but at the same time becomes stony 
and sterile. Great caution is necessary in driving, as the narrow 
road runs close to the bed of the stream at places. In the back- 
ground rise the *Oaldhe, which conceals the Galdhepig, and the 
*I)juvbrce, forming a most imposing mass of ice and snow. On the 
right we pass the Gaard Suleim, with a waterfall, and on the left 
the falls of the Olanma and the hamlet (Grand) of Glaamstad. 

\ x ji M. -j-Rflfdsheim (*Inn kept by Ole Halvorssen Redsheim, 
probably the best guide in Norway, a man of unassuming manners, 
but a good English scholar, and remarkably well informed on every 
subject in which travellers are interested). 

From M»lmen to R»dshbim (about 73/ 4 M.). Travellers from 
the Romsdal, desirous of visiting the Jotunfjeld, and of avoiding 
the long circuit by Dombaas and Laurgaard to Redsheim , are re- 
commended to walk or ride across the mountains by the bridle- 
path from Melmen (p. 135) to Aanstad or Skeaker (about 5 M.), 
and drive thence to Redsheim (2 3 / 4 M. more). The whole of this 
route may be accomplished in l 1 /^ - -^ days. A good walker may 
reach Aanstad in 16 hrs. (7 hrs. to the Nysseter, 2 hrs. rest, and 
7 hrs. more to Aanstad) ; but it is preferable to walk or ride to 
the Nysceter on the first day, and to Aanstad on the second, 
whence Redsheim may be reached in the evening. Guide from 
Melmen to Aanstad 12, horse 12 kr. (Sivert Paulssen of Lid, near 
Melmen, is recommended as a guide.) 

The route traverses a dreary mountain-tract, the wildness and 
solemnity of which may almost be described as awe-inspiring. 
Fine weather is of course indispensable to the enjoyment of the 
expedition, the chief attraction of which consists iu the distant 
views. Reindeer are occasionally met with. The route is quite 
unattended with danger, as the track is well defined by means of 
heaps of stones (Varder), to which it has for centuries been the 
custom for travellers to contribute. Provisions are necessary, as 
the Nysseter affords nothing but coffee , milk , and Remmegred 
(wheat-meal boiled in cream, very rich). 

1st Day. The path gradually ascends through a birch-wood in 
the Grmndal to the (1 hr.) Grenscetre (or sseters of Enstad and 
Melmen), where we obtain a view of the Romsdal mountains. On 
the opposite side of the Grena, to the left, is a small tarn (Kjenn, 
pr Tjern, the pronunciation of kj and tj being identical in Norway 

to Redsheim. NYSSETER. 76. Route. 145 

and Sweden). The path descends to the stream and crosses several 
brooks and deposits of detritus. Aconite and the dwarf birch 
(Betula nana) are frequently seen here, and the Alpine or Lapland 
character of the flora becomes more marked as we proceed. After 
2 hrs. more the path again ascends to the left. The birch dis- 
appears, and patches of snow are passed. Looking back, we ob- 
serve the Svarthei to the N. of Melmen, and the Storhei more to 
the right. The scenery soon becomes exceedingly bleak and wild. 
In 2 1 /2 hrs. more we reach the top of the first hill (Toppen), where 
we obtain a striking view of the Romsdal mountains to the N. W. : 
Mongejuret, Vengetinder, the Romsdalshorn (usually called 'Hor- 
net'). To the N.E. are the Svarthei and Storbai, and farther dis- 
tant the Snehsetta snow-range. To the S.W. rises the Lefthei with 
its large glacier, adjoined by an amphitheatre of black precipices 
and a broad expanse of snow. (This glacier is about 1 M. from the 
Nysseter, and should be reached thence in about 3 hrs., by follow- 
ing the course of the Lora; but no guides are to be had there, and 
in 1877 the sseter girls were even unaware of its existence.) 

From the first 'Top' a ride of 1 hr. to the S. over stony ground, 
scantily overgrown with reindeer-moss, chamois-cress , and other 
Lapp flora, brings us to the second Top called the *Digervarde, about 
5000 ft. in height, which commands a view of the whole Jotunheim 
chain, from the Glittertind to the Fanaraak and beyond it. The 
Galdherpig is particularly prominent. 

"We now descend in about 2 hrs. more, over loose stones part 
of the way, to the Nysseter, a building with four rooms , kept by 
civil herd-girls. (There is one bed which will accommodate two 
travellers. Alpine fare. Everything clean, though homely.) The 
girls call (lokken) the cattle down from the hills in the evening by 
singing 'Fjeldviser' similar to those with which Jenny Lind once 
delighted the world. 

2nd Day. By starting very early, we may reach Aanstad soon 
after noon. The monotonous track crosses the Lorafjeld, which it 
reaches in about an hour. It passes several tarns {Tjern, Kj&rn, 
or Kjenn) and the W. side of the larger Fillingsvand. The broad 
snow-clad mountain to the left is the Lomshorting. We cross the 
discharge of the Fillingsvand. Among the interesting mosses oc- 
curring here are the Rensdyrsmosse (which the cattle eat), the 
Komosse or Hvidkrelle, and the golden yellow Gulskin. The Be- 
tula nana covers the ground so densely at places as to form a kind 
of carpet. 

After a walk or ride of 3-4 hrs. from the Nysseter we reach the 
W. end of the Lomshorung, where a halt is usually made. To the 
"W. lies the *Aurs# , a fine sheet of water with a magnificent 
mountain background. The path next skirts the "W. slope of the 
Horung for 1 hr., commanding a view of the mountain range on 
theS. side of the Ottadal, including the Lomsegg and the Hestbrce- 

Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 10 

146 Route 16. AANDSTAD. From Molmen 

pigge (p. 148). About 2000 ft. below us lies the valley and its western 
ramification. This scene is admirably calculated to convey to the 
traveller an idea of the immense disproportion between the extent 
of the mountain wilds and that of the cultivated land in Norway. 

As we descend, the vegetation rapidly becomes richer (Lirmaea 
borealis abundant), and the temperature rises. On the slope to 
the right is the first saeter on this side of the route. The path 
descends to the Aura, the discharge of the Aurse, which forms a 
fine waterfall. Pines and afterwards birches re-appear. The first 
gaard on the slope of the valley is Bakke. Among those that follow, 
one on the left has a tastefully carved portal. The rye and barley- 
fields here are watered by hand with a kind of shovel (Skjelrak). 
In 1 hr. from the point of view above mentioned we reach the 
bottom of the valley. (The ascent in the reverse direction takes 
2 hrs.) The path crosses the greenish glacier-fed Otta by a long 
bridge, commanding a splendid view , and leads to the right to 
the (Y2 hr.) f Aanstad station. The station-master will some- 
times give the traveller horses to convey him direct to (2y 4 M.) 
Redsheim; if not, it is necessary to turn to the left by the (1 M.) 
Church of Lorn and drive to (Y4 M.) -j- Stamstad, return thence to 
the church, and ascend the Baevradal to Redsheim (2 3 /4 M. in all). 

Remarks on Sjeteb. Life. In connection with the above route a few 
remarks on sseters may not be unacceptable to the traveller. The sseter, 
or mountain chalet, consists of two rooms at least, one for the use of 
the inmates, and also for cooking purposes, with the Skorsten or fire-place 
(also called Arne or Orue) ; the other (Melketod) for dairy purposes. Over 
the fire hangs an iron pot or kettle by a chain, and adjacent there is 
usually a boiler built into the wall for the preparation of the cheese. 
The whey (Mijsa, Prim) is chiefly used for feeding pigs, and is often 
carried down to the valleys in drum-shaped tubs (Flasker, Krukker). The 
sseters formerly had no chimneys, the smoke being allowed to find its 
way out through an opening (Ljor) in the pyramidal shaped roof, which 
at the same time afforded light. The cows (Keer) , often accompanied 
by sheep (Sauer) and pigs (Svin), are usually sent up to the mountain 
pastures (til Sceters) on St. John's Day (24th June), and remain there till 
10th September. Women and girls, as a rule, are their sole attendants. 
In singing their picturesque cattle-call , the sseter girls usually address 
each cow by name (as Maieros, Helgeros, Lekros, Palmeros, Tairnros, the 
syllable ros being a term of endearment specially applied to cows; also 
Maan/rue, moon-lady; Krone, crown; Gulgave, gold-gift, etc.). The word 
Kuss is also used to call cows and calves ; Gisa is addressed to pigs, 
Vulling to sheep, Sku to dogs, and Faale to horses. Among the dogs at 
the Nysaeter were Faust, Passop , Vazgter , Barfod , Spring, Fret/a, and 
Baiaer. Among the dairy utensils may be mentioned the Melkering or 
Melkekolle (milk vessel), the Melkkak (skimmer), the Dal or Ember (pail), 
the Krak (milking stool), the Sil (milk-strainer, 'sile'), and the Vandsela 

RemsHEiM (1860 ft. ; pronounced Ressheim), the different routes 
to which from the E. we have just described, is the best starting- 
point for the ascent of the Galdh&pig, and lies at the junction of 
the Leirdal and the Visdal, the two valleys by which the mountain 
is bounded, and through which run two of the principal routes to 
the large mountain lakes on the N. boundary of the Valders dis- 

to Redsheim. GALDH0P1G. 16. Route. 147 

trict. The place is therefore often crowded in summer, especially 
with Norwegian students and pedestrians. 

The Ascent of the Galdh»pig may be accomplished from 
Redsheim in 8-9 hrs. (there and back, 14-16 hrs.). The expedition 
is unattended with difficulty , but the walk is very long and fati- 
guing, and the ground so stony, rough, and slippery at places that 
considerable caution must be used. Violent snow - storms fre- 
quently prevail on the summit while the weather is fine at the 
base of the mountain ; but such precautions are usually taken that 
no danger need be apprehended, especially in 'Pigveir' (i. e. 
'weather suitable for the peak'). Ole R»dsheim rarely now accom- 
panies travellers to the summit. The usual guides are Peder Jng- 
bretsen and Knud Olsen Vole (4 kr.). 

The traveller may ascend on the previous evening to the (2 hrs.) 
Raubergs-Sceter (erected in 1616 ; good beds, coffee, dried meat, 
etc.), and spend the night there, so as to diminish the fatigue of 
the actual ascent. Or he may drive early in the morning from 
Redsheim to Baverdals Kirke, and use the same horse for riding 
thence to Raubergs-Saeter and as far as the glacier, which is only 
2 hrs. from the top. — The writer was unable to get a horse, as 
Ole and his horses had crossed the Sognefjeld with a party of Eng- 
lish travellers, and the other horses were engaged in the harvest. 
The start from Redsheim was therefore made on foot at 5 a.m. ; fol- 
lowing the road for V2hr., we passed the cottage of the guide Peder 
Ingbrets»n at Mongjiel Bdegaard, and in i 1 / 2 hr. more stopped at 
the Raubergs-Sotter. Starting thence at 7.45, we reached the barren 
and stony summit of the Galdehei (5240 ft.), to the S.W. of the 
saeter, in 1 hr., whence a view of the G»ckerdal and the Gacker- 
axelen is obtained to the E. (The bridle-path, however, rounds this 
hill on the S. side.) About 10 we reached the Tverbra? and the Djuv- 
vand, a small glacier-lake, above which rise the amphitheatrical 
cliffs of Kjedelen (7300 ft.). We now for the first time obtained 
a view of the summit of the Galdhepig and the Sveilnaasi, its dark 
rocky spur, with the Keilhaustop and Sveilnaaspig, all rising like 
dark waves above the vast expanse of the snowy Styggebrm. Cross- 
ing a field of snow and a stony tract, we reached the Varde on the 
Styggebrae at 11.30, rested for half-an-hour, and took 1 hr. more 
to cross the glacier with its numerous crevasses. The worst part 
of the route now began. The route traversed loose stones and 
skirted a deep yawning abyss on the right and the Styggebrae with 
its wide crevasses on the left ; it then followed a showy arete, < the 
slipperiness of which made the precipices on each side appear 
doubly formidable. About 2 o'clock (9 hrs. from Redsheim, 7 hrs. 
from the Raubergs-Sseter) we reached the summit, marked by a 
lofty stone Varde 8400ft.) which affords some shelter, and gener- 
ally swept free from snow by the prevailing high winds. 

The **Galdhepig, or Qaldhetind (8400 ft.), is the highest 


148 Route 16. LOMSEGG. From Redsheim 

summit of the Ymesfjeld , a peculiar mountain-plateau, which is 
surrounded by the valleys of the Leira, "Visa, and Baevra , and 
connected with the other mountain-groups of Jotunheim (R. 17) 
by the Hegvaglen (p. 169) only. The slopes of the Ymesfjeld on 
every side are steep. Besides the Galdh»pig , there are few sum- 
mits rising above the general level of its snow and glacieT-clad 
surface. The Galdhepig, the top of which is almost always kept 
clear of snow by storms, is the loftiest mountain in NoTway (Mont 
Blanc 15,784 ft., Monte Rosa 15,217 ft., the Ortler 12,814 ft.). 
Some shelter is afforded by a high 'varde' of stones. 

The view from the summit is unobstructed in every direction. 
It embraces the almost equally lofty Glittertind (8384 ft.) and the 
Eondane to the E. ; the whole of the Jotunfjeld to the S. ; the 
Horunger, the Smorstabtinder, the Sognefjord, the Jostedalsbrse, 
and the Nordfjord mountain-chain to the W. ; and the Snehaetta 
group to the N. Most of these summits, especially the nearer ones, 
are pointed and pyramidal in shape, like the Swiss peaks, and do 
not present the usual flattened appearance of the Norwegian moun- 
tains. The scene somewhat resembles a vast ocean furrowed with 
enormous billows, or an Arctic landscape. No valleys are visible. 
The distant dark blue water of the Sognefjord alone recalls the 
existence of the nether inhabited world. 

The descent is made by the same route to the Raubergs-Saeter 
in 4 hrs., and to Rfldsheim in li/ 2 hr. more. 

Experienced mountaineers may proceed direct from the summit of 
the Galdhepig to Keilhaus Top and Sveilnaaspig , and descend by the 
SveilnaasorcG to the Spiterstul in the Visdal and thence proceed to Lake 
Gjendin (p. 170). The route, however, requires the utmost caution, all 
these 'Pigge 1 being covered with glacier-ice fissured with crevasses 
(Sprcecker). Hr. B. Mohn, a well-known explorer of the Jotunheim Mts., 
fell into a crevasse about 400 ft. below the summit of the Galdhepig on 
27th July, 1877, and narrowly escaped with his life. 

Re-dsheim is also the best starting-point for the ascent of the 
Lomsegg (6885 ft.), the summit of which is reached via Gaard 
Suleim in 5-6 hours. It commands an imposing view of the Glitter- 
tind and Galdhapig , and of the Smerstabpigge and Fanaraak to 
the W., which, however, seem a long way off. 

The best survey of the whole chain is obtained from the *Hest- 
brapigge (6095 ft.), which may be described as the 'Faulhorn' of 
Jotunheim. Riding is practicable for part of the way. The two 
peaks of that name rise on the other side of the valley, to the N.W. 

A very interesting walk of 1-2 hrs. may be taken from Reds- 
heim to Glaamstad, on the right bank of the Baevra, situated ob- 
liquely above Gaard Suleim. "We follow the Lorn road and (10 
min.) cross the Baevra. A rocky *Hill here commands a fine view 
of Redsheim and the Galdheer. A pleasant meadow-path then leads 
to the left through a plantation of alders to (20 min.) the right 
side of the valley and to Glaamstad, a group of farms by the side 
of which the Glaama descends in four falls. "We may then ascend 

to Skjolden. SOGNEFJORD. 16. Route. 149 

by the broad track on the left bank of the Glaama in 20 min. more 
to Gaard Engeim on the hill above. 

Close to R»dsheim, by the upper bridge across the Bsevra, are 
numerous *Jcettegryder , or water - worn ' giant cauldrons ', the 
largest of which, of an irregular oval shape, is about 10 ft. in dia- 
mater. The stones they contain have been lodged there by inun- 
dations subsequent to the period when the hollows were formed. 

From l!0dsheiiu through the Visdal or the Leirdal to Lake Qjendin, 
see pp. 171-167. 

From Rbdsheim over the Sognefjeld to Skjolden (l 1 /^ days ; 
guide and horse 16 kr.). Our route leads to ( 3 / 4 hr.J Baverdals 
Kirke, where the pastor of Loin performs divine service once 
monthly. On the opposite side of the valley is Bakkeberg, with 
large farm-buildings amid smiling corn-fields. The road ascends 
steeply through the grand gorge of *Rusten ('wooded hill') or 
Qaden, with its overhanging rocks , below one of which are the 
remains of a smithy. Above lies a gaard. Farther on, Y2 nr> from 
the church, we come to a moor, once the bed of a lake, where the 
road terminates. Comp. Map, p. 40. 

Bridle-Path to Fortun. The path which we now follow soon 
divides. The route formerly most frequented follows the course 
of the Baevra, passing the Rusten, Netto, and Preste saeters (good 
accommodation), to the Heidalsvand, whence the stream issues in 
the form of a fine waterfall called the Heifos. The other and pre- 
ferable route soon quits the Baeverdal and ascends the Leirdal 
(p. 177), following the right (E.) bank of the Leira, at the foot 
of the huge slopes of the Galdheer and the Djuvbra. We therefore 
avoid the first bridge to the right, and cross the Leira by the sec- 
ond bridge , following the left (W ) bank of the stream, and pass- 
ing Storlien. Farther on we observe a grand *6orge, through which, 
however, our route does not lead. On the left descends the Ilfos, 
and facing us is the vast Veslefjeld (6065 ft.) , with its extensive 
glaciers ; nearer, on the left, is the Dumhe with the lofty fall of 
the Dumma , below which lie the Ytterdals-Satre (see p. 177). — 
The path next ascends the Baverkjarn-Hals (351i> ft. ; 'Hals', as 
in Icelandic, 'a pass') and quits the Leirdal. The Qjendin Route 
(p. 177) turns to the left here, descends to the stream, crosses it, 
and leads past the Ytterdals-Saetre. 

The Sognefjeld Route leads to the N.W. across the 'Hals', 
and soon quits the region of birches. At the Varde it turns to the 
right, and next reaches the Bceverkjcern-Sater (remarkably clean), 
below which, to the left, are several tarns (Kjarn or Tjern). The 
Haandklcedekasse ('towel chest'), the carved folding-table (with a 
ruffled hand dating from 1768), and the dairy should be noticed. 
— Farther on we observe the Heivand with the Heifos, which the 
above-mentioned path leading through the Baeverdal passes, and 

150 Route 16. B^EVERTUNS^ETER. From Redsheim. 

descend to the Bceverkjcem, which with its numerous promontories 
and islands resembles a miniature fjord. We cross the stream 
flowing out of this lake by a dilapidated bridge, and follow the N. 
bank of the lake with its milky-looking water, which reflects the 
Veslefjeld and is fed by several lofty waterfalls. On the S. bank, 
near the W. end, lies the Rustesater (not to be confounded with 
that above mentioned). To the W. of the Baeverkjaern is the con- 
tiguous Tlavertunvand, which the path skirts, often at a dizzy 
height above it. To the W. of this lake rises the Sognefjeld. The 
whole scene here is one of striking grandeur. At the W. end 
of the Baevertunvand we at length reach the — 

Bsevertunsseter (3075 ft.; 6 hrs. from R»dsheim ; one good 
room with two beds, in which four persons can sleep if necessary, 
40 0. each ; Alpine fare, for which payment may be made accord- 
ing to discretion). To this establishment belong 24 cows with 
their calves, 200 sheep, and 11 pigs. The sheep wander over the 
mountains in summer without shepherds (Vogter), but the cows, 
summoned by the cattle-calls already mentioned, come down to 
the saeter in the evening. The pigs generally remain near the 
building. As in the Alpine chalets , the milk is manufactured 
here into cheese and butteT. The whey (Mysa) is carried down to 
the valley in drum-shaped Myseflasker (called Primstrumper in 
the Hardanger), slung over the backs of horses. The cords used 
here are made of twisted willows, and the horses are tethered in 
an ingenious manner. The sledges and carts are made of wood, 
frequently without the aid of a particle of iron. The girls 
will sometimes sing their untutored but not unmelodious songs 
by the fireside of an evening, a performance for which of course 
no payment is expected or ought to be offered. ■ — As the next 
human habitations, the Turtegred and Ojessingen saeters, are 7-9 
hrs. walk from the Baevertun Saeter, an early start should be made. 
The route leads for l 3 / 4 hr. through the somewhat monotonous 
valley of the Baevra, until it reaches the Nupshaug, a curious rocky 
knoll in the middle of the valley. Adjoining it is a fall of the 
Baevra; to the left are two other waterfalls, all of which unite here. 
We now ascend to a higher region of the valley and obtain a view 
of the enormous *Sm«rstabbr8e , one of the most extensive gla- 
ciers in Norway, a perfect sea of snow and ice, overtopped by the 
Smerstabpigge , the ascent of which may be made from the saeter 
(10-12 hrs., there and back) without material difficulty. The ser- 
vices of Ole Redsheim should, if possible, be secured. The Baevra 
issues from the glacier, at the end of which there is a magnificent 
ice-cavern (digression of ^hr.).— - In3/ 4 hr. more we come to a stone 
Varde surmounted by a wooden figure, bearing the inscription : — 

'Veer rask som en L0ve, Og skynd dig som en Hind ! 

See Veiret det gryner i Fanaraak Tind !' 
'Be quick as a Hon, haste thee like a hind; see how the storms lower 
over the Fanaraak Peak P 

to Skjolden. OSCARSHOUG. 16. Route. 151 

In Y2 h r - we now reach the actual Fjeld , and in 1 / l hr. more 
the Fantestener , wheie a tramp (Fant) is said to have been shot 
'more than a century ago' (the date usually assigned in Norway to 
remote events). Adjacent is a small lake with patches of snow. 
Grand view hence of the Smerstabbrse , and of the Fanaraak (about 
7200 ft), farther to the W., from which other glaciers descend. — 
We soon reach the highest point of an extensive mountain-tract, 
and cross the boundary of Bergen -Stift (4630 ft.). To the left we 
observe the Rauskjeldvand, and afterwards the Prestesteinvand, 
into which the Fanaraakbrce immediately descends. Several hours 
are next spent in passing this almost contiguous series of lakes 
and glaciers. The route is marked at frequent intervals by means 
of Varder, so that an observant and experienced traveller may al- 
most dispense with a guide. Should fog set in, one Varde should 
not be quitted until another is descried. Failure to observe this 
precaution might easily cost the wayfarer his life. 

At a curious looking Varde called the 'Kammerherre', consist- 
ing of a tall mass of rock with a pointed stone on the top, it is 
usual to rest. The route soon descends steeply to the Herrevand, 
the stream flowing out of which we cross by the Hervasbrui (Briti, 
bridge), about 5 hrs. from the Bseverturnsaeter, and halfway to For- 
tun. The route next rounds the projecting buttress of the Fa- 
naraak and passes the Oaljebergvand , and afterwards the Djuv- 
vand, fed by the glacier stream Djuvvandsaa. On our left now 
rises the W. side of the Fanaraak , and we soon survey the whole 
range of the HorHnger (p. 181) rising beyond the deep Helgedal, 
the best point of view being the **Osearshoug (3730 ft.), a slight 
eminence to the left of the path. The Horunger embrace three 
groups, the first consisting of the Styggedalstinder and Skagastels- 
tinder; the Dyrhougstinder form the second, and the Riingstind, 
Soleitind, and Austabottind the third. From the Oscarshoug, which 
may be termed the 'Wengernalp' of Norway, part of the dark 
green Sognefjord is visible near Skjolden. 

The route now descends rapidly. The first saeter is that of Tur- 
tegr«d (2780 ft. ; preferable to Ojessingen which lies a little below 
it), to reach which we diverge to the right. This saeter affords Al- 
pine fare, but is not recommended as quarters for the night. It is 
occupied in summer by a family with numerous children , and is 
far from clean. The traveller will also be struck with the vivacity 
of the natives of Bergen-Stift, which presents a marked contrast 
to the calm and placid disposition of those of the Gudbrandsdal. 

The ascent of the Fanaraak (about 7200 ft.), which is free from diffi- 
culty, has of late been sometimes made from the sseters (or Slel) of Turte- 
greid and Ojessingen (8-10 hrs., there and back). — From Fortun to the 
Horunger and Dyrhougstind. see p. 181. 

FTom Turtegred or Gjessingen to Fortun is a walk of about 
2V2 hrs. more (ascent 3-4 hrs.). The path is good, but extremely 
steep, and unpleasant for riding. The river forms a series of re- 

152 Route 17. FORTUN. 

markably fine falls , the chief of which are the Dokkafos and the 
Simogalfos. Below us lies a picturesque smiling landscape, while 
behind us tower the wild and majestic Horunger with their per- 
petual snow-mantle, presenting a very striking contrast. We pasB 
the pleasant gaards of Optun (1350 ft.), Sevde, and Berge (1085 ft.), 
situated amidst corn-fields and orchards. A few paces beyond 
Berge we suddenly obtain a survey of the beautiful Fortundal, 
about 600 ft. below. The path descends the famous Fortungalder 
in zigzags to the hamlet of -j-Fortun, with its handsome gaards 
and ancient timber-built church. (^Station at the Landhandler's.) 

The *Fortundal, a deep and narrow valley, somewhat resembling 
that of Lauterbrunnen, but with a well-cultivated floor and wooded 
slopes, extends from the Lysierfjord{& branch of the Sognefjord, p. 
54), for about 2 M. to the N., as far as the glacier-mountains near 
the Tvcerdalskirke and the Tundradalskirke (Tunduri, 'mountain', 
a Finnish word). — Travellers from the Sognefjord to Fortun, who 
do not intend crossing the Fjeld, should endeavour to extend 
their journey as far as the Oscarshoug, mentioned above, a most 
interesting walk or ride of 6-7 hrs. (there and back), or at least 
as far as the gaards of Berge, Sevde, and Optun, and some of the 
waterfalls higher up (3-4 hrs. there and back). Travellers intend- 
ing to walk across the iSognefjeld may save themselves some fatigue 
by riding as far as the Oscarshoug. — Pleasant walk from the 
inn at Fortun up the valley to the *Oorge on the right, from which 
the Helgedalselv is precipitated into the Fortundal (}/i hr.). 
Crossing both bridges, we reach an eminence immediately above 
the fall , in which a tine rainbow is formed by the morning sun. 
We may then proceed in 5 min. more to a bridge over the Fortun- 
dalselv and (without crossing the bridge) to a small rocky *Hill by 
the Havshelfos (whence a rude ladder descends to the salmon- 
lishing apparatus), and thus obtain a view of the beautiful valley 
in both directions, and of the lofty Lingsfos to the S. — An even 
iiner prospect is commanded by the Church Hill to the S. of the 
inn (450 ft. above the fjord). 

The birches and alders here, as is so often the case in Norway, 
are sadly mutilated, being periodically stripped of their foliage 
which is used, alternately with hay, as fodder for the sheep and 
goats. The cows also eat it readily, but their milk is apt to be 
unpleasantly flavoured by it. The barley-fields are remarkably 
luxuriant. The potato-plant often attains a height of 2 ft. or more. 

From Fortun to Skjolden (3/ 4 M.). The route is by a bridle- 
path for about y 4 M. (i/ 2 hr.), beyond which there is a good car- 
riage-road. Beyond the church hill we pass the village of Fortun, 
and a little farther on we observe Guard Fuglesteg ('bird path') at 
a dizzy height above us (past which a fatiguing path leads to 
Furnces at the E. end of the Aardalsvand in the Aardal; see p. 53). 
We next pass the Kvcefos, descending from the height on the left, 

SKJOLDEN. 26. Route. 153 

and then, beyond the Smalaberg, which overhangs the path and 
the stream, the Lingsfos, mentioned above. We soon reach the 
*Eidsvand, into which the Fortundalselv falls; on the N. side of 
the lake rises the huge rocky wall of the Jersingnaasi (3088 ft.). 
From the end of the lake, whence a view of the Fanaraak is ob- 
tained, the road crosses the Eid, an old moraine, on which Gaard 
Eide now stands, and descends to the Lysterfjord. A ferry-boat 
(rowed by the quaint old 'Fsergemand', Ole Halvorsen Eide) finally 
conveys us across the fjord, past the mouth of the rapid Fortunelv, 
where numerous salmon-nets are laid, to Skjolden {^Station at the 
first gaard, fast for boats, slow for horses), a steamboat-station at 
the head of the Lysterfjord (p. 56 j steamer to LcErdalseren at 
present on Mondays at 3 p.m. and. Thursdays at 1 p.m.). The 
moraine at the back of the gaards commands a fine view of the 
Eidsvand and the Fortundal, and of the narrow Merkrisdal to the 
N., a valley parallel with the Fortundal, and extending for 2 M. 
as far as the Tvardalskirken Fjeld (6885 ft.), an almost unknown 
region lying between Bergens-Stift and the Gudbrandsdal district. 
At the mouth of the Merkrisdal there are also large moraines occu- 
pied by gaards. — From Desen, about i l / t M. lower down the 
fjord , there are three steamers weekly to Lardalseren (one on Sa- 
turdays at 7 a.m., besides the two mentioned above). From Desen 
to the Jostedal, see pp. 56, 54. 

B. To Merok on thb Geiranger Fjord. 

Besides the more frequented routes over the Sognefjeld already de- 
scribed, several others cross to the western fjords; but they are all fatig- 
uing, involving a walk or ride of 12-14 hrs. over extremely bleak moun- 
tain wildernesses. The scenery, however, is very imposing at places and 
the journey is unattended with danger. The usual charge for a horse 
and guide for the mountain route is 8-12 kr. (provisions necessary). 

A peculiarity of all these routes is that they ascend gradually from 
the Gudbrandsdal to a lofty and comparatively level mountainous tract, 
after traversing which for some hours they descend abruptly several 
thousand feet to the western fjords. This final descent, partly over snow, 
coming at the end of a long and rough walk or ride , is far more fatig- 
uing than the ascent at the beginning of the expedition. Few of the routes 
actually cross glaciers, but they all lead past enormous deposits of snow 
and ice. The marked contrast between the wild scenery of these moun- 
tains, with their sharp and exhilarating air, and the rich vegetation of 
the smiling fjords, where the weather is often oppressively hot, may be 
regarded as one of the chief curiosities of Norway, especially as these 
entirely different regions are often within two or three hours' walk of 
each other. The contrast would, indeed, be hardly more striking were 
the Lake of Como transferred to the heart of the wildest snow and gla- 
cier scenery of Switzerland. — All these routes radiate westwards from 
the Lindsheim station, or rather from Aamot, 1 /^M. above Lindsheim (p. 
155). The following are the most important: — 

(1). The southernmost leads through the Brotedal, past the Liavand, 
to Faaberg in the Jostedal. This route is described by Mr. Milford in 
his 'Norway' as one of surpassing grandeur, the view of the Jostedal and 
of the huge towering Lodalskaupe being almost unparalleled. If the trav- 
eller is prepared for a very fatiguing expedition of 15 hrs. (on the second 
day), he drives from Lindsheim to Mark, walks or rides by the Dyrings- 

154 Route 16. AANSTAD. 

Salter and past the picturesque Liavand to the Sota Sailer (2470 ft.), and 
thence to the Rekjeskaalvand (30T0 ft.), where the night may he spent at 
the Musubyttsceter . Next day the Svartbyldal is ascended to the Hcmspikje 
(4519 ft.), whence the route descends steeply through the Sprengdal to 
the Jostedal. In the latter valley tolerable quarters may he obtained at 
the Faabergs-Stel (p. 55). 

(2). Two others lead to Opstryen on the Nordfjord. That formerly 
used leads from Mjzrrk over the Dyringshe to the Framrust-Saiter ; thence 
past the long Raudalsvand and up the Nordfjordbrce to the Kamphamre 
(4270 ft.), from which there is a tremendous descent of extraordinary ab- 
ruptness info the Sundal (967 ft.); finally through the Gjelledal to Visnces 
on 1he Nordfjord (see p. 125). — The New Route from Grjotlid to Op- 
stryen, see p. 156. 

(3). Another leads to Merok on the Geiranger Fjord. Now that the 
new road to Grjotlid is completed , this is the most frequented route 
across the Sognefjeld. It leads direct to the magnificent scenery of the 
Geiranger Fjord, probably the grandest fjord in Norway. At Stavbrekkene 
(p. 157), about halfway across the mountains, there is a hut where the 
night may be spent. The glacier scenery on the last half of the route 
and the descent to the Geiranger Fjord are strikingly impressive and pic- 
turesque. This route, being the most important of the series, is the only 
one which need be described i detail (see below). 

(4). A route to the Tafjord , an arm of the Storfjord (p. 128). The 
route from Grjotlid through the Kalurdal to the Tafjord is very rarely 
traversed by tourists, being inferior to the last-mentioned. 

From the Gudbrandsdal to the Geiranger Fjord. Route 
to Stamstad and the Church of Lom, see p. 143. By the Church 
of Lom the Redsheim road turns to the left, while our route 
leads to the W., passing the Ottavand. The high mountain on 
the left is the Lomsegg (p. 148), and that to the N. the Loms 
Honing (5650 ft.). The country here is tolerahly well peopled. On 
the slopes of the valley lie a number of farm-houses, the lands of 
which are separated from each other by long stone walls (whence 
they are called Skidgaarde), and the rye and barley-fields are fre- 
quently enlivened with reapers and gleaners. Part of the road is 
bordered with alders, a tree rarely seen in Norway. 

l 1 / i M. fAamtad, a good station, to the E. of the church of 
Skeaker (see p. 146). Farther on, the road traverses thick deposits 
of sand, the remains of old glacier-moraines. On the right we 
pass the confluence of the Aurelv , descending from the Aurse (p. 
146), with the bluish-green Ottaelv, which the road soon crosses. 
On the left we obtain a view into the Lunderdal, with its immense 
moraines; to the left rise the glacier-clad Hestbrapigge (p. 148), 
and in the background the Holatinder ; on the right the valley is 
bounded by the Grjotaafjeld, the Tvcerfjeld, and the Svaalie , of 
which the two first are upwards of 6350 ft. in height. 

A little farther on, we pass the ruins of a bridge. From the 
Svaahe (M10 ft.) descend several waterfalls from a height of nearly 
3000 ft., besides a number of avalanche-tracks. The mountains 
are somewhat monotonous, but of imposing dimensions. The Otta 
is crossed by a bridge in the old Norwegian style. Up the valley 

LINDSHEIM. 16. Route. 155 

we obtain a fine view of the anew -clad Olitterhe. The river ex- 
pands into the form of a lake, on which there are several boats. 

1 M. jLindsheim, a good station. Lars, the landloid , a well 
informed man, sometimes acts as a guide. His father Peder Olsen 
now lives with him as 'Federsmand' (retired proprietor). Taste- 
fully painted clock and cupboard. ('Skrivarbred' and 'Bagers' are 
two kinds of cake esteemed by the natives.) 

A good road leads from Lindsheim to Merk in the Brotedal, whence 
a bridle-path crosses the mountains to the Jostedal, and another leads 
by the Frarnrust-Swter to Opslryen (see above). 

From Lindsheim to (3 M.) Grjotlid the traveller is conveyed 
in a stolkjserre, which is required by the authorities to have broad 
wheels. As long as the road remains in the valley of the Otta, it 
is of the ordinary width, but afterwards becomes so narrow that 
two vehicles cannot pass each other. It was constructed and is 
kept up by government. For the greater part of the way it leads 
through a vast wooded and stony wilderness , but is useful to 
the proprietors of the sseters on the neighbouring hills, whose 
traffic it facilitates, and even to the inhabitants of the Upper 
Gudbrandsdal, who find it cheaper to bring some of the necessa- 
ries of life over the mountains on horseback from the western 
fjords than from Lillehammer in carts. — In the summer of 1878 
the writer met a government engineer at Grjotlid who was engaged 
in planning a continuation of the road to Merok or to Opstryen. 

After leaving Lindsheim the road passes the Nordbjergskirke, 
erected in 1864. Above the thin pine -woods we observe the 
Ojedingsbcek, which descends from the Heibjerg. — The Demnfos 
Bridge which crosses the Otta commands a view of three valleys, 
the Tundradal to the S., the Brotedal to the W., and the Billingsdal 
to the N., at the junction of which lies Aamot ('meeting of the 
streams'). — Beyond this point the road begins to ascend consider- 
ably, and traverses a vast tract of rocky debris ( Vr). On the left 
flows the Otta, which descends from the Hegerbotten Vand and 
forms the 0ibergsfos. Looking back, we obtain a view of lofty 
mountains with glaciers, including the Tvarfjeld and Bjermskred. 
The Hegerbotten Vand, with its wooded islands, occupies a 
higher region of the valley. In the background is the Skridulaupbrcp, 
with the Glitterhe and the Framrusthovd, and to the right, on the 
hill , lie the Hegerbotten Scetre (3040 ft.). Passing a saw-mill 
(Sagbrug), we next reach the Frederiksvand and Polvand (1930ft.). 
The road now ascends continuously through wild forest, where 
thousands of fallen trees and branches broken off by the wind 
(Vindbrud) are left to decay. This scenery will often recall the 
interesting pictures of Hr. Cappelen, the Norwegian artist. The 
Toad skirts for nearly i/ 4 M. an unbroken series of cataracts formed 
by the Otta, forming the Polfos ('Kjakke Fosse'). At Tare intervals 
the traveller meets with 'Saeterfolk' bringing their way in 'Myse- 
flasker' down from the mountains. — Farther on we pass a water- 

156 Route 16. GRJOTLID. From Lindsheim 

fall on the right, and then by a wooden bridge cross the Thordalsfos, 
an imposing waterfall descending from the Thordal on the N., and 
fed by the glaciers and snow at the head of that valley. On hills 
formed by deposits of debris, to the right, lie the saeters of Billinyen, 
to the S. of which, on the opposite side of the Otta, is the Aasen- 
sceter. A number of the pines in this neighbourhood are curiously 
shaped. The scenery presents no great attraction, but a peculiarity 
of the climate here is that rain is very rare in summer. The large 
glacier-streams Otta and ThoTdalselv flow through a dry and barren 
wilderness. To the right, farther on, we observe the Nysater, and 
we next pass the Vuluvand (2685 ft.), a pretty mountain-lake, 
into which the Vuludalselv falls. The road is now comparatively 
level. On both sides and in the distance rise snow-clad mountains. 
On the left is the Skridulaup-Brce, with its ice-basin ( l Botri). 
"We then pass the Heimdalsvand and Orjotlidsvand , and after a 
drive of fully 3 M. from Lindsheim, at length reach — 

Grjotlid ('stony slope'), a Fjeldstue or small mountain-inn 
belonging to the government, and containing two double beds. Ex- 
cellent trout (Fjelderreter) are generally to be had, but otherwise 
the fare is simple. The occupants own several horses , a dozen 
cows, and about 225 goats. The various processes of cheese-making 
may be conveniently seen here. The favourite Norwegian Gammel- 
Ost (literally 'old cheese', dark-brown in colour, and with a pecu- 
liar sweet taste) takes nine months to mature. The departure of 
the flock for the pastures in the morning and their return in the 
evening, accompanied by the singing of the girls who tend them, 
is a very picturesque sight. Reindeer and bears abound in the 
neighbourhood. The latter are epicures in their way, carrying off 
pigs when they can capture them, but despising goats' flesh. 

From Grjotlid to Opstryn (8-10 Tits.). This is the newer and more 
frequented of the routes above mentioned from the Gudbrandsdal to the 
Nordfjord, hut is less interesting than the route to Merok. It turns at 
once to the S.W. to the Heilstuguvand, passes the base of the Skridu- 
laupbrw which lies to the S. , and leads through the Vatsenddal and 
across the boundary of Bergens Stift into the Ojelledal. Rowing from 
the E. to the W. end of the Opstryns-Vand , we then reach the fcikyds- 
station, whence we drive to Tanning and Visnces, on the Nordfjord (p. 
125). A steamer usually leaves Visnses for Bergen about six times monthly 
(a vovage of 31-49 hrs.) ; or the traveller may row to Faleide and proceed 
thence to the N. , or to Udvik and thence to Ferde (steamer to Bergen 
once weekly) or to Vadheim (three or four steamers weekly). Comp. R. 14. 

From Grjotlid to Mkuok (10-12 hrs. ; horse and guide 8-10 kr., 
and fee). This grand and interesting mountain-route is rough and 
fatiguing, and justly described by the natives themselves as Hung 
Vei'. Walking is on the whole preferable to riding, but the pedes- 
trian must wade through the Hamsa, a rapid stream of considerable 
size which falls into the Breidalsvand. The scenery is somewhat 
monotonous as far as the huge Upledsegg, a conspicuous object 
towards the \V\, but not without attraction. The Vatsendegg to the 
S. is reflected in the clear waters of the Breidalsvand. The flora 

to Merok. STAVBKEKKENE. 16. Route. 157 

is of an Alpine character. Save the rare flight of a few 'ryper' or 
a 'stenjerp' by the wayside, hardly a sign of life is to be seen in 
these mountain solitudes. The only sound that meets the ear is 
the constant rushing of the numerous brooks which fall into the 
Breidalsvand. This lake, about 1/4 M. in length, like so many 
others among the Norwegian mountains, is one of a series of lakes 
extending into the higher mountains, each of which is a little 
higher than the one below it. All those above the Breidalsvand 
are called Djupvande, the highest of which, at the base of the 
snow-clad Upberdsegg, lies at the beginning of the fine scenery of 
the route, which is perhaps unsurpassed in Norway except by that 
of the Lyngenfjord in Finmarken. 

Beyond Grjotlid trees disappear entirely from the landscape. 
After 1 hr. a large valley diverges to the N.W., through which a 
path leads to the Kalurdal and the Tafjord (see p. 154). We cross 
the Kjarringselv, then the Skomagerelv (in which a shoemaker is 
said once to have been drowned), and afterwards the Hamsaelv. 
A walk or ride of 2y 2 -3 hrs. brings us to the W. end of the Brei- 
dalsvand, which pedestrians are recommended to traverse by boat 
(with one rower in addition to the guide). The path next runs at 
a considerable height above the Djupvande. The Upledsegg, which 
becomes grander as we advance, rises in the form of a huge wall of 
rock on the S. side of the highest (the third) Djupvand, with a flat 
summit, presenting the appearance of having been sharply cut off, 
and is covered with a snowy mantle (Laken), offshoots from which 
descend to the green lake. Avalanches fall into the water at very 
frequent intervals. On the N. side rises Breidalseggen, with its 
snow-fields and rocky wildernesses (Vr), which our dizzy path 
now traverses. The desolate character of the scene is occasionally 
relieved by clusters of beautiful Alpine flowers and a few butter- 
flies. At the W. end of this tract is a small Fjeldstue, which has 
been erected by government, the woman (Jente) presiding over 
which supplies coffee (V2-1 ^ r - ; not a suitable place for spending 
the night , and far from clean). This hut near Stavbrekkene is 
reached from Grjotlid in 5-7 hrs., and Merok in 4-6 hrs. more. 
The Jente also has charge of 100 sheep, 50 goats, and a couple of 
pigs, which spend the night in the open air. 

We now ascend in 20 min. to *Stavbrekkene (Stav, 'stratum', 
'layer'; Brek, 'cliff'), with the highest Djupvand, from which the 
Djupvandsfos descends. To the "W. tower huge walls of rock, beyond 
which is the ice-fall of the Nordfjordbrce, a glacier virtually un- 
known, with the Bindalshorn forming its centre. There is now no 
distinct path, but our route leads round the E. side of the lake for 
1 hr., crossing numerous torrents and waterfalls. Large masses of 
ice, which have become detached from the glacier, are seen floating 
in the green lake. Travellers liable to dizziness will feel a little 
uncomfortable here, but the route is unattended with danger. — 

158 Route 16. MEROK. 

At the N. end of the lake we ascend for about 20 min. more, over 
rocks worn smooth and almost polished by glacier-friction, and at 
length reach the culminating point of the pass (about 3500 ft. 
above the sea-level), the watershed between the Gudbrandsdal and 
the western fjords, where we obtaina stupendous **View of the finely 
shaped mountains around the Geiranger Fjord , which itself be- 
comes visible a little farther on. The configuration of the rocks 
here is ribbed or wave-like, with deposits of snow and pools of 
water lying in the hollows, and has most probably given rise to the 
name (see above). 

The direction of the path is now indicated by small and hardly 
noticeable heaps of stones (Vnrder); the descent is extremely 
steep, and this is perhaps the most unpleasant part of the whole 
route. At the head, of the Geiranger valley we observe two large 
waterfalls descending from a lofty cliff, which afterwards unite to 
form a single fall. We soon reach the Oplcendske Dal, the highest 
basin of the valley, once filled by a lake, and bounded on the E. 
by the Holenabba , rising above it like a wall. In this basin lies 
a large and thriving gaard (1365 ft.), beyond which the route, 
now a kind of cart-track, again descends very steeply. Fine water- 
falls are seen in every direction, and several other gaards are passed. 
Below us lies the fjord with the small church 200 ft. above it; on 
the height opposite, to the N., lies the gaard of Vesteraas. ■ — At 
length, in 3-4 hrs. from the summit of the pass, we reach ■ — 

Merok (Inn of Martinus Merok, very fair), on the Geiranger 
Fjord, nestling at the foot of rocks, and surrounded with rich 
vegetation. View of the fjord picturesque, but limited. Numerous 
Nest, or 'boat-houses'. — Comp. p. 128. 

17. Jotunheim. 

The greater part of Norway, as has been repeatedly mentioned, 
consists mainly of a vast table-land, descending abruptly at the 
margins , rising occasionally into rounded summits , and rarely 
intersected by valleys. In marked contrast, however, to this un- 
picturesque formation , that of several districts presents the 
'Alpine' characteristic of well-defined mountain-ranges furrowed 
with frequent valleys. The most important of these districts are 
the Lyngenfjord in Tromsa Amt (p. 236) and the region bounded 
by the Sognefjord on the W., and the plateaux of Valders and the 
Gudbrandsdal on the S. and N.E. respectively. The latter was 
explored for the first time by Keilhau in 1820 and named by him 
Jotunfjeldene, or the 'Giant Mountains', but is now generally 
known as Jotunheim, a name given to it by subsequent 'Jotuno- 
logists' (chiefly Norwegian Students) as a reminiscence of the 'frost 
giant' in the Edda. 

The mountain-peaks of Jotunheim (called Tinder, Pigger, 

JOTUNHEIM. 17. Route. 159 

Hornet, and Nabber, while the rounded summits are named Heer) 
are all over 5900 ft., several are upwards of 6550, while the 
Oaldhepig (p. 147) and the Olittertind (p. 170) exceed 8200 ft. in 
height. The high Alps are much loftier (Mont Blanc, 15,784 ft.), 
but are generally surpassed by the Jotunheim 'mountains in ab- 
ruptness. The plateaux extending between the lofty peaks are 
almost entirely covered with snow, the snow-line here being about 
5580 ft. (in Switzerland 8850 ft.). Huge glaciers (Brceer , the 
smaller being called Jelcler) descend from these masses of snow, 
but without penetrating into the lower valleys as they do in 
Switzerland. The mountain-basins which occur here frequently, 
enclosed by precipitous sides rising to 1600 ft. or more, are known 
as Botner. A peculiarity of the valleys , which with a few ex- 
ceptinos, lie upwards of 3300 ft. above the sea-level (i. e. higher 
than the forest-zone), is that they rarely terminate in a pass, but 
intersect the whole mountain , gradually rising on each side to a 
'Band' or series of lakes where no distinct culminating point is 
observable. The interest of the scenery of Jotunheim is greatly 
enhanced by its three imposing lakes. 

The Norwegian Turist-Forening, which began its operations in 
1868, has rendered invaluable service to travellers by the con- 
struction of paths, bridges, and refuge-huts, and by the appoint- 
ment of competent guides. Several private individuals have fol- 
lowed their good example by erecting other refuges (dignified 
with the name of 'hotels'), so that travelling here is now attended 
with no serious difficulty or hardship. The huts generally contain 
clean beds and a supply of preserved meats, beer , and other re- 
freshments at moderate charges (bed and food 3-4 kr. per day), 
but in some cases the broad bed must be shared with a fellow- 
traveller. As members of the Turist-Forening, who are recog- 
nisable by their club-button , always have a preference over other 
travellers , those who intend to explore this region thoroughly are 
recommended to enrol themselves at Christiania, Bergen, Thrond- 
hjem, or Fagemass (4 kr. per annum, and 80 o. additional for the 

On some of the excursions the only accommodation as yet 
procurable is at the saeters and 'Faeboder', kept by good-natured 
cow-herds who regale the traveller with 'Fladbred', milk, cheese, 
and butter, and can generally provide him with a tolerable bed 
(1Y2-2 kr. per day for bed and food). 

The chief Points of Interest in the Jotunheim centre around 
the W. end of the Bygdin-S® and the Gjendin-S» , and are most 
conveniently visited from Eidsbugarden (p. 164) and the Ojende- 
bod (p. 167). Besides these there are several places which com- 
mand admirable views of the Horunger, such as Oscarshoug 
(p. 151) and the Vtladal (p. 174). Lastly the Leirdal (p. 177), 
the Visdal (p. 170), and the Oaldheplg (p. 147). Unless the tra- 

160 Route 17. JOTUNHEIM. 

veYler is prepared for a rough expedition of 8-10 days, he should 
content himself with walking or riding to Eidsbugarden , ascending 
the Skinegg (p. 165), and visiting the ice-lake in the Melkedal 
(p. 172). The easiest way of getting a good survey of the Horunger 
is to ride from Fortun to Oscarshoug (p. 151). 

The following are the best Starting Points for a tour in Jo- 
tunheim : — On the S. side Skogstad and Nystuen (p. 42), from 
which Eidsbugarden is a short day's walk only ; on the N. side 
Redsheim (p. 144), whence Lake Gjendin (p. 167) is reached in a 
day and a half through the Leirdal or the Visdal (p. 170); also 
Aardal fp. 52) on the Sognefjord , whence we proceed in 7-8 hrs. 
to the Vettisfos fp. 53), the starting-point of the routes mentioned 
at pp. 173, 174; and lastly Skjolden on the Sognefjord (p. 56). 
On the journeys described at pp. 177-179, however, the traveller 
must be prepared for frequent delays , particularly in crossing 
Lake Bygdin, and also on the route from Fagerlund, which is 
otherwise an interesting approach to Jotunheim (see below). 

The Equipment required by the traveller is similar to that used by 
Alpine mountaineers, but everything should if possible be even more 
durable, as he will frequently have to 'ford torrents, wade through 
marshes, and walk over very rough stony ground (Ur) for hours in 
succession. Heavy luggage should be left behind, as it hampers the tra- 
veller's movements , besides requiring an additional horse for its trans- 
port. As each guide is not bound to carry luggage weighing more than 
22 lbs. , a party of several travellers must either engage several guides, 
or carry part of their own belongings. The usual fee is 4 kr. per day, 
but the charges fur the different expeditions are given in each case. No 
charge is made for the return-journey. In the hire paid for a horse the 
services of an attendant are never included , but must be paid for sep- 

In accordance with the standard Norwegian rule of travel , which 
applies specially to Jotunheim, horses, guides , 'and boats should always 
be ordered in good time, and if possible on the day before they are 

Approaches to Jotunheim. Perhaps the most interesting of 
all the routes to the 'Giant Mountains' are those from the Gud- 
brandsdal, from the Sognefjord, and from the Geiranger FjoTd to 
Redsheim , described in the preceding route. Of the other ap- 
proaches the most important will now be enumerated. 

i. From Fagerlund in Valders to the Eaufjords-Hotel, and 
across Lake Bygdin to Eidsbugarden. 

T 3 /4 M. A journey of two days: 1st. Drive to (2 s /s 31.) Norlhorp, or to 
Beifo, li/j M. farther; walk to the Raufjords-Hotel in 3 hrs. — 2nd. 
Ascend the Bitihorn early in the morning, 3-4 hrs. there and back; row 
across Lake Bygdin to Eidsbugarden in 8 hrs. 

The following outline of a tour including the finest scenery of Jo- 
tunheim may also be given here: — 1st. Day. From Fagerlund to the 
Raufjni'ds-Hotel, and ascend the Bitihorn in the evening. — 2nd. Row to 
the Kuhod, and walk through the Thorfinsdal and Svarldal to the Gjende- 
bod (p. 167) on Lake Gjendin. — 3rd. Ascend the Memurulunge with a 
guide, and walk in the afternoon to Eidsbugarden fp. 164). — 4th. As- 
cend the Skinegg (p. 165), returning by Tvindehoug on Lake Tyin (a short 
day). — 5th. Proceed with guide through the Melkedal to Skogadalsbeen. 

Jotunheim. ROGNE. 17. Route. 161 

— 6th. With guide across the Reiser (p. 173) to Fortun (p. 152), or through 
the Utladal (p. 174) to the Vettis/os. 

Fagerlund in Valders , see p. 39. — The road to the district 
of 0stre-Slidre diverges to the N.W. from the Lserdals«ren road 
and enters the valley of the 0stre-Slidre Elv. It is nearly level 
at first , hut afterwards ascends rapidly through a wood. To the 
left, helow, lies the Saebo-Fjord, high above which stand several 
gaards. In the distance rise snow-mountains. Several gaards and 
on the right the loftily situated church of Skrutvold are passed. 
A little farther on we observe a height with a pole, bearing the 
inscription, 'Udsigt till Jotunfjeldene', but the view is insigni- 
ficant. Below the road , farther on , lies the Hovsbygd with the 
Hovsfjord. A steep track to the right leads to large slate-quarries. 

lYa M. Rogne (*Inn, often full in summer) lies just beyond 
the church of that name. Below lies the Voldbofjord, at the N. 
end of which is the church of Voldbo. To the E. rise Mellene, a 
considerable range of heights , on the W. slope of which is the 
0iangenshei , affording a fine survey of the Bitihom, Mugnafjeld, 
and other mountains. Rogne is the last posting - station on 
the road. 

From Rogne across the Slidveaas to Reien (2 M.), see p. 40; or to Stee 
(2'/s M.), by a good road, see p. 40. 

The scenery now becomes monotonous. The road crosses the 
Vindeelv , which descends to the VoldbofjoTd and forms a water- 
fall higher up. It next skirts the Haggefjord, and then ascends 
steeply to Hcegge, with its old timber-built *Church , to the right 
of which is a tombstone to the memory of a student who perished 
while attempting to cross the Breilaupa (p. 163). 

l!/ 8 M. Northorp, a genuine Norwegian gaard, affords good 
accommodation ('hermetiske Sager', trout etc.). The landlord will 
provide a cart , if required , to convey the traveller to Beito (for 
2 persons, about 5 kr.). To the left, farther on, are the Dalsfjord 
and the Meirstafjord , which a river connects with each other and 
with the Hedalsfjord. 

3 /4 M. Hedalen. The stony sseter-track descends through scanty 
wood. Passing the Oxhefd gaard on the hill to the right , the road 
turns to the left (W.) to the height above Lake l&iangen. Fine 
view of the lake, with the Stellefjeld , Mugnatind , and Bitihom 
(p. 162), past the last of which runs the route to the Raufjord. 

3 / 4 M. Beito (*6uldbrand Beito, two rooms with four beds; 
horses not always to be had). On Sundays the neighbouring 
peasantry assemble here to dance their national 'Springdans', 
accompanied by the strains of the 'norske Harp'. About 3 / 4 hr. to 
the W. is the dwelling of Knut Lekken, the best guide for the 

The path from Beito to the Raufjords-Hotel (guide IV2 kr - i 
comp. Map, p. 40) leads to the N.W., and is at first nearly level, 
but afterwards ascends steeply. At (1 hr.) the top of the hill is a 

Baedekek's Norway and Sweden. 11 

162 Route 17. BITIHORN. Jotunheim. 

marshy plateau enclosed by mountains, the Mugnatind to the W., 
and the precipitous Bitihom. (By making a digression of 2-3 hrs., 
with a guide, the traveller may now ascend the Bitihorn , hut the 
excursion is easier from the Raufjord; see below.) In V2 nI - more 
we reach the Smerhul saeter, beyond which the path ascends steeply 
for 1 hr. more. Extensive view towards the S. ; quite near us, on 
the left , rises the Bitihorn. The path now descends towards the 
N. , close to the precipitous rocks (echo). After a walk of 3 / 4 hr. 
across marshy ground, saturated with snow-water , passing round 
the Bitihorn, we reach the houses on the Raufjord, which are in- 
habited in summer only. The northernmost of these is called the — 

Baufjords-Hotel(3600ft.), the property of Knut Leikken (men- 
tioned above) , containing four beds , and affording tolerable food 
(inferior to the club-huts ; charges the same). The second house 
belongs to a merchant in Christiania, and the third is used by the 
guides. This spot is almost beyond the zone of trees, and the 
ground is but scantily covered with 'Rab', juni per bushes, dwarf 
birches, and Arctic willows. — The water of the Raufjord, an 
arm of Lake Bygdin , is strongly impregnated with iron, tinging 
the stones on its bank with its reddish colour (whence the name, 
rau being the same as raud or red, 'red'). This desolate region, 
in which several snow-mountains are visible, resembles an Arctic 
landscape. Lake Bygdin is not itself visible, and the Bitihorn is 
concealed by an intervening height. 

The Ascent op the Bitihorn from the Raufjords-Hotel takes 
3-4 hrs. , there and back (guide unnecessary). The traveller as- 
cends the W. slope the whole way to the top. Several swamps 
near the beginning of the ascent are avoided by keeping to the 
left as far as possible. The summit soon becomes visible, serving 
as a guide. For an hour the route traverses 'Rab' or underwood 
and the whitish soil peculiar to the Norwegian mountains, and for 
another hour it ascends somewhat steeply over rock. Near the top 
is a huge cleft with perpendicular sides, containing snow and ice 
at the bottom. 

The *Bitihorn (5457 ft.) rises on the boundary between Jotun- 
heim and the great plateau extending to the E. of that region. To 
the W. we survey an imposing Alpine scene, and to the E. a lofty 
table-land diversified with large lakes and a few peaks, while Lake 
Bygdin lies immediately below, on the N.W. side of the Bitihorn. 
This mountain may therefore be called the 'Rigi' of Norway. To 
the W. rise the mountains near Lake Bygdin, conspicuous among 
which are the Kalvaahegda and Thorftnstinder ; more to the left, 
the Uranaastind, the Langskavl, the Horunger, and Koldedals- 
tinder. Towards the E. rise the isolated summits of Skaget and 
Mellene, and below us lie the Vinstervande. To the N. we ob- 
serve the grey Valdersfly , and farther distant , to the N. of Lake 
Gjendin, the Beshe and Nautgardslind. To the S. are Lake 0ian- 

Jotunheim. LAKE BYGDIN. 11. Route. 163 

gen, the valley of 0stre Slidre , and the Mugnatlnd, Sulctind, and 
other mountains. 

From the Raufjords-Hotel to Eidsbugarden by boat in 7-8 
hrs. , including stoppages (for 1, 2, 3 persons with two rowers 
8 kr. 40 6., 10 kr., 12 kr. respectively ; toNybod only, 4 kr., 4 kr. 
40, 5 kr. 20 6. ; those who hire a guide here may utilise him as a 
rower, so that one other only need be taken). Crossing the Rau- 
fjord, the boat soon passes through the Bygdinsund and enters 
"Lake Bygdin (3610 ft.) , the largest of the three lakes of Jotun- 
heim, about 2^2 M. in length from E. to W. , and 1 /^- l /2 M. in 
breadth. On the N. side it is bounded by precipitous mountains, 
at the base of which lies a strip of excellent pasturage. The large 
herds of cattle which graze here in summer are sent to the Chris- 
tiania market in September. The S. bank is lower and less pic- 
turesque. Storms sometimes render the navigation of the lake 
impracticable, in which case the traveller must walk along the N. 
bank to Eidsbugarden (10-12 hrs.). 

The boat skirts theN. bank. On the right we first observe the 
Nedre Sceter and the Breilaupa which descends from the Kalvaa- 
hegda (7170 ft.). By another torrent is the sseter of Hestevolden, 
where a halt is usually made. The traveller may creep into the 
hut, which closely resembles a Lapp 'Gamme', and the night may 
be spent here if necessary. The Kalvaahegda may be ascended 
hence, and the descent made to the Leirungsbotn (p. 178). 

We next pass the deep Thorfinsdal (see below) , with remains 
of ancient moraines at its entrance. At the base of the Thorftns- 
tind we then reach the Langedals-Sixter , and near it the Nybod, 
a shooting-lodge belonging to Hr. Scevli , a 'Storthingsmand', of 
which the neighbouring cowherd has the key. This point is rather 
less than halfway between the Raufjord-Hotel and the W. end of 
the lake. 

From the Nybod we may ascend the huge "Thorfinstind (about 
7050 ft.; 6-7 hrs), the jagged crest of which is called the Brudefelge 
('bridal procession'). Fine survey of Lake Bygdin and half of Valders, 
and particularly of the other Thorfinstinder to the N. , the Svartdals- 
pigge, and the Knulshulstind (7820 ft.), which was ascended from the S. 
side in 1875. 

From the Nybod to Lake Gjendin there are two routes. One leads 
to the N.W. through the Langedal, passing the Lcmgedalstjem, and cross- 
ing the glacier between the Sletmark/w (7173 ft.) on the left and the 
Svarldalspigge (7120 ft.) on the right into the Vesle Aadal. Guide 2 kr., 
but rarely to be found at the Nybod. The expedition is very grand, but 
somewhat toilsome. — A preferable route (guide 2 kr. per day , but un- 
necessary) leads to Lake Gjendin in 4-5 hrs. through the Thorfinsdal and 
the Svartdal. It ascends steeply at first on the W. side of the Thorrtns- 
elv, commanding a view of the whole valley, which is separated from 
the Svartdal to the N. by a i Band\ or lofty plain with a series of lakes. 
The path follows the W. side of the valley. To the left, farther on, we 
obtain a superb view of the Thorfinshul, a basin formed by the Thorflns- 
tinder; before us rise the three Knutshulstinder, which enclose the Kmils- 
hul, but the highest of them is not visible. Adjoining the northernmost 
are several peaks of Alpine character. The highest part of the route is 


164 Route 17. EIDSBUGARDEN. Jotunheim. 

reached at the S. end of Ihc long 'Tjarn' (tarn), whence we perceive the 
mountains to the K. of Lake Gjendin , particularly the pointed Simle- 
tind ; to the E. the mountain with a sharply cut outline is the Leirungs- 
kampen. We may now either walk over the disagreeable rough stones 
(Ur) on the W. side of the valley, or wade through the river and de- 
scend on the almost equally stony" S. side. In the latter case we recross 
to the W. side by a small pond farther on. We now enter the Svartdal, 
of which there is no definite boundary. On the left tower the imposing 
Svftrtdalspigge , from which the Svartdals Glacier descends. We cross 
the glacier as low down as possible , where it is level and presents no 
difficulty. The crevasses are not deep, but may be awkward if covered 
with snow. To the right lies the Svartdalstjern, out of which the Svari- 
dela flows to the N. (The passage of the Brw-Vor, or moraine at the 
bottom of the glacier, is objectionable.) Farther on we cross a deposit 
of snow. We soon reach the huge precipice descending to Lake Gjendin, 
called Gjendebrynet, through which the Svartd0la has worn a deep gorge 
C Svartdalsglupet). The latter being inaccessible, we ascend a ridge covered 
with loose stones to the left to the ' Svartdalsaaxle, which commands an 
admirable survey of 1he whole N. side of Jotunheim. To the N.W. are 
the Melkedalstind (below which lies the Grisletjern), and the Raudalstinder, 
Smorstabtinder, and Skarvedalstinder ; to the N. the Simletind, a peak of 
pyramidal form, the Memurutind, Tykningssuen, and Nautgardstind \ to 
the E. the Beshjj and Besegg ; while at ou» feet lie the dark-green Gjendin 
with the (ijendintunge and Memurutunge. (From this point the Svartdal- 
xpiy, 7120 ft., may be ascended without difficulty.) We now descend to 
IheW., below the Langedalsbree, somewhat steeply, but over soft grass. 
The route then descends by the course of the glacier-stream into the 
Veslc-Aadal, whence it soon reaches the Gjendebod (p. 167). On reaching 
Lake Gjendin,- the traveller may prefer to shout for a boat to convey 
him across the water. 

Continuing our voyage on Lake Bygdin , we next pass the 
Lanyedalselv and soon reach the Oaldeberg, where there is a small 
uninhabited hut. This a curiously situated spot, and well clothed 
with vegetation (French willows, aconite, bilberries, etc.) From 
the hill falls the Qaldebergsfos. On the S. side of the lake rises 
Dryllenesset (4864 ft.). Rounding the precipitous rocks of the 
Galdeberg (which have to be crossed by persons traversing the 
bank of the lake on foot, who must ascend to a height of 1600ft. 
above the lake), we observe to the right above us the Oaldebergs- 
tind and facing us the Langskavl (or Rustegg) with the Vranaas- 
tind, presenting one of the sublimest spectacles in Jotunheim. 
On the right next opens the valley of the Tolorma (Heristakka), 
which forms a waterfall , with the Orashorung (or Sjoghulstind, 
7147 ft.) in the background. To the S.W. rise the Koldedalstin- 
der, and to the S. the Skinegg. Looking back, we observe the 
three peaks of the Sletmarkhe. The lake owes its milky colour to 
the Melkedela, a genuine glacier-brook. After a row from Rau- 
fjords-Hotel of about 8 hrs. in all, we reach the timber-built — 
Eidsbugarden, or Eidsbud , situated at the W. end of Lake 
Bygdin, about 100 ft. above the water, where the accommodation 
is similar to that afforded by the club-huts (same charges). This 
is the most beautifully situated 'hotel' in Jotunheim , and is the 
starting-point for several magnificent excursions. 

The Ascent of the Skinegg from Eidsbugarden takes li/ 2 hr. (or 
there and back 2'/2 hrs. ; no guide required). We cross the stream de- 

Jotunheim. SKINEGG. 17. Route. 165 

scending from the Eid between lakes Bygdin and Tyin, and ascend straight 
to the northern peak , avoiding the soft snow-iields as much as possible. 
(The southern peak is apparently, but not really, the higher.) The view 
from the summit of the ' "Skinegg (about 5085 ft.) , where rocks afford 
welcome shelter, is justly considered the finest in Jotunheim, though 
shut out on the E. side by the higher 'Egg' (edge , ridge) of which the 
Skinegg is a spur. To the S. we survey the Tyin and the whole of the 
Fillefjeld, with the Stugunps near Nystuen and the majestic Suletind. 
Of more absorbing interest are the mountains to the W. and N. , where 
Tyseggen, theGjeldedalstinder and Koldedalstinder (Falketind, St<risnaas- 
tind) with their vast mantles of snow , and farther distant the Horunger 
(beginning with the Skagast0lstind on the left, and ending with the Stygge- 
dalstind to the right) rise in succession. Next to these are the Fleske- 
dalstinder, the Langskavl, the Uranaastind , with a huge glacier on its 
S. side, the Melkedalstinder , the Grashorung, and other peaks. To the 
N. rise the mountains on the N.W. side of Lake Gjendin, and still more 
prominent are the Sletmarkh«r, Galdebergstind , and Thorfinstinder on 
Lake Bygdin. Of that lake itself a small part of the W.end only is visible. 

To Tvindehoug on Lake Ttin (p. 16b) we may descend direct from 
the Skinegg towards the S.W. — A circuit to the top of the Skinegg, 
down to Tvindehoug, and back to Eidsbugardeu may be made in 5-6 hrs. 

The Ascent of the Langskavl , there and back , takes half-a-day 
(guide necessary, 2 kr.). The- route ascends the course of the Melkedela 
(see below), and, instead of turning to the right towards the Melkedal, 
leads to the left into a side-valley, where we keep as far as possible to 
the left. The bare summit of the Langskavl (about 5900 ft.) towers above 
masses of snow. The view embraces the mountains seen to the W. of 
the Skinegg, to which we are now nearer, and also the whole of Lake 
Bygdin as far as the Bitihorn. 

The Uranaastind (6-7 hrs. from Eidsbugarden, or a whole day there 
and back; guide necessary, 4 kr.) is ascended partly by the route to the 
Langskavl , which after a time is left to the W. in order to ascend the 
extensive Uranaasbrai. We then cross that glacier to the Brcesknrd, 
whence we look down into the Skogadal to the W. (p. 172). Lastly an 
ascent on the N. side of about 800 ft. more to the summit of the "Ura- 
naastind (7037 ft.), which is also free from snow. This is the highest E. 
point of the Uranaasi, the W. end of which also presents an imposing 
appearance when seen from Skogadalsberen (p. 175). The extensive view 
vies with that from the Galdh0pig (p. 148). Towards the E. the Ura- 
naastind descends precipitously into the Uradal (p. 174). To the S. it 
sends forth two glaciers , the Uranaasbrse , already mentioned , and the 
Melkedalsbrce , the E. arm of which descends into the Melkedal (p. 171), 
while theW. arm, divided again by the Melkedalspigge , descends partly 
into the Melkedal, and partly to the Skogadal (p. 172). Experienced 
mountaineers may descend the mountain by the last named arm of the 
glacier, which has to be traversed for 1 hr. ; the lower part only is fur- 
rowed with crevasses (Sprcekker). 

Other Excursions from Eidsbugarden : — Row on Lake Bygdin to 
Nybod and back (7-8 hrs. ; p. 163) ; walk to the * Melkedalsvand and back 
(4-5 hrs. ; p. 172). 

ii. From Skogstad and Nystuen to Tvindehoug and 

2 5 /s M. Beidle Path (horse to Tvindehoug 4 kr.). Some travellers, 
however, will prefer to walk to (1 M.) Lake Tyin, row to (l'/s M.) Tvin- 
dehoug, and walk thence to ('/« M.) Eidsbugarden. 

Skogstad and Nystuen on the Fillefjeld (see p. 42), lying on the 
great route through Valders to the Sognefjord, are favourite start- 
ing-points for Jotunheim (horses and guides at both). By the 
Opdalstole , about halfway between these stations , the route to 

166 Route 17. TVINDEHOUG. Jotunheim. 

Lake Tyin diverges to the N. and in 1 hr. crosses the hill -which 
separates it from the district of Valders. Fine view from the top 
of the hill of the snowy Gjeldedalstind , the Koldedalstind , and 
the Stelsnaastind to the N.W. of the lake. 

Lake Tyin (3296 ft.), l 3 / 8 M. long and 1/4 M - broad, with a 
wide hay at the W. end from which the Aardela issues, is a beauti- 
ful Alpine lake, the banks of which, like those of the other lakes 
of Jotunheim are uninhabited, except by a few cowherds in sum- 
mer, the most important of whose 'Faslaeger' are marked in the 
map (p. 40). At the S. end, where the lake is reached, a boat is 
generally procurable to convey travellers to Tvindehoug (for 1, 2, 
3 persons with one rower 2 kr. 40, 2 kr. 80, 3 kr. 206. ; with two 
rowers 3 kr. 60, 4 kr. 40, 5 kr. 20 6.); otherwise they must walk 
thither along the E. bank of the lake (3*/2 hrs.). On every side 
rise lofty mountains. Above the Fselager of Maalnas towers the 
pyramidal Uranaastind (p. 165), and to the S. rises the Suletind 
on the Fillefjeld. 

Tvindehoug (3330 ft.), a large club-hut belonging to the Tu- 
rist-Forening, is one of the chief stations of the Jotunheim guides. 
Ascent of the Sklnegg (p. 165) l 1 ^"^ hrs. ; guide hardly necessary.. 

Skirting the lake , and then crossing the low Eid or isthmus 
which separates lakes Tyin and Bygdin , we reach Eidsbugarden 
(p. 164) in l'/ 2 hr. more. 

iii. From Eidsbugarden to the Gjendebod on Lake Gjendin 

and K#dsheim. 

2'/2 Bays, on foot, or partly cm horseback. 1st. From Eidsbugarden 
to the Gjendebod , 4-5 hrs. ; guide (hardly necessary) 2 kr. 40, horse 4 kr. 
(A still finer route than the present is that already described, from the 
Nybod through the Tlwrfinsdal.) On the same afternoon ascend the Me- 
inurutunge and return by boat from the Memurubod. — 2nd. From the 
Gjendebod with guide (4 kr.) to the Spiterilul, 8-10 hrs. — 3rd. To Reds- 
heim in 5 hrs. 

Eidsbugarden, see p. 164. We row to the N. bank of Lake 
Bygdin, as there is no bridge across the rapid Melkedela (p. 164), 
and follow the path on the bank to (1 hr.) Tolormbod, at the 
mouth of the Tolorma or Heistakka , which point may also be 
reached by boat (with one rower, for 1, 2, 3 persons, 806., 1 kr., 
or 1 kr. 206.). Grand retrospective view of the snow-mountains 
to the W. (comp. p. 164). 

The path ascends the left bank of the Tolorma, on the W. 
slope of the Galdebergstind, and mounts the Oxdalh.0, crossing 
(IY2 hr.) a brook which descends from that mountain. The route 
then leads somewhat steeply up the Gjelhe to the N.E. to the 
plateau of Orenneberg. To the left rises the Grashorung (7146 ft.) 
with the Snehul, and to the right the huge Sletmarkhe (7173 ft.), 
the great glacier of which descends to the N. into the Vesle Aadal. 
Having crossed the Grflnneberg, we descend rapidly to the N.E. 

Jotunheim. LAKE GJENDIN. 17. Route. 167 

into the Vesle Aadal, which is bounded on the N. by the Ojen- 
dinstunge, and follow the brook down to Lake Gjendin. Here we 
turn to the N., pass round the Gjendinstunge, and cross by a new 
bridge to the — 

Gjendebod, a club-hut, situated at the entrance to the Store 
Aadal, and at the foot of the precipices of the Memurutunge. It 
was enlarged in 1878, and now accommodates 20 persons. It is 
well managed by Ragnhild, the housekeeper, and the moderate 
charges are fixed by tariff. Guide : Erik Slalien. To the E. of the 
hut is the old Faelager of the herdsmen, which until recently was 
the only roof which afforded shelter to travellers. 

*Lake Gjendin (3330 ft.), l 3 / 4 M. long and about Vio M - »' 
width, extends from W. to E., where the Sjoa, a tributary of the 
Lougen, issues from it. It presents a still more Alpine character 
than Lake Bygdin. On both sides it is enclosed by perpendicular 
mountains, among which the Beshei (7580 ft.) on the N. side and 
the Knutshulstind (7782 ft.) on the S. are the loftiest. There are 
but few places on its banks where landing or walking for any 
distance is practicable. The colour of the water is green, espe- 
cially when seen from a height. The lake is fed by a very small 
number of wild glacier- torrents. Storms often render the lake 
dangerous for boating for days together, in which case travellers 
may proceed by a very toilsome path through the Memurudal, and 
across the Besegg to Ojendeosen at the opposite end of the lake 
(pp. 180, 181). 

From the Gjendebod itself we see nothing but the abrupt walls 
of the 'tongues' and 'shoulders', as some of the mountains are 
called here ; but by ascending the Store Aadal a little way we 
may view the *Svartdalspig (7120 ft.) and the Sletmarkhe, between 
which lie the large glaciers of the Langedal. 

The Ascent of the Memukotunge takes about 4 hrs., or including 
the descent to the Memurubod 6 hrs. at least (in the latter case a guide 
necessary, 2kr.). From the Gjendebod we may either make the extreme- 
ly steep ascent to the E. by the Bukkelwger (dangerous without a guide), 
or follow the bridle-path through the Store Aadal for about l'/s hr., 
ascending the right bank of the stream, and then ascend rapidly to the 
right (practicable for riding; see below). — The ^Memurutunge, a. hilly 
plateau 'about 3850ft. in height, with snow-fields , small lakes, and in- 
teresting Alpine flora, forms a kind of mountainous peninsula, bounded 
on the W. by the Store Aadal, on the S. by the Gjendin , and on the E. 
and N. by the Memuruelv. Farther to the N. it is encircled by a wreath 
of lofty snow mountains. 

The View is magnificent. To the S. are the Knutshulstind with Us 
deep 'Hul', and the Svartdalspig, between which lies the deep Svartdal •, 
then the Langedal and the Sletmarkh#-, to the W. rise the pointed Melke- 
dalstinder and Eaudalstinder, prominent among which is the Skarvdalstind, 
all near the Eaudal. To the N.W. lies the Langevand with the Smerr- 
stabtinder, the Kirke, and the Uladalstinder. To the N. the Hinaa- 
kjernhtf, Memurutinden , and Tykningssuen. To the E. the Besh0 and 
other peaks. — Instead of returning by the same route, it is far more 
interesting to traverse the SFemurutunge to its E. end and then descend 
the steep slope to the Memurubod in the valley of that name. In this 

168 Route 17. RAUDAL. Jotunheim. 

case a boat must be ordered before starting to meet the traveller at 
this point. 

From the Gjendebod we may also ascend the "Gjendinstunge (5096 
ft.), which commands the same view as the Memurutunge, with the ad- 
dition of a survey of the whole lake. We cross the bridge to the W., 
follow the path on the W. bank of the river to the N. for about '/z hr., 
and then ascend steeply to the loft. 

Fkom the Gjendebod to Skogadalsb0en through the Raudal, 10-12 
hrs. (guide 5 kr. 406. ; to Berge near Fortun 6 kr. 40 b.). If the Muradn 
saeter in the Utladal (p. 176) is open, which may be learned at the Gjendebod, 
the night had better bespent there , in whichever direction the route is 
taken. (Instead of the Raudal route, the traveller may prefer that 
through the Store Aadal, the Gravdal, and the Utladal, V/2 days, a night 
being spent on the Leirvand. Guide to Berge 10 kr. ; horse, with ladies'- 
saddle if necessary, about 4 kr. per day, and as much more to the 

The route leads up the Store Aadal on the right bank as far as a 
O/2 hr.) waterfall formed by a brook descending from the Grisletjern. 
It then ascends rapidly to the left. Farther on, it crosses the brook and 
leads on the N. side of the Grisletjern and the following tarns to the Raudals- 
houg (3 hrs. from the Gjendebod), where the Raudal begins. This grand, 
but unpicturesque valley, with its almost uninterrupted series of lakes, 
lies to the N. of and parallel with the Melkedal. The valley is nearly 
level, and there is no distinguishable watershed. Here and there are 
large boulders deposited by the glacier which must once have filled the 
valley. On reaching the 'Band', or culminating point we enjoy admi- 
rable "Views in both directions : to the right rise the Raudalstinder, 
to the left is the Melkedalstind with its perpendicular wall, and between 
them peeps the Fanaraak in the distance; looking back, we observe the 
Raudalstind on the left, the Snehulstind (Grashorung) on the right, and 
between them the Sletmarkha with a fine amphitheatre of glaciers. It 
takes about Vfa hr. to cross the 'Band', from which a route leads to the 
W. round the Svartdalsegg to the Langvand and the Store Aadal (a 
round of 10-12 hrs. from the Gjendebod). We next cross the Raudalselv 
by a snow-bridge and traverse rough and toilsome 'Ur' and patches of 
snow on the W. side of the valley, skirting a long lake for the last 
IV2 hr. (patience very necessary here). As we approach the "Raudals- 
mund, the precipice with which the Raudal terminates towards the Store 
Utladal, the scenery again becomes very grand. A view is obtained of 
the mountains of the Utladal and Gravadal, including the curiously shap- 
ed Smerstabtind , from which the Skjortningsbrce descends. To the li. 
we survey the whole of the Raudal, lying between the Raudalstind on 
the N. and the Melkedalstind on the S. (the latter being the mountain 
which descends so precipitously into the Melkedal). The red (raud, 
red) colour of the 'gabbro' rock-formation here has given rise to the 
name of the valley. Erratic glacier-blocks occur frequently. 

The route now descends on the S. side of the fine waterfall of the 
Raudalselv to the Store Utladal, which together with the route to Skoga- 
dalsbeen is described at p. 175. 

Fkom the Gjendebod to the Spiterstux in the Visdal, 8-10 
hrs., a very fatiguing, but exceedingly grand walk (guide neces- 
sary, 4 kr., or to R»dsheim 5 kr. 60 0. ; horse as far as the foot of 
the steep ascent before the Uledalsvand, 2 kr. 60 0., whereby the 
fatigue is much diminished). The route ascends the left bank of 
the Store Aadalselv and passes through the defile of Heistulen, 
between the Memurutunge and the Gjendinstunge. To the right 
falls the Olimsdalsfos. Splendid view of the Simletind to the N. 
(p. 169). After 1 hr. we reach the Vardesten, a large mass of 
rock, Y 2 hr. beyond which the bridle-path to the Memurutunge 

Jotunheim.. ULADALSBANT). 17. Route. 169 

diverges to the right (see above). From the left the Skarvedalsbcek 
descends from the Skarvedal. We next observe, to the left of the 
Simletind, theHellerfos (see below), and to the left, above it, the 
Uledalstinder. Pedestrians will find the passage of the Simleaa, 
which descends from the Simlehul glacier, unpleasant. (The Sim- 
lehul is also crossed by a route into the Visdal, which is no less 
rough and fatiguing than the present route.) Our path now as- 
cends rapidly on the E. (right) side of the wild Hellerfos, the 
discharge of the Hellerkjern , and reaches the top of the hill in 
Y2 M. (2 hrs. from the Gjendebod). Beautiful retrospective view 
of the Sletmarkhe and Svartdalspig ; the Knutshulstind, rising 
more to the E., is concealed by the Memurutunge. The route now 
traverses a curious-looking mountain-waste, bounded by the Ula- 
dalstinder. Blocks of rock deposited during the glacier-period are 
arrayed along the edges of the mountains like soldiers. The route 
at lirst skirts the Hellerkjern (4300 ft.), and then turns to the right 
into the insignificant valley which leads to the N.W. , and after- 
wards more towards the E., to the Uladalsband. The serious part 
of the ascent soon begins (272 hrs. from the Gjendebod), and 
riders must dismount. 

From the Hellerkjern to the Leikdal and R0dsheim, a route 
3-4 hrs. longer than our present route , is much less toilsome (guide, 
unnecessary, to Ytterdalssseter 5 kr. 60 0. ; hurse to E0dsheim, with 
side-saddle if required, 8-10 kr.). From the Hellerkjern the path next 
reaches the Langvand, or Langvatn (4627 ft.), and skirts its N. bank 
(for i'/2 hr.). On the right rise the Uladalstinder ; to the S. the Svart- 
dalsegg (6280 ft.). At the W. end of the lake, in which there are sev- 
eral islands (visible even from the Memurutunge), the path ascends 
past the two Hggvageltjeme to the Hagvagle (or Heigvarde; 'Vagge', a 
Lapp word, signifying 'pass'; 5430 ft.), the highest point of the route, 
which commands an imposing survey of the Horunger to the S.W. The 
path then descends to the Leirvand (4903 ft.) and traverses a dreary and 
monotonous region. Through the Leirdal to Eedsheim , see pp. 177, 149. 

A steep ascent of ^2 nr - brings us to the sequestered Uladals- 
vand or Uravand (about 5250 ft.), which lies to the left. The route, 
which is extremely rough and toilsome here, keeps to the right and 
passes the foot of the slopes of the Simletind (Simle or Simmel, 
'a female reindeer'). After another hour it reaches the Uladals- 
band (5730 ft.), its highest point, where it unites with the route 
across the Simle Glacier. We now descend to the northern Uladals- 
vand (5136 ft.), the second lake of the name. To the right rises 
the Heilstuguher (7830 ft.), the fourth of the peaks of Jotunheim 
in point of height. Traversing the exceedingly uncomfortable 
stony ground on the E. bank of this lake, we at length reach 
(2 hrs., or from the Gjendebod 6 hrs.) Uladalsmynnet, or the 
end of the Uladal. Splendid view here of the broad Visdal, with 
the Heilstuguh» on the right, and the Uladalstinder and Tvaer- 
botnhorn on the left. Looking towards the W. from the "Visdal it- 
self, we observe the Kirke rising on the left, past which a path leads 
to the right through the Kirkeglup to the Leirvand (see above). 

170 Route 17- VTSDAL. Jotunheim. 

The route through the *Visdal (to the Spiterstul V fa-l hrs. 
more} follows the right (E.) hank of the Visa (vis, Celtic uisge, 
'water'), at first traversing soft turf, which forms a most pleasant 
contrast to the rough and angular stones of the 'Ur'. After 1 hr. 
we have to wade through the Heilstuguaa, which descends from 
the extensive Heilstugubra. Early in the morning the passage of 
the stream is easy, hut later in the day, when the water is higher, 
we ascend a little in order to cross hy a bridge (whence the Spi- 
terstul is 1 hr. distant). Shortly before reaching the sseter, we 
observe to the left, through the Bukkehul, the Slyggebrce and the 
Soeilnaasbrw, two glaciers descending from the Galdhflpig group, 
with magnificent ice-falls, that of the latter being the finest. 

The Spiterstul (about 3710 ft.), the highest saeter in the Vis- 
dal , commanded by the Skuuthe (6676 ft.) on the "W., affords 
tolerable quarters for the night (one broad bed), and is a good 
starting-point for excursions, but guides are rarely to be found 
before the reindeer shooting-season in August. If a guide is ob- 
tainable, the traveller may ascend the Leirhe (6667 ft.), the 
Heilstuguhe (7500 ft.), and the Memurutind (7970 ft.), the last 
of which commands a most imposing view. 

The Galuii0pig (p. .147) may also be ascended more easily and expe- 
ditiously from the Spiterstul than from K0dsheim. The route (not easily 
mistaken hy experienced monutaineers) crosses the Visa by a bridge 
>/2 hr. to the S. of the Spiterstul, ascends on the N. side of the Sveil- 
naasbra, and traverses the three peaks of the Sveilnaasi. Owing to the 
glacier-crevasses, however, it is not altogether unattended with danger, 
and should not he attempted without a guide. Instead of returning 
from the summit to the Spiterstul, the traveller may descend direct to 
E0dsheim by the Ttaubergsstul (but not without a guide). 

From thb Spiterstul to Rotjsheim , about 5 hrs. (no guide 
required; hut if one has been brought from the Gjendebod, he 
receives an additional fee of 1 kr. 60 m. for accompanying the 
traveller to E^dsheim). We soon reach the zone of birches and 
(V2 nr -) a rocky barrier through which the Visa has forced a 
passage. After another 1 / 2 hr we come to a pine-wood, with pic- 
turesque trees (Furuer) on the N. side, some of which are entirely 
stripped of their branches. (The limit of pines is here about 
3*280 ft. above the sea-level.) Above us, to the left, is an off- 
shoot of the Tvaerbrce. In 1/4 hr. more we cross the Skautaelv, 
which forms a waterfall above, by a curious bridge. To the S. 
we perceive the Uladalstinder(p. 169) and the Styggehe (7317 ft.). 
On the opposite bank of the Visa is the Nedre Suleims-Sater 
(3192 ft.), at the mouth of a small valley through which the ori- 
ginal route to the Galdhepig ascended (p. 148). Opposite the sseter 
the Olitra falls into the Visa. 

From the Spiterstul or the Nedre Suleims-Sceter the ascent of the 
Glittertind (8383 ft.), a peak nearly as high as the Galdh#pig, may be ac- 
complished in 8-10 hrs. (there and back; guide desirable). The route 
follows the top of the hill rising between the Olitra and the Skautaelv, 
and pursues an E. direction. The height first reached is the W. spur of 
the rocky amphitheatre which encloses the huge basin (Botn) lying to 

Jotunheim. SMAADAL. 17. Route. 171 

the N. In order to reach the highest point the use of an ice-axe (fsexe) 
is sometimes necessary. 

The Radsheim route continues to follow the E. bank of the 
Visa. In case of doubt the direction indicated by the Varder, or 
stone beacons, is to be followed. We cross the Smiugjelsaa, the 
Grjotaa, and the Gokra. The Visa is lost to view in its deep 
channel, but we follow the margin of its ravine. An ascent of a 
few hundred paces to the E. of the path leads to the Visdals- 
Saetre (2960 ft."), where fair quarters for the night are obtainable 
(particularly at the 0vrebescetef). 

The Gokraskard, an excellent point of view which may lie ascended 
hence, commands a survey of the Uladalstinder to the S., the Galdhupig 
to the S.W. and the Hestbrapigge to the W. — A still finer point is the 
Lauvh0 (5824 ft.), whence the Glitfertind is also visible. 

From the Visdal Sfeters we may also ascend the Gokradal , between 
the Lauvhcf on the N. and the Gokkeraxel on the S., to the pass of the 
Finhals (3885 ft). Following the Finhalselv thence and crossing the 
Rmaadulselv in the Smaadal, we may turn to the right to the Smaadals- 
Swter (3807 ft), from which the huge " Kpilingskjolen (6874 ft.) to the N. 
may be ascended. The next points reached are the Sm0rlidsa?ter and the 
NaaversaUr on Lake. Thessen. Thence across the lake and past the 
Oxefos to Storvik on the Vaagevand, see p. 143. This route commands 
fine views of the Galdh0pig and the Glittertind, but the Smaadal itself 
is uninteresting. — Those who take this route in the reverse direction 
should observe that, about lhr. beyond the Smaadals-Sseter, after cross- 
ing a brook coming from the right, they must cross the Smaadalselv to 
the left, and on the other side ascend the bank of the Finhalselv to- 
wards the S.W. 

Below the Visdal sasters the path is not easily traceable, but the 
traveller is not likely to go far wrong. The descent to Redsheiui, 
skirting the profound *Ravine of the Visa, presents one of the 
grandest scenes in Norway. The Lauva descends from the right. 
The saeter-path , now practicable for light carts, descends very 
rapidly, commanding a view of the huge abyss. On the opposite 
side runs the path to the Nedre Suleims-Saeter. To the N. lie 
the gaards of Redsheim and Suleim. The first cottages are 
reached in li/a hr. from the Visdal saeters, and here we cross the 
curious bridge to the left. — Redsheim, see p. 144. 

iv. From Eidsbugarden through the Melkedal to Skogadals- 
b«en, and across the Keiser to Fortun. 

2 Days. — 1st. With guide (4 kr.) to Skogadalsbeen, 8-10 hvs. — 
2nd. To Fortun, 8-9 hrs. ; guide unnecessary; fee from Eidsbugarden 
all the way to Berge, V2 hr. above Fortun, 8 kr. 40 <n. (From Eidsbu- 
garden to Skogadalsbizren and the Vettisfos, U/2 days, 7 kr.) 

Eidsbugarden, see p. 164. We row across the lake to the mouth 
of the — 

*Melkedal, watered by the boisterous Melkedela, across which 
there are no bridges. The route gradually ascends the valley, 
which after 3 / 4 hr. divides. The branch to the left ascends to the 
Langskavl and the Uranaastind (p. 165), while that to the right is 
still called the Melkedal. Steep ascent through the latter, pass- 
ing several waterfalls. As is so frequently the case in Norway, 

172 Route 17* MELKEDAL. Jotunheim. 

the valley neither posseses a level floor nor expands into basins, 
but consists of a chaos of heights and hollows, where the rock, 
polished smooth by glacier-friction, is exposed at places, and at 
others is covered with loose boulders. Vegetation ceases, and no 
trace of animal life is visible, save the deep furrows in the snow 
made by the reindeer. At places, however, the ground is thickly 
strewn with the droppings of the Lemming (or Lemcend ; georychus, 
one of the rodentia, and not unlike a rat), a hardy and intrepid little 
animal which frequently swims across Lakes liygdin and Gjendin. 
The reindeer often kills the lemming with a stroke of its hoof and 
eats the stomach for the sake of its vegetable contents. 

About 20 min. above the point where the valley divides we 
ascend a steep field of snow to the plateau of Melkehullerne, where 
?here are several ponds. In 20 min. more (about 1^2 nr - from 
Eidsbugarden) we reach the **0vre Melkedalsvand, in a strikingly 
grand situation, the finest point on the route, and well worthy of 
a visit for ils own sake from Eidsbugarden (best time in the fore- 
noon, 4-5 hrs. there and back). Even in July miniature icebergs 
are seen floating in the lake, and during the night a crust of fresh 
ice is sometimes formed. To the left (W.) rises the Langskavl ; 
then the Uranaastind. On this side of the latter is the Radberg. 
Next, the Melkedalsbrae , descending to the lake , and the Melke- 
dalstinder, all reflected in the dark-blue water. 

A walk of another hour over 'Ur' and patches of snow brings 
us to an ice-pond at the foot of the first Melkedalstind, whence 
we ascend a steep slope of snow in 20 min. more to the Melke- 
dalsband , the watershed. To the W. a view is obtained of the 
Second Melkedalsvand , a much larger lake than the first, and 
generally covered with winter-ice down to the month of July. 
To the left rise the first and to the right the second Melkedals- 
tind (7107 ft.), and to the N.W. the Raudalstind. The scenery 
continues to be very imposing. The route skirts the N. side of 
the second Melkedalsvand and (Y2 hr.) crosses the stream. Verv 
rough walking. A view of the Horunger is now disclosed (p. 181); 
on the right rises the Skogadalsnaasi ; on the left is the arm of 
the Melkedalsbrae mentioned at p. 165, with its large moraines, 
descending from the Uranaastind. The striation of the rocks by 
glacier-action (Skurings-Striber) is frequently observable. The 
boisterous torrent is again crossed by a snow-bridge, the remains 
of an avalanche (caution necessary), or the traveller may wade 
through it a little lower down , where the water is knee-deep. 
The Melkedal now ends in a precipitous Bcelte ('girdle'), over 
which the river is precipitated in a fall of about 590 ft. in height. 
To this point also descends the W. arm of the Melkedalsbrae, by 
which the descent hither from the Uranaastind may be made (see 
above). The lower region of the valley which we now enter is the 
*Skogadal, which expands into a broad basin. Above it tower the 

Jotunheim. KEISER-PASS. 17. Route. 173 

majestic Horunger (p. 181), consisting of the Skagastelstinder and 
the Styggedalstind. The appearance of the Maradalsbrse descending 
from the Skagastelstind is particularly striking. — The Skogadal 
is at first a little monotonous, but with the increasing warmth 
of the temperature the vegetation improves, and the scanty 'Rab' 
or scrub is soon exchanged for a fine growth of birches (whence 
the name, 'forest valley'). There is no defined path at first, but 
the route follows the N. side of the Skogadalselv and afterwards 
the track made by the cattle (Kuraak). A walk of 2 hrs. from 
the 'Bselte' brings us to the sseters of ■ — 

Skogadalsbeen in the Utladal, see p. 175. A guide to the 
Reiser Pass is not obtainable here (but a horse without a saddle 
may sometimes be had, I-IV2 kr -)- Tlie P atn is wel1 trodden by 
the cattle and cannot be mistaken. Ascending from Skogadals- 
b»en for 20 min., we reach a new bridge on the left and cross it. 
The path to the right leads to the Guridals-Sseter, while we 
follow the sseter-track to the W., on the N. bank of the Gjert- 
vaselv, a stream descending from the Gjertvasbra (at the base of 
the Styggedalstind) and the Keiser. Imposing scenery. We 
cross a small stream and follow the main valley, gradually and 
afterwards rapidly ascending to the N.W. to the culminating 
point of the Keiser Pass (4923 ft.), where snow generally lies, 
even in summer. The path, which continues easily traceable, 
follows the broad Helgedal. On the right is a spur of the Fana- 
raak (p. 151) ; on the left tower the Horunger (p. 181) in all their 
majesty. Before reaching the sseters of Turtegred-Gjessingen 
(p. 151), it is worth while to make a digression of an hour to the 
Oscarshoug (p. 151). From Turtegred to Fortun and Skjolden, 
see pp. 151-153. 

v. From the Vettisfos to Tvindehoug and Eidsbugarden. 

8-10 hrs. A grand expedition (guide desirable, 5'/2 kr.). In the re- 
verse direction a saving is effected by rowing across Lake Tyin (with 
one rower, for 1, 2, 3 persons, 80 6., 1 kr., or 1 kr. 20 6.). In this case 
a guide should be taken as far as Smaaget. 

(More fatiguing than the route described below, and not free from 
risk, is that through the Morka-Koldedal, whence the Kolded0la forming 
the Vettisfos descends. See Map, p. 40). 

Gaarden Vetti and the Vettisfos, see p. 53. We ascend the 
Vettisgalder in zigzags to the Vettismorksceter (2190 ft.), view the 
Vettisfos from above (comp. p. 53), and follow the path on the 
W. slope of the Stelsnaastind (see below), which leads in 1 /2 _3 /4 
hr. to the Fleskedals-Sceter. 

The highest of the three Stjglsnaastinder (6693 ft.) is most easily 
ascended from Gaarden Vetti (p. 53), where Anflnd Vetti should be en- 
gaged as a guide. The route ascends the Koldedal (see below) on the 
S. side of the mountain, and then descends on the N. side to the Fleske- 
dal, so that the ascent may be combined with the journey to Tvinde- 
houg and Eidsbugarden. Superb view of the Horunger (p. 181) and the 
profound Utladal (p. 174), into which the three Maradale descend. 

To the E. of the St0lsnaastinder rises the picturesque Falketind or 

174 Route 17. UTLADAL. Jotunheim. 

Koldedalstind (G700 ft.), from which an immense body of snow and ice 
descends eastwards to the lakes in the Koldedal of Valders. — Prof. 
Keilhau ascended the Falketind from the S. side in the course of Ms 
explorations in 1820, and has described the large 'Botn' or basin at the 
top (account published in the 'Budstik', 2nd year). 

Beyond the Fleskedals-Saeter the route follows the left (S.J 
bank of the Fleskedalselv. Striking retrospective view of the Horun- 
ger, and particularly of the Riingsbrae. To the N. we first observe 
the Friken (4656 ft. J, the top of which may be reached on horse- 
back from the saeter (fine view of the Horunger), and afterwards 
the precipices of the 'Naes' which separates the Fleskedal from the 
Uradal. (The latter, one of the most sequestered valleys in 
Jotunheim, is almost unknown ; at the E. end of it rises the 
Uranaastind , p. 165; and at the W. endj it debouches on the 
Utladal , about y 4 M. to the S. of Skogadalsbeen.) Our route 
through the Fleskedal gradually ascends to the defile of Smaaget, 
with the Koldedalstind rising on the right and the Fleskedalstind 
on the left, and then descends steeply to the Upper Koldedalsvand. 
It then leads to the S., following the Koldedela, to the Lower 
Koldedalsvand and the upper end of Lake Tyin, whence we pro- 
ceed either to the S. to Tvindehoug, or across the Eid to Eidsbu- 
garden (see p. 166). 

vi. From the Vettisfos to Redsheim through the Utladal, the 
Gravdal, and the Leirdal. 

2'/2 Days : — 1st. From Gaarden Vetti to Skogadalsbgen, 6 hrs. ; or 
as far as the Guridals-Scelre (or to Muradn, f/2 hr. from Skogadalsbuen, 
at which last place enquiry should be made if the Muradn saeter i9 ten- 
anted). Those who arrive at Skogadalsb<?en early enough, and intend 
passing the night there, may ascend the Skogadalsnaasi in the evening. 
— 2nd. From Skogadalsbizren to jthe I'tterdals Scetre, 10-11 hrs. ; to shorten 
which the previous night should be spent if possible at Jluradn; if ne- 
cessary, (he night may be spent in the refuge-hut on the Leirvand. — 
3rd. To liedsheim, 4-5 hrs. 

Gaarden Vetti and the Vettisfos , see p. 53 ; thence to the 
Fleskedals-Swier , p. 53. — The present route leads to the N., 
skirting the W. slope of the Friken (p. 53j, high above the deep 
Utladal, into which on the W. side the 'noses' running out from 
the Horunger plateau descend in huge precipices. Between the 
'noses' we obtain a view of the three Maradale in succession, by 
which they are separated. The first is the Stels-Maradal, thus 
named from its one 'Stel' or saeter, and the next are the Midt- 
Maradal and the Nordre-Maradal. At the heads of these valleys, 
which lie high above the Utladal and ascend gradually to the 
Horunger plateau, are imbedded the extensive Riingsbra;, Skaga- 
stelsbra;, and Maradalsbrce, with their adjacent snow-fields, from 
which rise the sharp, isolated, and snowless peaks of the Riings- 
tind (6497 ft. J, the Skagastelstinder (7876 ft.), and the Styggedals- 
tind (7710 ft.). Beyond the third Maradal we observe the two 
Vormelid-Sa>tre (about 2130 ft.), on the right bank of the Utla, 

Jotunheim. SKOGADALSB0EN. 17. Route. 175 

reached by a bridge across that stream. We follow the left bank, 
cross the Uradalselv descending from the Uradal on the right 
(p. 1<4), skirt a huge precipice at the base of the Uranaasi (about 
6235 ft. J, cross the Skogadalselv by a bridge, and (6 hrs. from 
Gaarden Vetti) reach the steters of — 

Skogadalsb#en (2914 ft.), at the entrance to the Skogadal. 
(Tolerable food at the lowest saeter, sometimes including 'Spege- 
kjed'; one broad bed with a heavy fur coverlet.) These saeters 
are among the few in the Utladal which are always inhabited in 
summer (usually from 24th June till the beginning of September), 
while most of the others are occupied at irregular intervals only, 
and others again have been abandoned. The Utladal saeters are 
built of stone and consist of an ante-room, an inner room, and a 
dairy. The smoke escapes by the 'Ljor' or hole in the roof. The 
cattle come from the Lysterfjord (a branch of the Sognefjord, 
p. 54) , and have therefore to be driven across the snow - clad 
Keiser Pass (p. 173). 

From Skogadalsbtfen (steep ascent by the second saeter) we may scale 
the Skogadalsnaasi (5250 ft.) without a guide (3-4 hrs. there and back). 
Grand mountain-view. To the W. the Horunger (but only the Maradals- 
tinder, Austabottinder, and Styggedalstinder) \ to the N. the Hestbrte- 
pigge and Sm0rstabtinder; more to the E. the Tvaerbotnhorn , Kirke, 
Uladalstinder, Raudalstinder, and Sletmarkhjzr ; then the Melkedalstinder, 
and to the S. the Uranaasi and SWlsnaastinder. 

The Ascent of the Stiggedalstind, the easternmost peak of the 
Horunger, should only be undertaken by experienced mountaineers (8-10 
hrs., there and back). The route crosses the Utla-bridge (2790 ft.), turns 
to the S., and crosses the Gjevtvaselv, which descends from the Keiser 
(p. 173), on the S. bank of which is the deserted Qjertvasbeen saeter 
(2950 ft.). The ascent of the Ojerlvasnaasi now begins. In 1-1 V2 hr. we 
reach the first plateau (4267 ft.), and in 3 hrs. more the Gjertvastop 
(46S7 ft.). About 490 ft. higher the base of the peak itself is reached, 
whence we ascend a slope of snow, then over rock with patches of snow, 
and lastly over the broad crest to the summit of the "Styggedalstind 
(7710 ft.). On the W. side is a sheer precipice about 1300 ft. in height. 
if stones are thrown down into the abyss , their reverberation takes 
several minutes to reach the ear. At a giddy depth below are the Gjert- 
vasbrae on the N. and the Maradalsbrae on the S. 

The saeter-path to the 8. of Gjertvasbjzfen, mentioned above, crosses 
the Klevbaklier , following the Utla, and leads up and down hill, past 
the Skogadalsfos (on the left) and the Uradalsfos , to the chalets of Vor- 
melid, or UHadalsholet (a pleasant walk of l'/2 hr.). From this most 
sequestered spot the SkagasMstind was ascended for the first time (p. 182). 

For the continuation of the journey through the Utladal a 
horse may generally be obtained at Skogadalsbeen to carry the 
traveller to a point beyond Muradn (lkr., but no saddles). We 
pass a bridge, crossed by the path leading to the Keiser (p. 173) 
and to the three Ouridals-Scetre, where the night may be spent. 
Our route follows the E. bank of the Utla, passes the debris of 
the Lusahouge, and ( 3 / 4 hr.) reaches the confluence of the Store 
and Vetle Vila. The latter descends from the Vetle ('little') Utla- 
dal, and is precipitated in several falls over the 'Baelte' or rocky 
barrier of Tunghoug. To the right rises the Hillerhei (5250 ft.), 

176 Route 11. LEIRVAND. Jotunheim. 

and to the left the Konysdalmaasi. The Store Utla, along -which 
the steep path ascends, has forced its passage through the 'Bselte' 
and dashes through its channel far below. Fine retrospective 
view of the Styggedalstind with the extensive Gjertvasbrse. 

Through the Vetle Vtladal a little frequented path leads between 
the Fanaraak group (p. 151)on the left and the Smerstabbrce on the right 
to the Important mountain-route across the Sognefjeld between the Baever- 
tun-Sseter and Fortun Csee R. 16, A). 

We next reach a higher region of the Utladal and (ahout H/ 2 
hr. from Skogadalsb»en) the Muradn Saeter (3327 ft.), on the op- 
posite (right) hank of the river. (Tolerable accommodation. Those 
who purpose passing the night here should enquire at Skogadals- 
been if the saeter is inhabited.) Grand view of the Styggedalstind 
to the W., the Kirke to the N., and the Raudalstind to the E. of 
this point. Those who require a horse here should attract the at- 
tention of the people at the sseter by shouting, unless they prefer 
wading through the icy stream, which, however, at an early hour 
is usually shallow. (The route through the Raudal to the Ojende- 
bod follows the left bank of the Utla : see p. 168.) 

Having crossed to the right bank of the stream at Muradn, 
we now follow its right bank, at first passing the base of the 
Hillerhei. On the S. side we observe the Skogadalsnaasi, the 
second Melkedalstind, and then a large waterfall descending from 
the Raudalsmund, adjoining which rise the Raudalstinder. The 
valley is broad, and partly overgrown with scrub. Nearly opposite 
the Raudal is the stone hut of Stor Halleren, used by reindeer- 
stalkers. An impressive view of the Horunger, which close the 
Store Utladal to the S.W., accompanies us as we ascend. The 
valley now takes the name of Gravdal. Vegetation gradually 
ceases. "We now have to wade through the Sandelv, descending 
on the left from the Skjortningsbrae, an offshoot of the immense 
Smerstabbrae. The crossing is best effected near the Utla. Ab- 
ove the glacier towers the curiously shaped *8merstabtind (Stab, 
'block' ; the same word as in Stabbur). 

As the path ascends the flora assumes a more and more Alpine 
character (Bartsia alpina, Pedicularis lapponica, Veronica alpina, 
Saxifraga caespitosa, Viscaria alpina, Gentiana nivalis, Pulsatilla 
vernalis, Ranunculus glacialis, the last of which is known as the 
Rensblomme). Having reached a height of 4925 ft., we at length 
come to the stone Refuge Hut on the Leirvand (4903 ft.), 5-6 hrs. 
from Skogadalsbaen. The hut contains a table, two benches, some 
firewood, and a few cooking utensils. Four routes converge here: 
that by which we have ascended through the Gravdal, another 
from the Gjendebod through the Store Aadal (p. 168), a third 
from R«dsheim through the Visdal, and the fourth from Radsheim 
through the Leirdal (see below). 

The route through the Vtsdal goes round the "N. side of the Leir- 
vand and ascends through the Kirkeglup, between the quaint looking 

Jotunheim. YTTERDALS [S.ETRE. 17. Route. 177 

Kirke (7073 ft.; difficult Id ascend) on the right and the Tran'botnhorn 
(7220 ft.) on the left, to the Kirkenkjeme, a series of tarns. Passing these 
it then descends into the Upper Visdal. On the right tower the vast 
Uladalstinder (p. 169) with their extensive glaciers. The route, which 
cannot be mistaken, afterwards unites with that coming over the "Ula- 
dalsvand from Lake Ojendin, from the S. (see p. 169). 

In descending the Leirdal , we skirt the imposing Ymesfjeld 
(p. 148) for a considerable distance, hut the curious looking Skars- 
tind(6576 ft.) is the only one of its peaks visible. To the left are the 
grand glacier tongues of the Smerstabbra and several of the Smer- 
stahtinder. Lastly we obtain a view of the Veslefjeld or Loftet 
(7317 ft.), which is most conveniently ascended from the Bcever- 
kjern-Safter on the Leiraas. After a walk of 4 hrs. from the Leir- 
vand we reach the — 

Ytterdals-Ssetre (2953 ft.; good quarters), prettily situated 
near the lofty fall of the Dumma. A good bridge crosses the Leira 
from this point to the Leiraas , which is traversed by the route 
from Radsheim to the Sognefjeld (see p. 149). From the saetcrs to 
R»dsheim, 4-5 hrs. more (see p. 149). 

vii. From Lillehammer to Lake Gjendin. 

3 Days: — 1st. To Espedals-Vicrk. — 2nd. To the Aakre-Swler, or 
to the Finbele-ftivtrr. — 3rd. To Gjendeosen. 

From Lillehammer to Kvisberg, the last station in the Gausdal, 
see p. 140. — JA good bridle-path leads from Kvisberg in \ l /% hr. 
to Vasenden or Espedals-Vark on the Espedalsrand (about 2600 ft. 
above the sea-level ; good quarters at A. C. Nielsen's), a lake 1 M. 
long, for the passage of which the landlord procures a boat (80 0. 
each person; for a single person 1 kr. 20 0.) At the N. end of the 
lake we cross an 'Eid', beyond which is the Bredsje, about Y2 M. 
long, forming the geological continuation of the Espedalsvand. 
Hans Harvorsen Flaate here provides a boat (40 0. each person ; 
60 0. for one) which conveys us to Veltvolden, or Rytviken, on the 
N. bank ; and we ascend thence in less than 1 hr. to the Dalssaeter. 
To the right rises the Rutinfjeld (4968 ft.), to the left the Stor- 
hepig (4727 ft.), and opposite us the Hedalsmukampen (5900 ft.), 
which may be ascended from the Hedal. 

Two routes lead from the Dalssaeter to Lake Gjendin, one lying 
to the N. of the other : — 

The Northern Path leads from the Dalssaeter to the Kampesater 
or to Veslund, both lying to the N. of Lake Olstappen (2 hrs.); the 
so-called 'Sikkilsdalsvei' then runs to the W. across the Skalfjeld, 
crosses the Muru Loner, which descends from the N., by a bridge, 
and reaches the Aakre-Saster (3130 ft.; 4-5 hrs.), whence the 
Aakrekampen (4633 ft.) may be ascended. The path then leads to the 
S. round the Sikkilsdalshe to the (l 1 /2 h r Sikkilsdals-Sseter, the 
property of an Englishman. If a boat is procurable, we row across 
the two Sikkilsdalsvande ; otherwise we must walk along the N. bank 
of the smaller lake, cross the 'Eid', and follow the 8. bank of the 

Baedeker's "Norway and Sweden. 12 

17S Route 17. GRININGDALSS/ETER. Jotunheim. 

larger lake, but at a considerable height above the water, in order 
to avoid the marshy ground. On the right rises the Sikkidalshorn, 
and on the left are the Gaapaapigge. We next cross a hill command- 
ing a beautiful view of the mountains and glaciers to the W., de- 
scend into the Sjodal, and cross the Sjoa to Gjendeosen (p. 181). 

The Soutliern Path leads from the Dalssaeter along the bank of 
the Espa, which descends from Lake Olstappen to the Bredvand. 
In the distance rises the Nautgardstind. The path , now difficult 
to trace, next crosses the Vinstra by a bridge, and leads thence 
nearly due N. to the (2 hrs.) Finherle-Sseter ; then across the Fin- 
belhoug to the Hineglelid-Sceter and the (3 hrs.) Flyseeter, pictur- 
esquely situated. — Thence to the Sikkidals-Sceter, where this 
route unites with that mentioned above, 2-3 hrs. more. 

viii. From Bj«lstad to Lakes Gjendin and Bygdin. 

L l /2-'2 Days, spending a night at the Griningsdals-Scetre. 

Bjelstad in the Hedal , see p. 138. The first quarter of the 
route is unattractive. It follows the left (N.) bank of the Sjoa, 
and leads past Aaseng and Fjerdinygrand to Gaarden Stene, to the 
N. of which is the Lussceter, commanding a magnificent distant 
view of Jotunheim , and well deserving a visit. "We next reach 
(2 hrs.) the Rind-Seeter, at the confluence of the Sjoa and the 
Ilindenelv. We may now follow the latter stream to (1 hr.) Bands- 
vserk [2397 ft. ; good ssters), and cross the Graalie to the S. to the 
Riddersprang (p. 179); or reach the same point from the Rind- 
Sseter by following the Sjoa. 

From the Riddersprang the route follows the right (E.) bank of 
the Sjoa to the Saliensceter and the Stutgangen- Sceter. We now 
quit the Sjodal and turn to the S.E., round the Stutgangen- Kamp, 
and thus reach the Griningsdal, with its saeters (good quarters). 

The patli leads round the large rocky knoll to the W. of the 
Griningsdal to the Kampsater and the Grasviksseter, at the N. end 
of the upper Sjodalsoand, From this point we may row to the 
Besstrandsceter or Bessesater(j>. 180), and walk thence to Gjendeosen ; 
or we may walk the whole way thither, skirting the E. bank of the 
Sjodalsvand the first part of the way. — Gjendeosen, see p. 181. 

From Gjendeosen an interesting route (to which , however, the great 
difficulty of crossing the Leirungselv is a serious drawback) leads through 
the 0vre Leirungsdal to the Svartdal, and thence across the Svarldalsaaxle 
(p. 164) to the GJendebod (p. 167). Guide necessary (5 kr. 20 0.). 

Fkom Gjendeosen to Lake ISygdin (6-8 hrs. , guide 4 kr. ; 
not a very attractive route). The path leads on the S. bank of the 
Sjoa to the Leirungsvand and passes round the E. side of the lake. 
It then ascends the course of a brook to the S. to the Brurskar- 
knatte , avoiding the extensive marshes of the Leirungselv in the 
valley of that stream. Around the Leirungsdal rise the imposing 
Synsliorn, Knutshulstind, Kjarnhultind, and Hegdebrattet. 

At the top of the hill towards the S. we reach a dreary plateau 

Jotunheim. FUGLES.ETER. 17. Route. 179 

called the Valdersfly (Fly, 'marshy mountain -plateau'), with its 
numerous ponds. Keeping a little to the E., we then descend liy 
the Bypekjern stream to the Vinstervand or Strernivand. For a short 
distance we follow the W: bank of the lake, cross the Vinstra by 
a bridge, turn towards the S.W., past a spur of the liitiltorn, 
which has been visible from the Valdersfly onwards, and thus reach 
the Rau fjords-Hotel near the E. end of Lake 13ygdin (see p. l(i'2). 

Those who take this journev in the reverse directum should row 
from the Raufjords-Hotel to the Sutuisteter at the E. end of Lake 15 v - 
din, and along the Breilaupa (p. 1C3), which descends from the Kalvaa- 
hpgda on ,the N., ascend towards the N.K. to the Valdersfly, on which 
the route unites with that described above. 

ix. From Storvik to Lake Gjendin. 

i'f-z-2 Days. A walk which embraces several interesting points. Guide 
desirable as far as the Fuglesoeter. The ni-ht mav be spent at the Fugle- 
S(eter or at the Veotien-Swter. 

From the Gudbrandsdal to Serum and Storvik, see p. 143. — 
From Storvik the path ascends the right (E.) bank of the Thesseclo 
to the Rlngncessmter, thence to the S.W. to the *Oxefos, o: Endinfos, 
and across the river to the Nordscetre at the N.W. end of the 
Thessevand (about 1 1/ 2 hr.), a lake % M. long, abounding in trout, 
and which is said to have been presented by St. Olaf to the in- 
habitants of Gardmo (p. 143). In iy 2 hr. more we row to tho 
Naaversater at the S. end of the lake, whence the route mentioned 
at p. 171 leads through the Smaadal to the Visdal. 

The path now traverses the disagreeable marhes formed by the 
Smaadela at its influx into the lake. A horse may possibly be ob- 
tained at the Naaversaeter to enable to traveller to cross the swamp 
dryshod ; if not , he must keep as far as possible to the right in 
order to avoid it. Beyond this point the path leads to the S. to the 
(2-3 hrs. from the lake) — 

Pugleseeter (3035 ft. ; good quarters). If time permit, the trav- 
eller may ascend the Fuglehe, in order to obtain a view of the Jo- 
tunheim Mountains, among which the 'Botn' of the Glittertind 
(p. 170) presents a particularly striking appearance. 

About Y2 hr. t0 the S. of the Fuglesaeter we reach the pictur- 
esque, pine-clad Sjodal, where a bridge leads to the E. to the right 
bank of the Sjoa. Near this spot, according to tradition, the 'Val- 
dersridder' with his abducted bride, when pursued by the 'Sand- 
buridder', sprang across the rocky chasm, which accordingly bears 
the name of Ridderspranget. (The route to Randsvserk crosses this 
bridge; see p. 178.) 

Our route follows the left (W.) bank of the Sjoa, and after 
about 1 hr. quits the Sjodal and ascends to the W. to the Veolien- 
sseter (good quarters), near the Veodal, in about '/a hr. more. 

. The neighbouring " Veoknap commands an admirable survey of the 
Glittertind, Nautgardstind, etc. — An uninteresting route, chiefly used 
by reindeer-stalkers, leads through the Veodal and crosses the Skautfly, 
which commands an imposing view of the Ulittertind to the N. and the 


180 Route 17. BESSTRANDS&ETER. Jotunheim. 

huge Veobrse to the M.: it then descends by the Skantaelv In the Nedre 
guleims-Sce/er in the Visdal (p. 170). 

The route now descends into the Veodal, crosses the 
by a bridge, and reaches the (l'/ 2 hr.) Hindsseter in the Sjodal, 
near the influx of the Store Hinden into the Sjoa. 

A path leads hence, crossing the 8j< a by a bridge, to the Slutgangen 
Safer on the E. side of the Sjodal, and to the * Griningsdals-Saitre (p. 178), 
which command a fine view of the Nautgardstind to the W. 

After wading through, or leaping across, the Store and the Vesle 
('little'] Hinden, we next reach (about li/ 2 hr.) the three — 

Buslienssetre (2648 ft. ; good quarters at all). See Map, p. 40. 

The Ascent of the Nautgakdstind ('cattle-yard peak'), a broad and 
partly snow-clad pyramid but with a summit, free from snow, may be 
made from these sceters in 3-4 hours. It is sometimes spoken of as a 
'Dametind', as the ascent has been frequently accomplished by ladies. 
The path follows the cattle-track ('kuraak') to the Hindfly, where it turns 
to the left to the Smdre Tvceraa and round the Russe Rundhe, traversing 
'Ur'. Fine view hence, to the S.W., of the Tykningssuen (7710 ft.). We 
now come in sight of the slightly flattened and snowless summit of the 
'Nautgardstind (7610 ft.), to which we have still a steep ascent of about 
•/j hr. on the N.E. side of the cone. On the W. side the Tind ends in 
a vast 'Botn' or basin, 1600 ft. in depth. To the E. the view embraces 
the extensive 'Ssetervidder' of the Gudbrandsdal with their isolated peaks, 
as far as the Bondane and the Sfcflentind in the J0fsterdal. The pro- 
minent mountains to the S. are the Beshjzr and the Knutshulstind, while 
far below us lies the dark-green Eusvand. The grandest peaks to the 
W. are the Memurutind, the Heilstuguh0, and the LeirhU, with their con- 
nected glaciers; then the Galdh0pig (which has been likened to a girl's 
head with a cap), and nearer us the Olittertind. 

From the Rusuek S^etre to the Memurubod on Lake Gjendin, a 
It ng and somewhat fatiguing day's walk. The route at first follows the 
left bank of the Rus&a Elv, crosses the Sendre and JVordre Tv(crna (which 
must be forded), and reaches the (3 hrs.) Rvsvasbod, at the E. end of the 
crescent-shaped Eusvand (4263 ft.), a lake 1 M. in length. The little 
frequented path skirts the N. bank of the lake, crossing several torrents 
descending from the Kjcernhul, the Blaakjivvnhul, and other mountains. 
To the S. are the precipices of the massive Beshj? (see below). At the (3 hrs.) 
\V. end of the lake we ascend the Rusglop, between the Gloptind on the 
S. and the Tykningssuen on the N., and then pass the Hesttjern, lying to 
the right. After following the height to the S. for some distance farther, 
there is a steep descent to the (3-4 hrs.) Memuruhod (p. 167J, where the 
muddy Memuruelv is crossed by a bridge. Thence to the Gjendebod, p. 167. 

The route from the Rusliensaeter to Gjendeosen crosses the 
Rutsenelv and leads to the S. over a spur of the Besstrandfjeld to 
the (1 '/2 hr.) Besstrandseeter at the W. end of the lower Sjodalsvand. 
It next skirts the W. bank of the upper and larger Sjodalsvand, 
affording a view of the Mugnafjeld, Synshorn, and other lofty moun- 
tains towards the S.W., and reaches in l 1 /^ hr. more the two — 

Bessessetre (3205 ft. ; good quarters at both). 

The Ascknt of the Vhslefjeld, with the Besh0 and Besegg is 
interesting (guide to the Besegg unnecessary, but to the Besb0 advisable). 

The Ascent of the Feslefjeld , with the Besh0 and Besegg is 
interesting (guide to the Besegg unnecessary, but to the Besh0 advisable). 
Near the sa'ters we cross the Bessn, which descends from the Eesvand, by 
a bridge, and follow the path on its S. bank indicated by Varder ('stone heaps') 
to the height by the Bcsprind, where the routes divide. A gradual ascent to 
the right leads to the lofty BeshjB (7547 ft.), while to the left lies the 
route to the barren and stony Veslefjeld (l'/s-2 hrs.). The latter com- 

Jotunheim. HORUNGER. 17. Route. 181 

mands a view of the whole of the dark-green Lake Gjendin, with the 
Svartdalspig to the S.W. and the Skarvdalstind to Hie W.; most im- 
posing, however, "is the survey of the neighbouring Besh|», while to the 
N. rises the Nautgardstind. — We may now proceed towards the W. 
along the crest of the Veslefjeld, rising between the Besvand and the 
Gjendin, which lies nearly 1U00 ft. lower than the Besvand. This crest 
gradually narrows to the "Besegg, a very curious ridge or arete, a few 
feet only in width, descending precipitously to both lakes, particularly 
to the Gjendin. Travellers with steady heads may follow the giddy 'edge' 
for V2 nr M or even as far as the Eid separating the two lakes, and not 
rising much above the level of the Besvand. It is also possible to pro- 
ceed to the Memurubod (p. 167) by following the base of the Besho. 
It is', however, preferable to return to the Bessesseter , or to descend 
direct to Gjendeosen. 

From the Besse saeters we have a walk of about 1 hr. more to — 
Gjendeosen [Os, 'mouth', 'estuary'), situated at the efflux of 
the Sjoa from Lake Qjendin, wheTe a club-hut ('Hotel Gjendes- 
heim') affords good quarters. — The journey by boat to Ojendebod 
takes 6 hrs. (with two rowers, for 1, 2, 3 persons, 6 kr., 6 kr. 80 0., 
8 kr.), but is not practicable in stormy weather. -» 
From Gjendeosen to Lake Bygdin, see p. 178. 

x. From Fortun to the Horunger. 

Ascent of the Dyrhougstind and back to Fortun, l'/ 2 day, the night 
being spent at the Riingadn Swters. 

From Skjolden on the Sognefjord to (Y2 ^0 Fortun, see p. io'2. 
— Fortun (where Ole Solfestsen is a good guide) is the best start- 
ing-point for a visit to the Horunger. The road (see p. 152) ascends 
to Gaarden Berge, beyond which there is a bridle-path, leading in 
3-4 hrs. to the saeters of Ojessingen and Turtegred (2790 ft.). Thus 
far, or even to the **Oscarshoug, 940 ft. higher, which should 
certainly be visited, the traveller may ride (comp. p. 151). 

The path then crosses the boisterous Helgedalselo and ascends 
to the S. to the 1^2 h r - saeters of Riingadn, also known as the 
Riingsscetre or Skagastele (the lowest of which, kept by a civil 
Budeie, or dairy-woman, affords tolerable quarters). The scenery 
here is very striking. The view embraces part of the immense 
*Horunger, one of the wildest mountain-groups in Jotunheim, 
with their precipitous slopes, picturesque pinnacles, and numerous 
glaciers, to which the green valleys below present a pleasing con- 
trast. The sharpness of the peaks and ridges is caused by the 
rapid disintegration of the 'gabbro' rock of which the mountains 
are formed. The name Horunger is said to be an ancient Aryan 
word, probably signifying 'large mountains' (akin to the Greek 
oqo£, Slavonic gor, and the horje in the Voss district). 

By leaving Fortun at a very early hour the traveller may reach 
the Riingadn saeters in time to ascend the Dyrhougstind the same 
day, and may even return to Fortun the same evening (a very long 
and fatiguing day). It is preferable, however, to spend a night at 
the Riingadn, especially if the traveller desires a glimpse of saster- 
life. The ascent of the Tind (there and back) tikes about 3 hours. 

182 Route 1H. D^RHOUfiSTIND. From Moldc 

Above the ssetcrs tlie route crosses the bridge autl ascends the 
Itiingsdal as far as a point where the Dyrhoug rises immediately 
to the left. It then ascends steeply and follows the ridge to the 
S. to the summit of the first Dyrhougstind (6537 ft.). Towards 
the E. we survey the Skagastelstinder, to the right of which are 
the wild Maradalstinder ; to the W. the Soleitinder, Austabottindcr, 
and Riingstinder ; and to the S. the other Dyrhougstinder, rising 
in an amphitheatre to the last and highest (6810 ft.), which is 
still unnamed. To the left, lower down, lies the Skagastelsbrce, 
with a small ice-lake (4267 ft.), and to the right is the Riingsbrw. 
Between the Skagastelstinder and the Dyrhougstinder peep the 
snow-clad mountains on Lakes Bygdin and Tyin. To the N. rise 
the Fanaraak and the Smerstabtinder, and towards the W. stretches 
the enormous Jostedalsbrce as far as the Lodalskaupe. The traveller 
is particularly cautioned against venturing too far along the sharp 
arrtc with its loose crumbling stones. 

The highest Skagastelstind was ascended for the first time by Mr. 
Slingsby, on 2 1st July, .187(5, who started from Riingadn. The ascent was 
also made by two Norwegians in 1877, accompanied by Ole Solfestsen, 
who describes the expedition as exceedingly laborious and dangerous. 

18. From Molde to Throndhjem. 

Of the many different routes which may he chosen from Molde 
to Throndhjem, partly by land and partly by water, the following 
are the four most important , the first of which (a) is by far the 
most interesting, and the second (b) by far the most expeditious, 
while either of the others (c, d) may be taken for the sake of variety 
by travellers who have already seen the Eomsdal. 

a. Via the Eomsdal and Dovrefjeld. 

31 M. .Steamboat to Veblvngsnws (3 1 /* M.) in 3-5 hrs. (see p. 131). 
Hoad through the Jlomsdal (diligence three times weekly, see R. 15; not 
recommended) to Dombaas 9 3 /4 M. ; thence over the Dovrefjeld to Steren 
13 5 /» M. (fast stations: horse and carriole Ikr. 800. per mile). Railway 
from S(0ren to Throndhjem (4'/3 M ) in about 3'/',> hrs. — As almost all 
the stations afford good accommodation, the traveller may divide the 
journey into longer or shorter stages according to circumstances. If pos- 
sihle, however, six days should lie devoted to it, especially if the R< ms- 
dal has not yet. heen visited: 1st. From Molde to Aak; 2nd, Stueflaaten; 
3rd, Dombaas; 4th, Drivstnen ; 5th, Oarlid; 6th, Steren , and by evening 
train to Throndhjem. If pressed for time, the traveller may by quitting 
Molde at. a very early hour reach Onneim on the first day, Dombaas on 
the second, Avne on the third, and Throndhjem on the fourth. — As al- 
ready mentioned , the whole of the Komsdal is worthy of the notice of 
pedestrians, a party of whom, by engaging a stolkjserre for their luggage, 
will walk from Aak to Stueflaaten as quickly as they can drive. From 
Stueflaaten to Dombaas, however, driving is preferahle. From Dombaas 
to Fogstuen again a good walker will outstrip a carriole; and walking is 
also recommended from Jerkin to Drivstuen , and from Austbjerg to 

From Molde to Dombaas, see R. 15. Dombaas lies at the S. 
base of the Dovrefjeld, the most famous of the Norwegian mountain 

to Thronclhjem. DOVKEFJIELD. 18. Itnute. 183 

ranges , which separates Southern (Sendenfjeldske) from Northern 
(Nordenfjeldske) Norway. As the Norwegian mountains do not form 
well-defined chains like the Alps , but consist of vast table-lands, 
intersected here and there by valleys , there are no passes here in 
the Swiss sense of the word. After reaching the lofty plateau the 
road runs for many miles without much variation of level, and then 
descends gradually to the 'nordenfjeldske' valleys. A great part of 
the route traverses lofty , bleak , and treeless solitudes , passing 
rock-strewn tracts, swamps, gloomy lakes, and dirty masses of 
snow, and is therefore far from picturesque. The solemn grandeur 
of the scenery, however, has a peculiar weird attraction of its own, 
and the pure mountain-air is remarkably bracing and exhilarating. 
For botanists, zoologists, and sportsmen there are also abundant 
attractions. Beyond Kongsvold, however, the character of the land- 
scape changes. The road traverses the highly picturesque gorges of 
the Driva and the Orkla, beyond which the country presents a more 
smiling aspect and is comparatively well peopled. As Throndhjem 
is approached the vegetation will strike the traveller as being re- 
markably rich for so northern a latitude (nearly the same as that 
of the S. coast of Iceland). 

The road at first ascends very rapidly , traversing moor and 
swamp, scantily overgrown with stunted pines. Looking back , we 
obtain an imposing survey of the mountains. To the W. lies the 
La5s»vand (p. 135), which we passed on the way from the Romsdal 
to Dom baas. In about 1 hr. we reach the plateau. The poles (now 
rendered unnecessary by the telegraph-posts) mark the direction 
of the road in winter, when the snow sometimes lies here to a 
depth of 16-20 feet. The road crosses the Fogsaae, an affluent of 
the Glommen. To the left are extensive mountain-plains where 
the sources of the Driva take their rise , the waters of which de- 
scend to Sundal. On the Fogstuhe we observe three ssters on the 
right and others to the left. To the N.W. rise the Hundsje and 
Skredja-Fjeld, and beyond them the Snehcetta, the snow-field and 
glacier of which in its W. basin ('Botten') are distinctly visible. 

7 /s M. (pay for 1 M. , but not in the reverse direction) f Fog- 
stuen (3190 ft. ; tolerable station) is one of the four 'Fjeldstuer', 
or mountain-inns, which were founded by government on the 
Dovrefjeld for the accommodation of travellers so far back as 
1107-10. The landlords still receive an annual subsidy from go- 
vernment, and it is part of their duty to keep the roads open in 
winter and to forward the mails. The other three 'Fjeldstuer' are 
JeTkin, Kongsvold, and Drivstuen. 

'From my inmost soul I commended the good king Epstein , who in 
1120 built these four Fjeldstuer on the Dovrefjeld for the benefit of way- 
farers crossing the mountain'. (L. v. Such.) 

From Fogstuen the old road, now disused, leads across the lofty 
Havdbakke (3750 ft.) direct to Toftemoen in the Gudbrandsdal (p. 136). — 
L. v. Buc7>, who traversed this route at the end of April (i.e. in winter) 
Writes: 'The lofty pyramid of the Snehsetta then came in sight in the 

184 Route 18. JERKIN. From Molde 

midst of the fog, several miles to (he north. So rises Mont Blanc , when 
seen from the Brevent , from its mantle of ice. It is not a mere moun- 
atin , but a mountain on a mountain. A great and sublime apparition 
commanding the whole of this solitude'. — An excursion may be made 
from Fokstuen to the Hardbakke, if time permit?. 

Another, but fatiguing excursion (5-6 M., a long day's walk) may be 
taken to the summit of the Snehietta and thence down to Jerkin. The 
route (no path) leads past the Nyswter and the Grisungsknalt (Knatt, 
Knott, Nolt , 'top', 'knoll'), exactly in the direction of the rinehsetta. The 
Knatt , about 1 M. from Fogstuen , commands a magnificent view of the 
Snehsetta and of the Svanaadalsfjeld , while below us flows the Grysuns- 
elv , the chief source of the Driva. Crossing several hills and the Ein- 
angshe, we at length reach a hunter's hut , from which the ascent of the 
Snehietta, over a chaos of stones (Stenur) and patches of snow (Snefond), 
presents no difficulty. The mountain is not unlike the Mte. Somma ad- 
joining Vesuvius. In the adjacent basin is a small glacier with a pond 
at its foot. (J/. Durocher has described this route in the Annales des 
Mines, 3rd series , vol. xii.) From the summit we may then descend to 
Jerkin in 4-5 hrs. — The ascent of the mountain from Jerkin is, however, 
preferable to that from Fogstuen (see below). 

The road from Fogstuen to Jerkin is nearly level the greater 
part of the way, and the scenery is monotonous. "We pass several 
lakes (Nysctter Lake, Vardesje, and Afsje) formed by the Fogsaae, 
which farther on is called the Folda. On the left rises the insig- 
nificant Vardesjehe , and on the right are the Blaaheer. On the 
Vardesjer [also known as the Foldasje), and to the right farther 
on, there are several saHers. 

l 7 / 8 M. f Jerkin [3140 ft. ; excellent station), situated in the 
midst of wild and desolate scenery , is a good starting-point for 
reindeer-stalkers and anglers , and also for the ascent of the Sne- 
hcetta. The * Kitchen of the old house, with its antique carved fur- 
niture, is an object of great interest. One of the chairs dates from 
1676. Pleasant walk to the Jerkinhe, the highest point on the old 
road (4100 ft.). 

The Snehsetta (7770 ft. ; 'snow-hat'), which ranks about sixth 
among the mountains in Norway in point of height, is most con- 
veniently ascended from Jerkin. The ascent was accomplished for 
the first time by Esmark at the end of last century, and has very 
frequently been made since. (Guide 2, horse 4 kr. ; 'Niste', or 
provisions, necessary.) For 3-4 hrs. we ride across an exceedingly 
bleak rocky and mossy tract , crossing several torrents, and lastly 
ascend on foot for 2-3 hrs. over masses of rock covered with snow 
and ice. For the whole excursions 12 hrs. at least should be 
allowed. In clear weather (which is rare on the Dovrefjeld) the 
view is very extensive in every direction, but deficient in pictur- 
esqueness and far inferior to that from the Galdh»pig. The chief 
object of interest is the finely shaped mountain itself, composed 
of mica-slate. 

A not unattractive route, with fast stations, leads from Jerkin through 
the Foldal to Lille Elvedal in the valley of the Glommen (railway-sta- 
tion , p. 203). The stations are: l!/ 2 M. t Dalen , l'/s M. + Krokhaugen, 
l 5 /s 31- iRyhatigen, and 2>/2 M. (pay for 3) i Gjelten. From Krokhaugen a 
road leads to the S. to the Atnevand and the Rdndwie (see p. 203). 

to Throndhjem.. DRIVSTUEN. 18. Route. 185 

The new road from Jerkin to Kongsvold ascends a hill to the 
W. , and then descends gradually to the Svonaae , the course of 
which it now follows. We enjoy a very striking *Vibw of the 
Snehstta, which looks quite near. The scenery here is grand and 
majestic , especially when seen by the twilight of a midsummer 
night. The road crosses the boundary between the Stift of Hamar 
and that of Throndhjem, and gradually descends into the valley 
of the rapid Driva, the course of which it follows down to Aune. 

7 / 8 M. (pay for iy 4 ) f Kongsvold (about 3100 ft. ; excellent 
station) also forms good headquarters for sportsmen. The Sneha?tta 
may be ascended hence almost as easily as from Jerkin. Beyond 
Kongsvold the road descends through the very picturesque *Ea- 
vine of the Driva , the first part of which at least should be tra- 
versed on foot. In winter the route formerly used was the frozen 
and snow-clad river , while the summer-route , called the Vaar- 
stige ('spring-path'), was a very steep and tortuous path on the 
right bank of the stream. Pedestrians are recommended to follow 
this disused route, which is very interesting, and to send on their 
horses to the point where it rejoins the road. This ravine is one 
of the very grandest in Norway. It is bounded by enormous preci- 
pices , from which numerous waterfalls descend, while the Driva 
itself forms a series of magnificent cataracts. The vegetation is 
poor, the wild cherry {Hag, Sambucus nigra) not blossoming here 
till the middle of July. Farther down, beyond the 13th milestone 
from Throndhjem , the valley expands, and the slopes, still of an 
imposing character, are clothed with birches. The carefully-kept 
forest here belongs to government. The Skogvogter (under -fo- 
rester) lives at Nsstadvolden , above Drivstuen , and the Forst- 
assistent (upper-forester) at Dombaas. These functionaries again 
are presided over by a Forstmester. The vegetation becomes 
richer as we descend. By the river-side are a number of Hehuse, 
or hay-huts. 

l 3 / 8 M. f Drivstuen (good station), the fourth of the 'Fjeld- 
stuer' on the Dovrefjeld , though less frequented than the two 
last, also affords good summer-quarters. Birches now appear ; then 
small gaards , cottages of the 'Husma?nd' or labourers, and soon a 
few fields of barley and potatoes. Scenery still fine. The road 
crosses the Driva by a handsome new Bridge, a little beyond which 
is a gorge called Magalaupet {Laup, 'gorge', 'gully'), crossed by a 
genuine old-fashioned Norwegian bridge , where the traveller 
should alight to inspect the scene. The Driva forms imposing wa- 
terfalls here. The broad Drivadal, a lower and more fertile zone 
of the valley, now suddenly comes in view, and we descend to — 

178 M. (pay for l!/ 2 ) \'Rise (tolerable station). The Vinstra, 
descending from the left, falls into the Driva here. The Dovrefjeld 
.terminates at — 

7 /s M. -j- Aune (about 17:~J0 ft. ; good station, but charges com- 

186 Route 19. BJERKAKER. From Molde 

plained of), sometimes called Ny-Aune or Ny-0vne, in the Opdal. 
To the W. are the church and parsonage of Opdal, and the Sana- 
torium of Dr. Arentz , the physician of the district. To the W. 
rises the lofty Munkvoldsfjeld, and to the E. the Allmandbjerg. 

From Aunc an interesting road diverges to the left, following the 
Driva, which is afterwards called the Svndalselv, and descends the 'Sundal 
to Sundalseren, whence a steamboat at present runs in 7 3 /4 hrs. to Chris- 
tiansund <in Tuesday and Saturday mornings. The stations on this road 
are: 1 M. + Aalbu, l 3 /g M. + ,S7i;>e)'," '/» M- + Gjera, l'/ 2 M. t StorfaU (good), 
lYs M. f HundaUeren. l!y Oj0ra the road crosses the Graaura, a hill over 
which the old road toiled with difficulty. From Sundalsgfren a visit may 
lie paid to the, wild "Lilledal , to the S. , 'about '/a M. distant. — If the 
steamer from Sundal does not suit, the traveller may row to (2 M.) Eids- 
aren, whence he may proceed cither to Molde or to Throndhjem (comp. 
p. 189. — Or we may row from Sundal to (I1/4 M) f/xriuhtlxeiren, cross the 
hills (a moderate day's walk, with guide) to Gaard Reiten in the ; Eikis- 
dal, at the head of the Eiki.idalsvand , row down the lake to (1 II.) 0verrtas, 
near its N.W. end, and walk or drive thence to ( 3 / 4 M.) Neste on the 
J:'rhfjord, a branch of the Langfjord (steamboat to Molde Hon. and Wed. 
in 5 3 /4 hrs.). The Eikisdal is one of the grandest and most picturesque 
valleys in Norway, vying with the Ilomsdal , and well worthy of a visit, 
but no good accommodation is to be had. — The scenery passed by the 
steamer between Sundal and Christiansund is interesting at first t but 
soon becomes tame and barren. 

Beyond Anne the road quits the valley of the Driva and be- 
comes uninteresting'. It follows the course of the Byna and crosses 
the low watershed between that stream and the Orkla, which after- 
wards falls into the Throndhjem Fjord at0rkedalseren (see below"). 
Beyond — 

l'/ 4 M. f Stucn, or Nystuen (a fair station), the road descends 
to the Orkla, which is crossed by a handsome bridge. The river 
forms a fine waterfall here. Then a steep ascent to — 

1 M. j- Austbjerg (1365 ft.; tolerable), from which the road, 
still ascending , and traversing forest , follows the magnificent 
*It<inine of the Orkla, the bed of which in 700 ft. below us. 

l 1 /^ M. f Bjerkaker (good station) lies at the highest point of 
this part of the road. Beautiful views , particularly of the snow- 
mountains to the S.W. 

From Bjerkaker a road with fast stations (1 kr. 60 0. per horse per 
mile) leads to (S'/4 II.) 0kkkdals0ken (or Xerrig) on the Throndhjem 
Fjord, whence a steamboat starts for Throndhjem four times weekly. 
The road passes Gaard Noel, where a famous drinking-horn is still 
shown, presented by Christian V.. out of which Charles XIV. (Bernadottc), 
Oscar I. , and Charles XV. respectively drank when on their way to be 
crowned at Throndhjem. The horn bears inscriptions relating to its hi- 
story. A huge birch-tree at Hoel. 9 ft. in circumference, is also worthy 
of notice. The first station is (l>/4 II.) \Haarstad. Farther on we pass 
Gaard Uf . with a very old building, the wocd-carving on which is said 
to have been executed by the 'Jutuls' (giants) with their finger-nails. 
Xext station (l'/i M.) t Grill; then (1 II.) + Ealstad , from which a road 
leads to the W. via Garberg and Foseid to (6 II.) fSurendalsetren, whence 
a steamer runs to Christiansund twice weekly. Our road, which leads 
due N. , passes Lekkens Kobbei'vccrk, crosses the Orkla. and next reaches 
(l 3 /8 M.) t Aarlivold (good quarters), whence a road to the S.W. also leads 
by Garberg and Foseid to (6V4 M) Surendalserren , while another road 
leads to the E. to the (3 M.) Hovin railway-station. From 0V4 3!.) \Bak, 

to Throndhjem. CHRISTJANSIND. Ifi. Route. 187 

Ihe next station on our route, a. road leads to tlio E. via By and Ralf- 
norssavden to (3 5 /s M.) Heiindal , a railway-station near Throndhjem 
(p. 199). We next reach (l'/g M.) 1 0rkedalsjBren (Inn, kept by the school- 
master) "from which Throndhjem may be reached by steamboat in3-4hrs. 
(enrap. p. 190). 

Beyond IVJerkaker the scenery continues fine. The road tra- 
verses the Soknedal and follows the course of the Igla, and after- 
wards that of the and Hauka-Elv , the united waters 
of which fall into the Gula at Sterol). The vegetation becomes 
richer, and the traveller might imagine he was approaching a more 
southern region instead of so high a latitude. 

l'/s M. fOarlid (good station) lies on a height to the left. The 
road descends through a picturesque ravine with waterfalls and 
mills. In the reverse direction this stage is trying to the horses. 

7 /g M. -j- Prasthus (very poor). Handsome gaards to the right. 
Adjacent is the church of Soknedal or Sogndal. 

i l /n M. f Steren, or Engen i Steren (Hotel, adjoining the rail- 
way-station, dear). Travellers arriving here and intending to 
start again soon by train should drive direct to the railway-station. 
— From Steren to Throndhjem (about 2^2 hrs. by train), seep. 199. 

b. By Direct Steamer. 

Steamboat 4 times weekly from Jlolde to ChrisHansund (12 sea-miles, 
in 5-6 hrs.) and Throndhjem (34 sea-miles, in 14-16 hrs. ; fare 40 or 25«. 
per mile). 

The direct steamboat-voyage from Molde to Throndhjem , or 
in the reverse direction, is of course far more expeditious than 
any of the other routes, and is pleasant in fine weather; and the 
bold and barren rocky coast is not destitute of interest. On quit- 
ting the Molde Fjord we obtain a fine retrospective view of its 
charming scenery, and then steer to the N., between the mainland 
on the right and the islands of Ottere and Gorsen on the left, to 
(4 M.) Bod, on a promontory of the mainland , where some of the 
steamboats touch. The steamer here emerges from the 'Skjsergaard' 
or island-belt, and traverses the Hustadsvik, skirting the bold and 
exposed coast, where the sea is often rough, for nearly 8 M. (this 
part of the voyage taking about 3 hrs.). On r the right are Ilustad 
and the abrupt promontory of Stemshesten. 

Christiansund (Mellerup's Hotel; Goddal's; both fairly good), 
an important little trading town with 7489 inhab. , the staple 
commodity of which is fish, is picturesquely situated on three 
small rocky islands to the N. of the larger Avere and Frede. The 
town itself is uninteresting, but the small steamboats plying 
between it and Sundalseren, Surendalsaren, and Vinjeeren afford 
a good opportunity for a visit to the picturesque neighbouring 

Steamboats. To Molde 4 times weekly in 4-6 hrs. ; to Throndhjem 
4 times weekly by the large coasting steamers in 8-10 hrs. , and 3 times 
weekly by a "local steamer in 10 hrs. ; to Sundalseiren, Mon. and Frid. 

188 Route 18. CHRIST1ANSUND. From Molde 

8 a.m., in 7 3 /4 hrs., returning on the following mornings; to Surendals- 
eren, Mnn. and Frid. 9 a.m., in 6'/2 hrs., returning on the following 
mornings; to Vinjeeren , Tues. and Frid., 7 a.m., in 6'/2 hrs., returning 
on the following mornings; to Korvog, on the Kornstadfjord, ThurS. and 
Sat. 8 a.m., in 372 hrs., returning the same days. 

The most interesting of the fjords traversed by these steamers is 
that of Sundal (p. 186), the scenery at the head of which is very im- 
posing. — Those who take an overland route from Molde to Christian- 
sund (or in the reverse direction) take the Kornstad steamer from Eide, 
or the Sundal steamer from Eids0ren, or from'Thingvold, or from Strand 
near Battenfjordsjzrren, to Christiansund. {Comp. K. 18, c, d.) 

The course of the steamboat beyond Christiansund is well pro- 
tected by islands , the largest of which are those of Smelen and 
Hilteren on the left. The Hittcre, on which is the station of Havn, 
is famed for its deer, the season for shooting which begins on 1st 
September. At the narrow entrance to the very extensive Thrond- 
hjem Fjord, on the N. side, is Bejan, a little beyond which is the 
promontory of Agdences on the right, once a harbour of the Vikings. 
Farther on we pass the entrance to the 0rkedalsfjord on the right, 
and soon come in sight of the Munkholm and Throndhjem beyond 
it, environed with its smiling green hills. Picturesque scenery 
all the way from Christiansund, though far inferior in interest to 
the Dovrefjeld or even to the Surendal route. 

c. ViS, the Eornstadfjord or the Battenfjord and Christiansund. 

Road from Molde via 0degaard to Eide on the Kornstadfjord 3'/'2 M. ; 
from Molde via Lenset to Battenfjordseren, also 3 l /2 M. ; both roads fairly 
good, but as the stations are 'slow', horses should be engaged at Molde 
for the whole distance, in order that the alternatives of delay on the 
route or sending Forbud may be avoided. — Steamboat from Eide to 
Christiansund (3 hrs.) at present on Thursdays and Saturdays about 1p.m.; 
from Battenfjords0ren to Christiansund (2 hrs.) on Tuesdays and Satur- 
days about 12.30. 

Travellers who dread the passage of the exposed and often 
stormy Hustadsvik (see above) may select this pleasant route , by 
which on certain days Christiansund may be reached in 8-10 hrs., 
and Throndhjem in 8-10 hrs. more by a steamer starting the same 
evening. According to the present arrangements , if Molde be 
quitted early on a Saturday morning, Christiansund is reached 
either from Eide at 4, or from Battenfjords»ren at 2.45 p.m. ; and 
at 9 p.m. the 'Kiddervold' starts for Throndhjem, arriving early 
next morning. Travellers in the reverse direction leave Thrond- 
hjem by the 'Riddervold' on Sunday at 10 p.m., and reach Chris- 
tiansund in time for the steamboat at 8 a.m. to Battenfjordseren. 

A good road leads from Molde to the E., skirting the beautiful 
Fanestrand for about Y2 M-j an( i then turns to the N.W. to (1 M.) 
0degaard, a poor station on a fjord of the W. coast, beyond which 
it leads to the N.E. to ('2 M.J Eide, a tolerable station on the Korn- 
stadfjord, opposite Kornstad, a village of some importance on the 
Avere, a large island to the W. of the Hustadsvik. From Eide the 
steamer (see above) steers to the E. through the Kornstadfjord, 

to Throndhjern. STANOVIK. 18. Route. 189 

and then to N., between the Aver» and the Erede, to Christian- 
sund. Picturesque scenery almost the whole way, though inferior 
to that of the Romsdal and Molde fjords. — The other road leads 
from Molde to the E., passing the road to 0degaard ahove men- 
tioned, to (1 M.) Lenset and (1 M.) Eide; it then turns inland 
and leads to the N. to ( 3 / 4 M.) Fursat and (3/ 4 M.) Battenfjords- 
eren, a tolerable station on the fjord of that name. Whether this 
road or the other be selected , the traveller should so time the 
journey as to reach Christiansund in one day. For the drive to 
Eide or to Battenfjordseren 6-7 hrs. should be allowed ; but if the 
traveller has neither sent Forbud nor secured horses at Molde for 
the whole journey, he must be prepared to spend nearly double 
that time on the road. 

Christiansund, see p. 187. In windy weather the sea is often 
rough at several points between Christiansund and the mouth of 
the Throndhjern Fjord. In this case the traveller may prefer to 
take the local steamer (at present Mond. and Thurs., 9 a.m.) to 
Vinjeeren to the E. (not to be confounded with a place of that 
name at the head of a branch of the fjord of Surendalseren to the 
S.E.) in 6Y2 hrs., traversing a land-locked fjord the whole way, 
and to drive thence to 0rkedalseren, about 6 M. distant (see 
p. 186). If the steamer from 0rkedals«ren does not suit, the trav- 
eller may drive thence by a good road with fast stations to (6 3 /4 M. ) 
Throndhjern. ^rkedalseren is the only good station on this route. 

d. Via Thingvold, Stangvik, Garb erg, and 0rkedal. 

l8 3 / 4 M. Road the whole way, except from Angvik to Koksvik or 
Thingvold C/2 M.), and from Belswt to Stangvik ( 5 /s M.), where the fjords 
must be crossed by boat. Stangvik and all the stations beyond it are 
fast (1 kr. PO 0. per mile for horse and car) •, those between Molde and 
Stangvik are slow (96 0. per M. for horse and car, and the same for each 
rower). — A far more interesting route is by Steamer from Molde to 
Neste (Sund. at 2 p.m.. Wed. 6 a.m.): visit the Eikisdal (p. 186); cross 
the hill to £fxendalseren (p. 186); visit Sundalseren and the Lilledal 
(p. 186); take the Steamboat (lues, and Sat. 7 a.m.) to Koksvik. and 
there join the above route. — An easier route is by Steamer from Molde 
to Eidsvaag (same boat as to N0ste) ; drive from Eidsvaag or iSiube to 
^Eidseren, 3 /\ M. ; row to Fjgseide, V2 M.; drive to Meisingsait, 3 /i M. ; 
row to ^Stangvik. 7 /s M., and there join the roiite first mentioned. 

Of the three routes above indicated, the first is the most direct, 
the second the most interesting, and the third the easiest. On 
each of them the scenery is pleasing nearly the whole way to 
Throndhjern ; but there are few good stations, and the road is in- 
ferior to that crossing the Dovrefjeld. The stations on the direct 
route are — 

1 M. Lenset; 1 M. Eide (where the road to Battenfjordsercn 
diverges to the N. ; see above); 1 M. Istad (beyond which a road 
diverges to Tjelde on the Langfjord) ■ 1 M. Heggeim; 1M. Angvik. 
Thence across the Thingvolds fjord to — 

190 Route 19. THRONDHJEM. 

] /2 M. Koksoik, adjoining the church of Thingvold. Again by 
road to ( 5 /» M.) Belset, and thence by boat to — 

''/$ M- fStangvik (fair station; good quarters at Bruset's). Or 
the traveller may row from Belset to Surendalseren (*Inn), 2 M. 
distant, and drive to Haanstad , 7 / 8 M. farther. From Stangvik 
the road leads to — 

l 3 /(jM. fAasen, where the scenery becomes finer; 7 / 8 M. -|- Haan- 
stad (fair station), where we enter the attractive Surendal; l'/a M. 
jAune (*Station); 7 / 8 M. -[Foseid; H/ 4 M. f Oarberg ; 13/ 4 M. 
-\-Aarlioold in the 0rkedal (*8tation), a fatiguing stage, and hilly- 
road ; 3 / 4 M. f.Ba/i;(good quarters at Olseris, or at the schoolmaster' sj. 

From Bak the direct route to Throndhjem is by (l 1 ^ M.) '[By, 
(l'/sM.J Saltnassanden, and (3/ 4 M.) Esp (I74JVI. f r0m Thrond- 
hjem), in all 18% M. from Molde. 

It is, however, preferable to drive from Bak to (jU/gM.) 0rke- 
dalseren, or Neruig (*Station ;. comp. p. 186), by a very pictur- 
esque, though hilly road, and to proceed thence by steamboat to 
Throndhjem. The land-route from Nervig is by (1% M.) -\EU 
(/^Station), a picturesque place; 7 / 8 M - fSaltnassanden ; 1 M. 
Heimdal, a railway-station (p. 199), whence (0, 8 M.) Throndhjem 
(see belowj may be reached by train. 

19. Throndhjem and its Environs. 

'Bet er saa /avert in Throndhjem at hvile" 
Tis 80 pleasant in Throndhjem to dwell. 
(Burden of an old SonLi.)- 

Arrival. Carriages and porters (Bybud) with hand-carts (Triller) 
await the arrival of passengers at the railway-station on the S. side of 
the town, and also at the quay (Brateren) at the mouth of the Kid at 
the N.E. angle of the town. A slight custom-house examination takes 
place on board the steamer. The principal hotels are all about l /t hour's 
walk from the station and 5-10 min. froiu the quay. 

Hotels. "Britannia, Dronningens-Gaden, a large and handsome stone 
house, completed in 1878, well situated; R. from 1 kr. 60, L. 40, A. 40, 
B. or S. i kr. 40 0., D. 3 kr. — 'Hotel d'ANGLETERKE and Bellevue, ad- 
joining each other in the Nordre Gade; "Victoria, Dronningens-Gaden 61; 
all situated lower down' and nearer the fjord, the smell from which is 
apt to be unpleasant at low tide; similar charges. — Second class: 
Kilsen's, Krambodsgade; Larsen's, Carl-Johans-Uaden 4, R. and B. 2kr., 
dinner not procurable. — Brewery, Fjords-Gaden , near the steamboat 
pier; beer 15 0. per glass. 

Post and Telegraph Office at the corner of the Nordre and Kongens- 

Skyds-Station : Ole Wold, B0rsvendveiten. — Carriages: P. Rest, 
Carl-Johans-Gaden, and Kolberg, Orjaveiten, both near the Angleterre ; 0. 
Solberg, Apothekerveiten, at the back of the Britannia; Ellefsen, Gau- 
biekveiten. For long journeys R#st and Ellefsen are the best. For a 
carriage and pair, holding 2-3 passengers, to Aak or Veblungsnses, whether 
with the same horses, or with a change at each station, 220-250 kr. is the 
sum usually demanded; to Lillehammer about 300 kr. ; while these jour- 
neys for each traveller by railway and carriole cost about 52 and 70 kr. 
respectively. The carriages are sent to SWren by railway, and the drive 
begins there. 

Banks. Norijes Bank, at the corner of the Kongens-Gade and Kj0b- 

THRONDHJEM. 19. Route. 191 

mands-Gade; Kredil-Bank, a large and handsome building in the Pron- 
ningens-Gade, adjoining the Britannia; and several others. Money may 
also be exchanged at Mr. Kjeldsberg's, the English vice-consul , at the 
corner of the Strand-Gade and S#ndre Gade, and at Mr. Glaus Beryls 
(firm of Lundgrens Enke), the American vice-consul, Munke-Gaden, at 
the corner of the Torv. The usual bank office-hours are 10-2 o'clock. 

Consuls. English and American , see above. German, A. Jenssen, 
junr., Kj^bmands-Gaden ; French, H. Lundgren, same street; Austrian, 
Ch. Toulow, Munke-Gaden. Also Danish, Russian, and others. 

Baths. Warm and shower baths at the Harmonie, at the S.W. corner 
of the Torv (in the court, on the left) ; cold 27, warm 67 0. — Sea Baths, 
on the breakwater, reached by boat from the N. end of the Munke-Gade. 

— New Turkish and other baths are shortly to be opened by a company. 

Shops. Preserved meats, biscuits, wines,, spirits, etc. at Kjeldsbery^s 
and at Lundgrens 'Enke's (see above). A cheap and not unpalatable spirit 
in great local repute is that of the neighbouring distillery of Lysholm. 

— Furs at J. N. Bruuris, Strand-Gade 37, one of the best shops of the 
kind in Norway; eider-down 16-24 kr. per lb., according to quality. — 
Carved wood, 'Tolleknive 1 , etc. at Blikstad's, opposite the Victoria Hotel. 

— Booksellers : Andersen^s Enke, Nordre Gade ; Staff <i- Gramm , same 
street (also Northern antiquities); Heiberg & Bruun , Kongens-Gaden. — 
Photographs at Brwkslad s, Strand-Gade 19. 

Newspapers at the Athenasum Club, in the Harmonie building, at the 
S.W. corner of the Torv, and in the Reading Room of the Britannia Hotel. 

Railway Station at the S. end of the Prindsens-Gade. A new central 
station for the line to R0ros and Hamar, and for the line now in course 
of construction via Mifraker to Ostersund and Sundsvall in Sweden, is 
about to be erected at the N. end of the Munke-Gade, where the channel 
between the town and the breakwater is being filled up. 

Steamboats. All the steamboats start from the pier (Bratetren) at 
the mouth of the Nid, the larger generally at high tide only, the smaller 
at any time. It should be noted that the larger vessels sometimes start 
from the pier before their time and cast anchor off Ihlen, the W. suburb. 
The principal services are at present (conip. Communicationer) : to Bergen 
and Ghristiania on Tuesdays 10 p.m. ; on Wednesdays at 7 p.m., and another 
at midnight. To Bergen, Christiansand, and Hamburg, Friday nights. To 
Tromse and Hammerfest, Thursday nights or early the following morning, 
and Saturdays at noon. To the North Cape and Vadse, Tuesday nights. — 
To Christiansimd Thurs. and Sat. 8a.m. ; Sund. 10p.m. ; idrkedalseren Mond., 
Wed., and Frid. 8 a.m., and Sat. noon; Levanger and Vcerdalsetren Mond. 
and Thurs. 8 a.m. ; Beian and Vaabjerget Tues. and Frid. 6 a.m.; Stenkjer 
Wed. and Sat. 7 a.m. — To Hull on alternate Thursdays. — All the 
coasting and local steamers stop at numerous stations. The above ser- 
vices are of course liable to alteration, but as a rule the traveller will 
have four opportunities weekly of going to Molde, Bergen, and Christian- 
sand, three by the same route to Ghristiania, three to Tromse, two to 
Hammerfest, and one to the North Cape. 

English Church Service in summer in the Chapter House of the 

Points of Interest. Cathedral (p. 164) ; walks to Christianslen on the 
E. side of the town (p. 196), and to the Stenbjerg to the S.W. — The 
Hjorten, a 'Lyststed' or kind of 'Tivoir, at the W. end of the Ihlen 
suburb, is a popular resort (theatricals and music frequently in summer). 

— A favourite excursion is to the Ler/os (3'/2-4 hrs. there and back). 

Of all the larger towns in Europe Throndhjem, with 22,597 in- 
hab., is the northernmost, being situated in 63° 30' N. lat., or in 
a line with the S. coast of Iceland. It lies on a peninsula at the 
mouth of the Nid, and on the N. bank of the very extensive and 
picturesque fjord called after it. The vegetation of the beautiful 
undulating environs is remarkably rich for so northern a latitude, 

192 Route 19. 



and among the trees fine old walnuts occur frequently. The mean 
annual temperature is about 42° Fahr. (corresponding with the 
mean winter temperature of the 8. coasts of England and Ire- 
land), while that of Christiania is 41° only (that of the Shetland 
Islands 45°). Christiania, on the other hand, is warmer in summer 
and colder in winter, the July temperature being 62° and that of 
Throndhjem 53° only. Many of the inhabitants are wealthy and 

J Ihngl. Mile 

prosperous, and they have long been noted for the kindliness of 
their disposition. 

The tow n is the capital of the district of Threndelagen (so call- 
ed from the ancient tribe of the Thrender, of whom this is the 
'home'). The greater part of it lies on the Nidarnas , a peninsula 
resembling a flg in shape, formed by the fjord on the N. side and 
the circuitous course of the Nid on the S.W. , S. , and E. sides. 

History. THRONDHJEM. 19. Route. 193 

At a bend of the river to the W. , where it approaches within 
a few hundred paces of the fjord before making its final sweep 
round the town , lies the suburb of Ihlen (probably from lie , 'an 
intrenchment')- Opposite, on the right bank of the river, is the 
peninsula called 0en. The Nid then falls into the fjord by the 
Bratere on the E. side of the town. Beyond its mouth, to the E., 
rises the suburb of Bakland ('hilly land'), with picturesque heights 
beyond it, the chief of which is the Blcessevoldhakke (p. 197), with 
the old fortress of Christiansten, terminating in the promontory of 
Hladehammeren. On the S.W. side of the town, to the S. of Ihlen, 
rises the Stenbjerg (p. 197). All these heights command pictur- 
esque views. — The town is regularly and on the whole handsomely 
built, although chiefly of timber. The wideness of the streets, 
which generally intersect each other at right angles, is intended 
to diminish the danger of fire. The windows of many of the houses 
are embellished with a beautiful show of flowers. In the Kongens- 
Gade are several tastefully-kept little gardens , where the Sorbus 
Scandia frequently recurs. 

Down to the middle of the 16th cent, the name of the town was 
Nidaros ('mouth of the river Nid' ; Aa, Aar, signifying 'river', and 
Os, 'estuary') or Kaupangr i Thrandhjem ('merchants' town in 
Throndhjem'), after which period the present name came into 
general use. Like Upsala in Sweden, Throndhjem, which has 
been called the 'strength and heart of the country', may be 
regarded as the cradle of the kingdom of Norway, and it was on 
the Bratere here that the Norwegian monarchs were usually 
elected and crowned. Here, too, was the meeting-place of the 
famous 0rething. So early as the year 996 Olaf Tryggveseen 
founded a palace to the S. of the Bratere and a church which he 
dedicated to St. Clement. St. Olaf, who is regarded as the founder 
of the town (1016), revived the plans of Olaf Tryggvessen , which 
had fallen into abeyance after his death, and after the death of 
'the saint' at the battle of Stiklestad (1030) a new impulse was 
given to building enterprise. His remains were brought to 
Throndhjem and buried there, but were soon afterwards transferred 
to a reliquary and placed on the high-altar of St. Clement's Church, 
where they attracted hosts of pilgrims, not only from other parts of 
Norway, but even from foreign countries. The spot where St. Olaf 
was originally buried was by the spring adjoining the S. side of 
the choir of the present cathedral, and on that site a magnificent 
church was subsequently erected. Though now little more than a 
fragment, having been repeatedly destroyed by fire and sadly dis- 
figured by alterations and additions , it is still the most beautiful 
and interesting church in the three Scandinavian kingdoms. The 
reverence paid to St. Olaf gradually rendered Throndhjem one of 
the largest and wealthiest towns in Norway , and gave rise to the 
erection of no fewer than fourteen churches and five monasteries. 

Baedekek's Norway and Sweden. 13 

194 Route 19. THRONDHJEM. Cathedral. 

At a later period terrible havoc was caused by civil wars, pesti- 
lence, and conflagrations ; and the pilgrimages, to which the place 
owed so much of its prosperity , were at length put an end to by 
the Reformation. The precious reliquary of the saint was removed 
by sacrilegious hands from the altar in the octagon of the choir, 
while his remains were buried in some unknown spot , and most 
of the churches and monasteries were swept away. In 1796 the 
population numbered 7500 souls only , and in 1815 not above 
10,000; but since that period it has been more than doubled, 
and Throndhjein bids fair to become a city of still greater im- 
portance when the new railway thence to Ostersund and Sunds- 
vall in Sweden is completed , as its fjord forms the natural har- 
bour for the greater part of the Swedish 'Norrland'. In anticipation 
of a speedy increase of traffic a new Harbour and Central Railway 
Station are being constructed on the N.W. side of the town. 

The *Cathedral , situated on the S. side of the town , near the 
Nidelv and the present railway-station, has for several years been 
undergoing a thorough and judicious restoration under the superin- 
tendence of the architect Hr. Christie, and the chapter-house (Eng- 
lish service in summer) and the octagonal choir are now completed. 
The work will probably extend over several decades , but will 
doubtless progress steadily, as annual subsidies are granted both 
by government and by the town itself, and regular subscriptions 
are received from private persons who are justly proud of this 
noble national monument. The church is shown daily, 12-1 o'clock, 
by a student (no fee ; but strangers are expected to make a small 
donation towards the restoration-fund). At any other time the 
sacristan may be applied to for admission, and visitors may some- 
times enter unattended whilst the masons are at work. The con- 
nection and history of the different parts of the building are not 
easily understood without the aid of a guide , especially if the 
traveller visits it only once. Those who possess a moderate acquain- 
tance with Danish will find Nicolaysen's 'Om Throndhjems Dom- 
kirke' (60»., sold in the cathedral) a useful little guide, or they 
may consult P. A. Munch's larger work on the same subject, or the 
German work of Minutoli. — The first point to be borne in mind 
is that the building of the church extended over a century and a 
half, and that it underwent repeated alteration. The architects 
were , moreover , bound to the site of St. Olaf's original burial- 
place, for it was there that they had to erect the altar destined for 
the reliquary containing the holy man's remains. The church 
originally built by Olaf Kyrre was a simple basilica, about 150 ft. 
in length and 40 ft. in width. Throndhjein having been erected 
into an archbishopric in 1151, the crowds of pilgrims continued to 
increase, and the church was found inadequate for their require- 
ments. Eystein (or 0ystein, 1161-88), the third of the arch- 
bishops, accordingly erected the spacious Transept , with a tower 

Cathedral. THRONDHJEM. 7,9. Route. 195 

over it, and also the "Chapter House (in which lie lies buried) on 
the N. side of the choir , both in the Romanesque style. Of the 
appearance of the choir at that period nothing is known, but 
within a few decades after Eystein's death it was rebuilt , partly 
by English architects in an ornate Gothic style resembling that of 
several of the English cathedrals, and was completed about the 
year 1240. To that period belongs the exquisite **Octagon or 
apse (which recalls 'Becket's Crown' at Canterbury) , forming an 
independent part of the edifice, and not being merely aprojecting 
termination to the choir. It was on an altar in the centre of this 
sanctuary that the revered relics of St. Olaf were placed, and this 
was the great goal once so devoutly sought by thousands of pil- 
grims. The reliquary, executed in silver, and weighing no less 
than 200 lbs., stood here within a simple wooden chest, which in 
its turn was encased in a finely carved shrine, enriched with pre- 
cious stones. The reliquary and shrine were carried oil' to Copen- 
hagen at the time of the Reformation , and the worthless chest 
alone left behind. 

During the third building period , extending from about 1248 
to 1300, the imposing nave, to the W. of the transept, was erected, 
also in the Gothic style. This part of the church is now in ruins, 
while the transept (used for divine service, and at present sadly- 
marred by Reformation work) and the choir are both roofed in. 

The whole church was about 325 ft. long, and the W. end 
was once richly embellished with statues of saints, a rose-window, 
and other ornamentation, but few traces of these now remain. 
After a number of fires which injured the interior of the cathedral 
(in 1328, 1432, 1531, 1708, and 1719), huge and shapeless walls 
were erected , partly for the purpose of propping up the ruins, 
and partly in order to obtain an available space for public wor- 
ship. In the course of that process many of the original pillars, 
arches, and ornamentation were concealed from view, and it is 
now a work of great difficulty to disengage them. The cathedral 
is built of a bluish chlorite slate , with which the white marble 
columns contrast admirably. The old quarries from which the 
stone was procured have recently been discovered about l 1 /^ Engl. 
M. to the E. of Baklandet. — On the E. side of the S. transept is 
the Chapel of St. John the Baptist, in the round-arch style, dating 
from Eystein's period , and containing the monument of Thomas 
Angell (d. 1767), a wealthy benefactor of Throndhjem. On the 
E. side of the N. transept, immediately to the left of the present 
N. entrance to the church, is a corresponding chapel of the same 
period. Above the chapel of St. John , is another (reached by a 
staircase), dedicated to St. Olaf, and now containing a number of 
interesting fragments of ancient tombstones found in and around 
the chuTch , all in soapstone (Klxbersten). In the 18th cent, the 
Lagthing, or national assembly , used to meet in the S. transept. 


196 Route 19. THRONDHJEM. Environs. 

— The highly ornate chapels of the choir are also worthy of careful 
inspection. The rich mouldings of the triforium windows are all 
different , and most elaborately executed ; but some of them have 
been left unfinished by their 13th century sculptors and still 
Temain in that condition. On the S. side of the octagon is — 

St. Olaf's Well, which most probably gave rise to the selection 
of this site for the church , having, according to tradition , burst 
forth at the spot where the king was originally buried. — Good 
photographs of the cathedral are sold in the S. chapel, the pro- 
ceeds being paid to the building fund. 

lu the 11th and 12th centuries the cathedral was the burial- 
place of the kings of Norway, and several were crowned here at a 
later period. By the present constitution of Norway (that of 1814) 
all the sovereigns of the country are required to repair to Thrond- 
hjem to be crowned in the cathedral ; and the ceremony was ac- 
cordingly performed in the case of Charles XIV. (Bemadotte) in 
1818, Oscar /.in 1844, Charles XV. in 1860, and Oscar II. in 1873. 

To the S. and E. of the cathedral is the pleasing Churchyard, 
many of the graves in which , in accordance with the Norwegian 
custom, are adorned with fresh flowers every Saturday. 

The other churches in Throndhjem are that of St. Mary (Vor 
Frue Kirke) in the Kongens-Gade , a small promenade adjoining 
which (called 'Parfcen') is embellished with a statue (by Bergslien, 
1876) of Tordenskjold (d. 1720), the famous admiral, who was 
born at Throndhjem ; then the Hospital Church, at the W. end of 
the Kongens-Gade, and the Bakke Kirke in Baklandet (whence 
there is a Flet or ferry to Brateren). At Ihlen there is a new 
Roman Catholic Church. 

Among the public buildings may be mentioned the large tim- 
ber-built Stiftsgaard in the Munke-Gade, part of which is occupied 
by the 'Stiftsamtmand', and part fitted up as a royal palace. At 
the S.W. corner of the Torv is the large building now occupied by 
the Harmonie and Athenaeum clubs , and containing public baths 
at the back (p. 191). In the Munke-Gade is also situated the 
Kathedralskole, which contains the valuable library (50,000 vols.) 
and the antiquarian collections of Throndhjems Larde-Selskab, 
a scientific society founded in 1760, of which Schening, Suhm, 
Gunnerus, and other distinguished scholars were once members. 
It is now partly supported by an annual subsidy of 4000 kr. from 

The Arsenal, to the S. of the cathedral, occupies the site of an 
old Kongsgaard and the former residence of the archbishops. 

In the Kongens-Gade, on the S. side, is the handsome building 
of the Arbejder-Forening, containing a concert-room and cafe. 

Environs. To the E. of the town rises the fortress of Christi- 
ansten (reached in 20 min. by crossing the Nid by the bridge and 
ascending the hill beyond), erected in the 17th cent., but now 

Environs. THRONDHJEM. 19. Route. 197 

disused. It commands an excellent survey of the town and fjord, 
and a still finer view is obtained from the *Blassevoldbakke behind 
it. — Turning to the left beyond the Nid bridge, we may walk or 
drive through the suburb of Baklandet to(Y4M.) *Hladehammeren 
{Hammer, 'promontory'), another good point of view. 

Another fine view, differing from these , is obtained from the 
*Stenbjerg, the hill to the S. of Ihlen , overlooking the river and 
town (reached in 10 min. from lhlevolden by following the road 
next to the Nid, and then ascending to the right). Farther on is 
a rocky height where the remains of the castle of Sverresborg, 
built in the 12th cent., were discovered in 1873. This point is 
also reached by the broad road ascending from the S.W. angle of 
lhlevolden, passing the *Tokstagaard on the left, which also com- 
mands a fine view of the fjord and the town with its picturesque 
red roofs. — An admirable view is also commanded by the highest 
point of the range of hills rising above the coast to the W. of Ihlen 
(reached thence in */% hr. by following the lower road through the 
suburb , then turning to the left at Skrubhaugen , and ascending 
by a field-road to the right to a farm, and finally by a path which 
is soon lost among the heather). • — Lastly, a walk may be taken 
from Ihlen to the W. by the coast-road to Skrubhaug , Ildsviken, 
the *Munkaune with its pretty gardens, and the iron-works of 
Trollabruk. The hills rising on the left (the view from which is 
mentioned above) have been almost entirely deprived by a fire of 
the woods which once covered them. 

In the fjord, to the N. of the town, and about 1 Engl. M. 
distant, lies the picturesque Munkholm (reached by boat in 20 min. ; 
fare 1 kr. 80 ». , but a bargain should be made ; no permission ne- 
cessary; visitors are attended by one of the soldiers). As its name 
imports , the island was once the site of a monastery , founded in 
1028, of which the lower part of a round tower is now the only 
relic. Count Peter Griffenfeld (P. Schuhmacher), the minister of 
Christian V., was confined in a cell here from 1680 to 1698, and 
shortly after his release died at Throndhjem. The island is de- 
scribed by Victor Hugo in his 'Han dlslande'. The walls of the 
small fortress which now stands here command a beautiful view. 
On the S.W. side is a small lighthouse. 

Excursions. A favourite excursion from Throndhjem is to 
the *Lerfos, a fall of the Nid, to the S. of the town. There are 
two falls of the name, both worthy of a visit, the Lower, about 
4 '/ 2 Engl. M. distant, and the Upper, 1 M. higher up. (Carriage 
with one horse there and back 6, with two horses 12 kr. ; or by 
train to Sluppen in 9 min., and thence to the E. through the gaard 
of that name to the high-road ; after 10 min., by a house where 
the road divides , we turn to the right and reach the lower fall in 
about 20 min. more.) The pleasant road from Throndhjem to the 
Lerfos crosses the Bybro, or bridge over the Nid, and turns to the 

198 Route 19. THRONDHJEM. 

right ; it then leads nearly in a straight direction to the lower fall, 
towards the S. (avoid turns to the right and left). The Lower or 
Lille Lerfos is a fine unbroken fall of 80 ft. in height , which is 
best viewed from the rocks below it on the right bank. To reach 
the upper fall, we may either follow the bank of the Nid (rough 
walking), or return to the cart-track which cuts off the bend form- 
ed by the river. In 20 min. more we reach the * Upper or Store 
Lerfos, about 100 ft. in height, and broken by amass of rock about 
halfway across. The best survey of it is obtained from one of the 
windows in the saw-mill overhanging the seething waters on the 
right bank (caution necessary). • — Farther up, the Nid forms sev- 
eral other less imposing falls and cataracts , falling altogether 
500 ft. in its descent from the Scelbo-Sje (p. 201), 2 M. to 
the S. of Throndhjem. 

Excursions may also be taken to the ruins of the nunnery of 
Rein, near the steamboat-station Redbjerget, to the N.W. of 
Throndhjem; to the ruined monastery of Tautra on the Tutlere ; 
to Gaard 0steraat , near the steamboat-station Bejan(p. 213), at 
the entrance to the fjord, on the N. bank, a place famed in the an- 
nals of Norway (the scene of the drama 'Fru Inger til J0straat' by 
Henrik Ibsen, whose 'Kongsemnerne' is also partly enacted in and 
near Throndhjem) ;' or lastly to the Hittere , a large island famed 
for its deer, near which some of the cannon and stores of a Russian 
man-of-war wrecked here in the 18th cent, have recently been 
recovered by divers. Several of the cannon are now placed on the 
harbour at Throndhjem. 

20. From Throndhjem to Christiania by Eailway. 

49 31. Eailway to Hamar, 38, 4 M., in I1/2 days; fares 23 kv. 10, 14 kr. 
300. — Steamboat from Hamar to Eidsvold, 4 3 / 5 M., on the afternoon of 
the second day, in 3 hrs. — Tkain from Eidsvold to Christiania, 6 M., 
the same evening, in 2'/ 2 hrs. (comp. p. 35). The train leavesThrondhjem 
at 7.45 a.m. , stops at R#ros at 2.56 p.m. for dinner C/2 hr.), and reaches 
Koppang at 9, where it spends the night. Next day it starts at 6.30 a.m., 
stops at Eena at 8.28 for breakfast (15 min.), and reaches Hamar at 11.10 
a.m. — In the reverse direction: dep. from Hamar 2.30 p.m., arr. at T0n- 
set 10.55; dep. next morning from Tjzrnset at 7.20, arr. at E0ros 9.17 (break- 
fast), at Singsaas 12.43 (dinner, 25 min.), and at Throndhjem at 4.45 p.m. 
— There are very fair restaurants at St0ren , Singsaas, B0ros, T0nset, 
and Koppang, and unpretending buffets at Lille-Elvedal, Eena, and El- 
verum. Going S., travellers intimate to the guard beforehand whether 
they desire to dine at E0ros (Ikr. 250.), and going N., whether they 
will dine at Singsaas (same charge). The dinners are good at the price, 
but there is little or no attendance, passengers helping themselves. Good 
inns at E0ros, T0nset, and Koppang. — Tedious as the railway journey 
is (269 Engl. 31. in 18'/2-19 hrs.), it is very rapid compared with the direct 
carriole-route, or with the steamboat-voyage round the coast. The sce- 
nery is very fine as far as Tyvold, but monotonous the greater part of 
the way thence to Hamar. — The railway, completed from St0ren to Hamar 
in 1877, is a single, narrow-gauge line (about 3V2 ft- wide), and as the car- 
riages are not provided with spring-buffers, passengers often sustain a 
severe jolting at starling and drawing up. There are two classes only, 

ST0REN. 20. Route. 199 

called 1st and 2nd, bill corresponding to the 2nd and 3rd classes of most 
other railways. — Between St#ren and Tyvold the finest views are to 
the right. 

Throndhjem , see R. 19. Leaving the station at the S. end of 
thePrindsens-Gade, the train crosses theNid and ascends between 
the Blcessevoldbakke on the left and the Stenbjerg on the right. It 
passes Sluppen, again crosses the Nid by a bridge which commands 
a beautiful *View of Throndhjem and its amphitheatre of hills, 
and stops at (0,8 M.) Heimdal , 400jft. above the fjord (station for 
Teigen on the Salbo-Sje, l 3 / 4 M. distant, pay for 2'/2 ; see p. 201). 
The peculiar configuration of the country , with its numerous ter- 
races and mounds of debris, ,has probably been caused by ancient 
glacier-action. The train then descends to (1,6 M.) Melhus , with 
a picturesquely situated church, and re-ascends to (1, 9 M.) Seberg 
and (2,2 M.) Kvaal, beyond which it again descends to (2, 7 M.) 
Ler , and ascends to (3,2 M.) Lundemo. On the right the river 
Gula, which falls into the 0rkedals-Fjord to the S.W. of Thrond- 
hjem, forais a series of cataracts in its rocky channel. The train 
crosses the river by a covered bridge, and next reaches (3, 8 M.) 
Hovin and — 

4,3 M. Steven (200 ft. ; Hotel, a little to the right of the sta- 
tion, tolerable, but dear), or Engen, beautifully situated on the 
Gula. The scenery here presents a park-like appearance ; the val- 
ley is well cultivated at places, and the rocky mountains enclosing 
it are partially wooded. Road from Steren over the Dovrefjeld to 
the Gudbrandsdal , see R. 18, a. 

A little above Staren the Gula receives the waters of the 
Soknaelv and other streams descending from the Dovrefjeld. The 
train continues to ascend the valley of the Gula, trending here to 
the S.E. ; to the right, in the picturesque plateau at the con- 
fluence of the rivers, is the church of Engen. 5, 3 M. Rognces 
(300 ft.), with a bridge over the Gula, r is finely situated. Beyond 
a short tunnel the train enters a very picturesque part of the val- 
ley, the mountains enclosing it being broken by several lateral 
valleys. Two short tunnels. 6,5 M. Bjergen ,(457 ft.), prettily 
situated ; a number of fishermen's boats are seen in the river to 
the right, where the salmon and trout fishing is well spoken of. 
The valley begins to contract. On the right is a fine waterfall 
descending to the Gula. 

7 M. Singsaas (545 ft. ; * Restaurant, D. at 12.43 p. m. for pas- 
sengers going N., 1 kr. 25 0.). 7,7 M. Reitsteen (636ft.). The line 
still follows the course of the river, which, though rapid and for 
the most part unnavigable , contains a considerable number of 
boats for fishing and ferrying purposes. The scenery continues 
picturesque as far as Tyvold. 8, 5 M. Langlete (723 ft.), a passing- 
place of the through-trains. The train ascends a steeper gradient. 
9,3 M. Holtaalen (930 ft.); on the right, below, lies the scattered 
village with the dark-brown timber-built church. The valley 

200 Route 20. R0ROS. From Throndhjcm 

again expands into a large basin, flanked on the left by partially 
snow-clad mountains , and dotted with gaards. The train then 
enters a deep wooded ravine , where it runs at a height of several 
hundred feet above the river, and passes through seven short tun- 
nels. This is one of the most picturesque parts of the line. 10, 3 M. 
Eidet (1313 ft.); the valley again expands a little, and the scenery 
becomes tamer; at the bottom of the valley, on the right, is a small 
copper smelting-work. A little farther on, to the right, is the 
scattered village of Aalen, with its church, very prettily situated; 
and above it is a rich , smiling valley , with several substantial 
gaards. 11, 2 M. Beitan (11574 ft.). The train ascends slowly on 
the slope of a wide mountain basin in a wide curve , crossing the 
Gula , and passing through another short tunnel , the last on the 
line. In the distance to the right are several partly snow-clad 
mountains. The scenery assumes a bleaker and more mountainous 
character. I 

12,3 M. Tyvold (2052ft.). The train passes a small lake, drain- 
ed by a brook descending to the Gula, and soon reaches the high- 
est point of the line (2072 ft.), marked by a stone on the right, 
the watershed between the Gula , falling into the Thrond- 
hjem Fjord, and the Glommen which descends to the mouth of the 
Fjord of Christiania. In this lofty and bleak situation stands 
a well-built gaard on the right. The train descends slowly past 
two small lakes. 13 M. Jensvold (1974 ft.). The train crosses 
the Glommen , which descends from the Aursund-Sje (2154 ft.) 
on the left (not visible), and traverses a bleak, thinly peopled 

14,2 M. Btfros (1941 ft. ; Larsens Hotel ; another at the sta- 
tion ; '"Restaurant , where travellers going S. dine at 2.56 , the 
charge being 1 kr. 25 0.), with 2000 inhab. , situated on a dreary 
and inclement plateau , where winter prevails for fully eight 
months in the year, was founded in 1646 after the discovery of 
the neighbouring copper-mines , to which alone it owes its exis- 
tence. It lies on the Hitterelv , and not far from the Glommen, 
which describes a bend to the "W. of the town. Corn does not 
ripen here , and cattle-breeding is the only resource of the inhab- 
itants, apart from the copper-mines and the trade they support. 

The annual yield of the mines is about 280 tons of pure cop- 
per, and that of the two centuries since they were discovered is 
said to have been worth 72 million kr. in all (4,000,000 J.). Far 
and near, the woods which formerly existed here have been cut 
down and used as fuel, but the works are now carried on with the 
aid of coal brought by the railway. The principal mines are Stor- 
varts Qrube, 2716 ft. above the sea-level, 7 / 8 M. to the N.E. , the 
ore of which yields 8 per cent of copper ; near it , Ny Solskins 
(trube; to the N.W. of the town, iy 4 M., Kongens Qrube, yielding 
4 per cent of copper ; MugGrube, 2 M. distant. The smelting- 

to Christiania. TYDAL. 20. Route. 20 1 

works are the Reros Hytte , the Dragaas Hylte at Aalen, and the 
Lovisa Hytte at Lille Elvedal. 

Mountain Routes prom R^kos. Visit to the Lapps. From 
Reros diverge several wild mountain-routes, suitable for the hardy 
and active traveller only , but replete with interest both to the 
angler and the admirer of sublime mountain-solitudes. The most 
important of these are the route to the E., past the Aursund-Sje, 
and then turning to the N.W. and descending to Lake Scelbo (4-5 
days , including a two days' ride across the mountains) , and the 
route to the S.E. to the Famund-Sje , the Stor-Sje, and Rena 
(7-8 days, about five of which are spent in riding or walking, and 
partly in rowing , through very wild mountain-regions). On both 
of these routes, nomadic Lapps and Finns with their herds of 
reindeer are generally to be met with. 

Fkom Rjskos to Throndhjem bi Lake Sjelbo (about 18 31., a journey 
of 5-6 days). A good road leads from fRtfros (horse and car lkr. 80 0. 
per mile) to the E. to (l'/2 M.) iJensvold or Ernstgruben and (i 5 /s 51.) 
t Skotgaarden. As a horse and guide are not always procurable here, 
they had better be engaged at R,0ros for the journey to Stuedal or to 
Kirkevold. Beyond Skotgaarden the road leads across the Swedish fron- 
tier to (2 M.) Malmangen , 5 hrs. to the S. of which rises the Vigels 
Fjeld, where several Lapp families with their reindeer are usually en- 
camped (from E0ros, there and back, 2-2!/2 days). Our route quits the 
high-road at Skotgaarden or Brwkke and leads across the mountains, 
where several streams have to be forded. It passes the Haftorstet 
(3500 ft.) and the Ljusnwsstet (Stet or Sleyt , 'mountain-top'), and skirts 
the Vigelsjei (2810 ft.), to the E. of which rise the Skarsfjelde (4700 ft.). 
Farther on we traverse the hills to the W. of the Stuesje (1920 ft.), which 
command an admirable "View of the Sylene Tinder (5530 ft.) and the 
Skarsfjelde, with the pass of Skarderen, 1000 ft. in depth, through which 
a glimpse of Sweden is obtained. After a walk or ride of about 3 M. 
(9-10 hrs.) we reach Stuedal on the Stuesje (good quarters). On this route 
Lapp encampments are sometimes to be met with, but owing to the no- 
madic habits of the people it is not easy to find them without making 
previous enquiry. (The name Lapp is from lappaa, Ho wander', and is 
regarded by the people themselves as a kind of nickname. They call 
themselves Samen. In Norway they are usually known as Finns, and in 
Sweden as Lapps. See also p. 235.) 

From Stuedal a ride or walk of 6-7 hrs. brings us to (2 M.) Kirkevold 
in the Tydal, a picturesque and well-cultivated valley, through which a 
road leads by ( 3 /4 31.) Aune, a tolerable station, ( 3 / 4 31.) Greeslid, (!•/< M., 
pay for 2 31.) Udhus, and (l'/s M.) liolswt , to (1 31.) \ Marienborg , a fair 
station, on the Saelbo-Sjja (485 ft.), a fine sheet of water 2'/4 31. long, on 
which a small steamboat plies. At the W. end of the lake is Teigen, 
l 3 /4 M. (pay for 2>/ 2 ) from stat. Heimdal (p. 199). — Uood fishing and 
shooting may be obtained at several points on this route. In the winter 
of 1718 the greater part of the Swedish army was frozen to death on the 
Tydalsfjelde when on their retreat from Throndhjem. 

From R0kos to the F/emund-Sjjzi, the StorsJ0, and Rena (about 
20 M., a journey of 7-8 days; guide necessary to Aasheim). One day may 
be devoted to a drive to Skotgaarden or Malmangen (see above) and a 
visit from one of these places to any Lapp encampment which may hap- 
pen to be in the neighbourhood , and Norvigen reached on the second 
day, passing the gaards on Lake Feragen. The direct route is as follows : 
— 1st Day. Through the Haadal direct to Qaard Norvigen. — 2nd. 
Thence to the Elv Boa, which descends from Lake Rogen (2330 ft.) in 
Sweden, and to Kuvolen, or Svukuris (svuku, 'crooked 1 ), where a man 
may be found to show the way to the imposing Blokkehav , or 'Stone 

202 Route 20. T0NSET. From Throndhjem 

Sen', which is visible from Vonsjegusten or Kratlvola. Then cross the 
Fsemund-Sja (which is 3 1 /-' M. long; 2090 ft. above the sea) by boat to 
Elgaaen. — 3rd. We traverse a wild mountain-region, in which the pointed 
Hevbesen, the Svukuslel (4400 ft.), the Grethaagn (4440 ft.), and the Elga- 
hnagn (4550 f t ) are conspicuous peaks, and next reach Guard Valdai (ex- 
cellent quarters), or we may go on to the Guttuli Scctre. — 4th. The route 
leads to the W. to Sorken, where we obtain a fine view of the Sele; and 
a boat conveys us thence in half-a-day to the S. end of the Fsemund- 
Sj0, a little beyond which is the Drevsjjahytte (quarters at Jens Lassesen's 
the forester, whose advice and assistance should be obtained by travellers 
in the reverse direction). — 5th. To the S. to Gatla (good quarters) in about 
6 his., whence a visit may be paid to Gaard Vola, commanding a splen- 
did view of the mounlains near Lake Fsemund. Capital fishing is ob- 
tainable near the 1st erf os and in Lake Isteren, on which a boat may be 
taken as far as Gaard Semaaen (good quarters). The numerous Nesl, or 
boat-houses, belong to the inhabitants of the Kendal, who come here 
to fish in winter. — 6th. Sundet (poor quarters), at the foot of the preci- 
pitous Ulvaaberg (2900 ft.), and on the Fcemund&elv (called in Sweden 
Klar-Elf), which abounds in fish, may easily be reached on the 5th day, 
if no stoppage is made at Gatla. Farther on is the Jotsccler (tolerable), 
from which, if time permits, the traveller may ascend the imposing "Ren- 
dals-Setlen (5530 ft.), which commands an extensive view of the Tronfjeld 
(5490 ft.), the Elgepig (5000 ft.), and numerous lakes. The scenery here 
has been compared with that to the S. of the Varanger Fjord (R. 23). 
If no digression be made, we ride in one day from Sundet to Lennces 
and Agre, at the N. end of the Slor-Sjff, whence, if the steamboat 
suits, the Bena railway-station may be reached in one or two days more 
(see below). 

From Reros , which is a terminal station, the train Teturns on 
the same rails for a few hundred yards to the main line, and then 
descends the valley of the Glommen, which it follows all the way 
to Elverum. The scenery, though picturesque at places, is on the 
whole sombre and monotonous compared with that of the Guladal. 
The train traverses a dreary and marshy basin, crosses the Hitter- 
elv , and passes several poor gaards and a small lake on the right. 
15, S M. Os (1861 ft.). In the neighbourhood are several substantial 
gaards , around which are a few poor patches of Tye. A bridge 
crosses the Glommen here. The church stands on a hill to the 
right. The train continues to descend on the left bank. The valley 
contracts and becomes better wooded. At (16, 9 M.) Tolgen, an 
open, grassy expanse, are several considerable gaards , with the 
large square red church rising ill their midst. The Glommen is 
spanned here by a wooden bridge of a single arch. The valley again 
contracts, its banks are well wooded, and the river flows through 
a rocky channel. 

18, 8 M. T#nset (1527 ft.; *Jernbane Hotel, at the station; 
*T#nset Hotel, 100 yds. to the right of the egress from the station ; 
travellers going northwards aTe recommended to write or telegraph 
for rooms from Hamar). The valley again expands here and 
contains several thriving gaards. On the right stands the church. 
The place is sometimes called fRamsmoen. 

A good road with fast stations leads hence to (l l / t M. , pay for l'/z) 
t Fosbakken, (»/» M., pay for l>/8) f Nylreen, a good station, (li/ 8 M.) fSleen, 
(l'/4 31., pay for l'/i) \Frengstad or Kvikne, in the Orkladal, the birth- 
place of Bjernson the novelist, (l'/s M.) \Naverdal, and (131.) fAuslbjerg 

to Christiania. ATNA. 20. Route. 203 

on the Dovrefjeld mute (p. 186). The shooting and fishing on this route 
are well spoken of. 

Fkom Toinset to the Stor-Sj0 and Eena (14 M.) T#nset lies on 
the old and now almost disued Ssterdal route from Christiania. to 
Throndhjem, and is one of the starting-points for a visit to the Stor- 
Sjei, which also lies on that route. Stations: fl 5 /s M., pay for 2) \ Engen, 
(3 M., pay for 4'/2) + Bergset, a good station, (i'/iM., pay for 2'/2) fAgre, 
in the Rendal. About 3 /s M. farther on lies Aas or Aasheim , at the N. 
end of the Stor-Sjfl (900 ft.), a picturesque lake, 3 3 /4 JI. in length, the 
best starting-point for a visit to the wild region of the Ffcnrnnd-Sju (see 
above). Steamboat, in summer to Sjebunden (*Inn) , at. the S. end of the 
lake, where horses must be ordered from f Leisset (a good station), >/t M. 
(pay for l /z) farther S. ; then (1 M.) Diswt, (2 M., pay for 3) Rena (see 
below), by the church of Aamot, a place known by no fewer than six 
different names (one applying to the church, another to the railway-sta- 
tion, a third, Nordre Moen, to the Skydsstation, and the others to neigh- 
bouring gaards). — From Aasheim, at the N. end of the lake, a good 
road crosses the Mora (Muora, Lapp, signifying 'forest'), 1000 ft. above 
the lake, to Koppang (see below), l'/s M. from Agre (pay for 3 5 /s). The 
Rena-Elv falling into the Stor-SJ0, the lake itself, and the same river 
flowing out of the lake, are famed for their trout, and 'fresh-water her- 
rings' (Coregonus lavaretus , similar to the gwyniad and the powan of 
the English lakes and Loch. Lomond; Norw. Sik), and are recommended 
to the notice of anglers. The scenery, too, is fine, one of the most pic- 
turescme points being the "Gorge of the Rena near Rena. 

19, 7 M. Auma (1507 ft.). To the left rises the imposing Tron- 
fjeld (5400 ft.). The valley becomes better peopled and the 
pasture land improves , but oats and rye thrive poorly. 20, 8 M. 
Lille Elvedal, not far from the posting station of Gjelten, from 
which a road leads to Jerkin on the Dovrefjeld route (p. 184). The 
village of Lille Elvedal , with its neat white church, is pictur- 
esquely situated in a poor, but comparatively well-peopled district. 
A bridge crosses the Glommen here, and there is another a little 
lower down. The valley presents a more smiling and picturesque 
appearance as the train proceeds, and is enclosed by lofty, wooded 
mountains. 22, fi M. Barkald ; 24, 3 M. Hanestad , a passing-place 
for the trains. (Path hence across the hills to Bergset, about lifeM. ■ 
see above.) Passing a handsome gaard in the midst of green mea- 
dows on the left, the train traverses a stony and less wooded tract. 

25,5 M. Atna (1134 ft.), the station for a few gaards on the 
opposite bank. 

An interesting excursion may be taken hence (comp. It. 15) to the 
W. to Solliden and Atnebro (good quarters at the gaards Noesset, Brarn- 
den, Uti, and Traeri) , near the Atne-Sje, commanding an imposing view 
of the chief peaks of the <\R6ndane: the Hegrond (6300 ft.), the Styg- 
fjeld (5800 ft.), and the Rundvashegda (6500 ft.). These peaks may be 
ascended from Stremboden in the upper Atnedal , and through the Lang- 
glupdal. {Ola Slremboden, at the Sendre Gaard of Strumboden is a good 
guide.) — From Str0mboden a path leads across the hills to the Bjem- 
hul-Sccter (good quarters), the Musu-Sceter, and through the Uladal to the 
S. to Moen, in the Gudbrandsdal (p. 137). — Another route is from 
Atnebro to (4 M.) Skjceggestad in the Gudbrandsdal (p. 139). — A road 
leads from Atnebro to Slrembu, Blwsterdalen (to the E. of which rises the 
Stor-Selen or Dele Selen, 5800 ft.), and (3 M.) Foldalen, on the road be- 
tween Lille Elvedal and Jerkin (p. 184). 

The run traverses the thickly wooded valley of the Glommen 
for nearly an hour. The forests are richly carpeted with lichen, 

204 Route 20. KOPPANG. 

moss, ferns , heather , and the graceful French -willow. The river 
is visible at intervals only. On a height above the river , on the 
left bank, in a clearing in the forest, lies the station of — 

27, 7 M. Koppang (914 ft. ; *Hansen, 200 paces to the left of 
the egress from the station ; *Jernbane Hotel, opposite the station, 
R. l!/2, S. l 1 ^ kr. ; Koppang-Hotel ; *Skydsstation, in the village, 
10 min. distant). The village of Vestgaard , with the church of 
Store Elvedal a little to the S. of it , is picturesquely situated on 
the opposite bank of the Glommen, about 10 min. walk from the 
railway-station. Travellers from the S. are recommended to write 
or telegraph from Hamar for rooms at Koppang. Those who intend 
driving hence to the Stor-Sje(j>. 203) should write to the Skyds- 
station to order horses to meet them at the railway-station. Koppang 
is one of the centres of the timber-traffic of the 0sterdal or Valley 
of the Glommen, the wealthiest part of which extends from T&nset 
to Elverum. The peasantry here are among the richest in Norway, 
some of their forest-estates embracing an area of many square 
miles. Until recently the value of timber here was small, from 
lack of means of transport, but it has largely increased since the 
completion of the railway. The gaards of the wealthier landowners 
are most comfortably and even luxuriously fitted up , although 
their proprietors still adhere with pride to their original name of 
peasants or farmers (Gaardbruger). At the end of June or begin- 
ning of July a number of these stalwart yeomen are frequently to 
be seen at Christiania, where it is not uncommon for a single pro- 
prietor to conclude a contract for the sale of a hundred thousand 
crowns' worth of timber. 

The train soon returns to the bank of the Glommen , which , a 
little lower down, is divided by islands into several branches. The 
valley expands, and the higher mountains are gradually quitted. 
28,5 M. Stai; 30,7 M. Ophus. Scenery still pleasing, although the 
hills diminish in height. 31, 5 M. Stenvigen, where the train crosses 
to the right (W.) bank of the Glommen. 32, 7 M. Rena, prettily 
situated , near the church of Aamot and the posting-station of 
Nedre-Moen (with the neighbouring gaards of 0degaard, Sorknces, 
and Amestad~), is one of the starting-points for a visit to the Stor- 
Sje and its excellent fishing - stations (p. 203). Around it 
extend dense forests of vast extent. The road to the Stor-Sja 
crosses the river at Kilde Sund, ascends to a point commanding a 
fine survey of the * Gorge of the Rena, and leads through pine- 
forest almost the whole way to the lake. — The next stations are : 
33,3 M. Aasta, 34, 4 M. 0xna, 35 M. Grundset, and — 

35, 6 M. Elverum, or Vestby (600 ft. ; *Erlandsen , s Inn; Niel- 
sen , in the adjacent Hummeldal) , a prettily situated village , al- 
most presenting the appearance of a town, lies on the left bank, 
and is reached from the railway by a long bridge across the Glom- 
men. The important Grundset- Marked, a great horse and timber 

SUNDNiES. 21. Route. 205 

fair, takes place here annually in March. The J0sterdal, which 
extends from Reros to Elverum , terminates here, the region tra- 
versed by the Glommen lower down being called the Soler. The 
railway quits the river here, and turns towards the S.W. 

Elverum is another starting-point for a visit to the wild and thinly- 
peopled regions around Lake Fcemund (see above). A mad leads to 
(2 M.) iMo, (2'/i M. , pay for 3 3 / 8 ) iSvingen, (2y 4 M.) fNyberg Sund, and 
( 7 /s M.) Sefhus i Trysil , where good quarters are afforded by several 
gaards. The Trysil/jeld (3520 ft.) may be ascended hence. — The route 
thence to Lake Fsemund passes the Enger-Sje , 2 M. in length, and leads 
through the Engerdal. The first night is spent at Remoen or Eldet , the 
second at a gaard in the Engerdal, the third at Vola or Kvitla, and early 
on the following day the Drevsjehytte is reached (see p. 202). 

Beyond Elverum the scenery is uninteresting, and the stations 
are unimportant. The train traverses the sparsely peopled and at 
places thickly wooded region of Hedemarken, and the mountains 
of the valley of the Glommen are left behind. Stations Leiten, he- 
ken, Hersand, Ilseng, Hjellum, and — 

38,4 M. Hamar (p. 37), travellers arriving at which by the 
through-train may reach Christiania by steamboat and train the 
same evening. 

21. From Throndhjem to Namsos. 

Steamboat from Throndhjem to Namsos direct (31 sea-miles) in 16-18 
hrs. — Steamboat from Throndhjem to Levanger 4 times weekly, in 
41/2-672 hrs. ; to Stenkjcer twice weekly in 10-12 hrs. — Road from 
Throndhjem to Namsos, 18 3 /i 81., with fast stations all the way. 

Steamboat-voyage to Namsos direct, see R. 22. — Travellers 
visiting the more northern regions of Norway will find an un- 
broken voyage there and back somewhat monotonous, and they are 
therefore recommended , either in going or in returning , to vary 
their journey by taking the inland route from Throndhjem to 
Namsos. This part of the journey may be performed either by 
steamboat all the way to (8 M. , or 14 sea-miles) Stenkjar, and 
driving thence to (10 3 / 8 M.) Namsos, or by land all the way (20 M.), 
or by steamer to (672 M ■) Levanger, and driving thence to (12 3 / 4 M.) 
Namsos. The last of these alternative routes will be found the 

On the Steamboat Journey from Throndhjem to Stenkj«r the 
traveller has the advantage of seeing something of the picturesque 
rocky W. bank of the Throndhjem Fjord, which is scarcely visible 
from the land-route. The steamer steers between the Tuttere and 
the mainland (Frosten) on the E. to Holmberget , and across the 
fjord to the N.W. to Lexviken. It then recrosses to Ekne on the 
E. bank , whence it steers to the large island of Yttere (with the 
parish of Ed). At the station Hokstad on this island are extensive 
mines of pyrites. The vessel then steers to Levanger (see below), 
which it usually reaches in 4*/2 hrs. ; the "Vjerdalseren steamboat 
takes 2 hrs. longer. The next steamboat-stations are Skaanas, 
Tronas , Hylla , and Sundnas , on the peninsula of Inderm , on 

206 Route 21. LEVANGER. From Throndhjem 

the E. side of which is the strait of Stremmsn, leading into the 
picturesque Borgtnfjord , on which rises the church of Mart. The 
steamer, however, does not enter this hay of the Throndhjem Fjord. 

Str^mmen is a Skydsstation. Thence to the S. to t Vcerdalseren 
l'/ 4 31. ; to the N. to fKorseti 1 31 ., and to + Stenkjaer 1 31. more. 

The steamboat steers to the W. to Kjarringoik , and through 
the narrow Skarnsund on the W. side of the Indere, touches at 
Vennces, and enters the broad Beitstadfjord, the innermost recess 
of the Throndhjem Fjord. It then either proceeds direct to Sten- 
kjier (p. 207), or steers into a narrow ramification of the Beit- 
stadfjord to the N. to Malmo, and thence to Stenkjaer. Once weekly 
the steamer goes from Stenkjaer to Fosnces at the N. end of the 
Beitstadfjord, whence the traveller may drive to (2 3 / 4 M.) Elden 
(p. 207). * 

Road prom Throndhjem to Namsos (18 3 /4 M.). If the tra- 
veller wishes to see the Throndhjem Fjord, but not to go beyond 
it, he is recommended to drive from Throndhjem to Stenkjaer, and 
return thence by steamboat. The scenery on the land-route sur- 
passes that which is viewed from the steamer. All the stations 
are fast (horse and car 1 kr. <S0#. per mile). 

i 3 /y M. [Haugan, with fine views of the Sterdalsfjord. The 
road crosses the Steirdalselo. l 5 /g M. -\Sandferhm, near the church 
of Vernes ; 7 / 8 M. (pay for 1) fForbord (well spoken of); l'/g M. 
•\Vordal; f/4 M. fNordre Skjeroe, in the picturesque district of 
ISkogn, which , with those of Vardalen and Indherred farther on, 
forms the inner part of Threndelagen. The parsonage of Alvstahaug 
is passed on this stage. 

1 M. f Levanger (* Madam Baklund's Hotel), a small town with 
1000 inhab., which was almost entirely burned down in December, 
1877, is charmingly situated. 

From Levanger to Sweden. There are two routes from Levanger 
to Ostersund on the Stor-Sjo, whence the traveller may either pgoceed 
direct to Sundsvall on the Gulf of Bothnia, or pay a visit to the Anger- 
mans-Elf and descend that river to Herniisand on the coast (comp. KR. 37, 
33). The scenery on both routes is very wild and picturesque , parti- 
cularly on the Norwegian side. 

(1). Road (about 139 Engl. Jr.; to Skallstugan, the first Swedish 
station, 5 3 /t 31.; thence to Ostersund 15 .S\v. M.). The Norwegian stations 
are all fast (1 kr. 8O0. per 31.) and must of the Swedish also (tkr.-lkr. 
30 0.), but the food and accommodation they afford is generally very poor. 
l'A II. \Nws; 1 31. -'[Qanices; l 3 /i 31. ^Sulsluen (good station)." The Swe- 
dish frontier is then crossed, at a height of 2000 ft., to (2 31., pay for 3) 
fSkallstugan (a good station); a steep stage. In the neighbourhood there 
are usually several Lapp settlements and large herds of reindeer, which 
may be visited without difficulty from this point. The road then de- 
scends to Midlstugan, Statlljet'nstugan, from which the Tannfors (p. 349) 
is x /i .31. distant, Hamre or Ahre , Romo, Aggen, Kjosta, Smerlusen, Haste, 
and Ostersund on the Stor-Sjo (p. 349). — Or from Stalltjernstugan by 
Dure, Lund, and Slamgjerde, to Hjerpe Skanse, a point on the lake-route, 
to the S. of Bonaset (see below). 

(2). Lake Route (about 150 Engl. 31. ; to Mselen in Sweden 6 7 /s M. ; 
thence to Ostersund by water and road 15'/4 Sw. 31.). In summer there 
is usually a kind of 'diligence' communication by this route once or 

to Namsos. NAMSOS. 27. Route. 207 

twice weekly, as to which enquiry should be made at Levanger. The 
land-route is followed to (4 31 J Sulstuni (see above). Thence to Sand- 
viken l 3 /s M. (pay for l 5 /s), to Mwlen in .Sweden l>/2 31. (pay for i J /t). 
Steamboat (twice weekly) on Lake Aryan (1455 ft.) to Anjehem, 4 Sw. 31. ; 
road to Sundet 2 /s 31. ; steamer on the Kallsjii (1317 ft.) to Bondset 4'/* 31. ; 
road to Kvittsle 4 31.; steamer on the Stor-Sjii (1000 ft.) to Oslersund 5 31. 
(comp. p. 349). — From Husabruk on the Kallsjo the "Areskuta may be 
ascended (comp. p. 349). 

A third route, far less interesting, but very convenient, will be the 
railway from Throndhjem via Slferaker to Ostersund, now in course of 
construction, which will join the high road between Ahre and liomo. 

178 M. f Vcerdalseren, at the mouth of the Vcerdalselv , which 
descends from a most picturesque valley. About 3 / 8 M. distant is 
Sliklestad, famous in the annals of Norway, where St. Olaf fell on 
31st Aug. 1030. The precise date is fixed by the fact that an 
eclipse of the sun took place on that day. The church of Vferdalen 
occupies the spot where the king is said to have fallen. Near it 
are two Monuments in memory of the event, one of 1710 and an- 
other of 1805. — Travellers intending to cross the hills to Sweden 
may proceed by a road from Stiklestad to (72 M.J iVces(see above). 

l l /i M. \-Reske. The scenery continues picturesque. 

l 3 / 8 M. yStenkjaer (Thorbjernsens Hotel), a small town with 
14157 inhab. , on the Byelv, is the terminus of the steamboat- 
route above mentioned. 

The "Fiskumfos (10 3 /4 M.) may be visited from Stenkjser, either by a 
direct road , or by taking the steamboat (4 times weekly) from Sunde 
(1 31. from Stenkjser) on the "Snaasenvand (58 ft.) to Sem, and driving 
thence. The stations by road, all fast, are: l'/ 4 M. t Hammer, 3 /t M. 
\Kvam, 13/ 8 31. \0stre Hegge, l 3 / 8 31. flfedre Veksel, '/ 2 M. +Sem ("Station), 
2 31. (pay for 3) iHomo, 1 M. \Vie, 1 31. \Fosland, l'/a 31. Fiskumfos (see 
p. 208). — On the Snaasenvand, a beautiful sheet of water nearly 4 31. 
long, the principal stations are Sunde, Orannces, Klingen, Kvarn, Klevgaard, 
Hammer, Oldernces, Vekset, and Sem. 

174 M. (pay for I72) f0stink lies on the northernmost bay of 
the Beitstadfjord. The road now quits the fjord of Throndhjem, and 
crosses an Bid or isthmus, about 200 ft. high, to the Namsenfjord. 
172 M. fElden. An old tradition, told by Von Buch in his 'Nor- 
way', is to the effect that Beit once crossed this Namsdalseid with 
his ship. 

174 M. fOvergaard lies on the Namsenfjord or Lyngenfjord. 
172 M- fFjar; I72 M. -\ Spillum , near the Namsenelv. (Or by 
water from Overgaard to fBangsund 2 M. , and thence by road to 
Spillum 1 M.) From Spillum the road leads to the Slremshylden 
Ferry (72 M-), whence we cross the fjord by boat to (74 M.) — 

Namsos ( John Aunt's Hotel), charmingly situated on the N. 
bank of the estuary of the Namsenelv. The town was almost en- 
tirely burned down in 1872, but has since been rebuilt. A wood 
on the hills to the W. of the town was also destroyed by the same 
fire. The new Church stands on a rocky height in the middle of 
the town. The staple commodity of the place is timber. — The 
richly wooded Namsdul , containing 8000 inhab. , is very pictur- 
esque, the scenery improving as we ascend. — Two of the large 

208 Route 22. NORDLAND. 

coasting steamers touch at Namsos weekly , both on the outward 
and homeward voyage. 

Excursion to the Fiskumfos. This most interesting excursion is 
made either from Spillum (6V2 M. to the fall), or from Namsos (6 3 /s M.), 
the roads uniting near Hun. The Namsen , through the valley of which 
the road ascends , is considered one of the best salmon-rivers in Europe, 
and is accordingly far famed among anglers. The fishings are always 
let to English sportsmen, and are jealously preserved. The stations from 
-rNamsosare: i J /i M. \Hun , Hi. \Haugum . \>ji M. + Vie (good rjuarters, a 
great fishing station), 1 M. fFosland, l'/2 M. Fiskum. The last stage is 
through a magnificent ravine. The ''Fiskumfos, a most imposing fall, 
with a copious volume of water, is 136 ft. in height. This is the upper 
limit of the salmon-fishings. 

From Fiskum to Vefsen, up the Namsdal, and down the valley of the 
Vefseneh', there is a bridle-path, but with many interruptions, and nume- 
rous rivers and streams to ford or swim across. The whole distance, 
about 22 M., cannot well be accomplished in less than 10-12 days, and is 
attended with serious privations, as the only accommodation to be obtained 
is at sseters and huts of the poorest description. The scenery is wild 
and grand, but nut sufficiently interesting to repay the fatigue. The 
highest point is the Store Majvand (1260 ft.), from which the traveller 
may prefer to ride across the snow-clad Store Borgefjeld to the E. and 
descend the Susendal to Vefsen, or he may proceed by the Respond to 
the Ranenfjord (p. 217). From the Majvand the usual route is down 
the Sveningsdal , a richly wooded valley resembling the "Namsdal , and 
forming its prolongation towards the N. — A railway through these val- 
leys is projected. Whether it will pay may well be doubted. 

22. From Throndhjem to Bode and the Lofoden Islands. 

Province of Nordland. 

Preliminary Rkmarks. Each of three different steamboat 
companies sends one vessel weekly to the northern provinces of 
Nordland and Finmarken. One starting from Christiania reaches 
Tromse in 14 days ; another from Christiania , travelling a little 
more rapidly, reaches Tromse in about 13 and Hammerfest in 14 
days ; while a third, starting from Hamburg, and touching at Chris- 
tiansand , goes round the North Cape and reaches Vadse in 19 
days. Most travellers bound for these northern regions start from 
Throndhjem, from which the voyage to Bode takes about 2 days, 
that to Tromse about 4, to Hammerfest 5, and to Vadse 7-8 days. 
The Christiania vessels usually spend 1-2 days at Tromse and 
Hammerfest respectively before starting on the homeward voyage, 
while the Hamburg steamer spends a few hours only at Vadse 
before returning. 

All these vessels spend 1-2 days at Bergen and at Throndhjem 
on each voyage, a break which passengers will hail with satisfaction 
in fine weather, but which will as often be found irksome, espe- 
cially at Bergen, should the weather there happen to be in one of 
its proverbially rainy moods. Most travellers will therefore prefer 
to proceed to Throndhjem over land, either exploring some of the 
magnificent mountain and fjord scenery by the way, or travelling 
direct thither by railway. Even beyond Throndhjem every possible 

V h. •■'•^Kg 

NORDLAND. 22. Route. 209 

opportunity should be taken of breaking the voyage by excursions 
on land ; and a voyage to any distant station and back by the same 
steamer should by all means be avoided. A protracted voyage 
among the fjords is often productive of a kind of physical and 
mental lethargy, which sadly mars the traveller's enjoyment and 
is not easily shaken off, while the confinement, the not unfrequent 
overcrowding and want of ventilation , and the daily round of 
meals at the table d'h6te are very apt to become irksome. It is 
a very common mistake to suppose that the northern districts of 
Norway can be visited by water only. Many of the principal points 
are indeed accessible by water only ; but there is no lack of inland 
excursions, especially for those accustomed to walking or riding, 
and not a few of the chief objects of interest lie at some distance 
from the steamboat-track. In order to diversify his journey , the 
traveller is recommended to land at several of the best points for 
excursionising, and either spend a few days at each and go on by 
the next steamer, or continue his journey by inland routes and 
local steamers. 

Breaks in the Voyage. Among the more interesting breaks 
may be mentioned : — 

*1. Journey by Land from Throndhjem , or from Levanger , to 
Namsos ; visit to the Fiskumfos (see R. 21). 

*2. Visit to the Torghatta from Somnas or Brenesund (p. 215). 

3. Visit from Vigholmen to the Ranenfjord, and perhaps also 
to the Dunderlandsdal, and thence to the N. to the Saltenfjord or 
Beierenfjord (pp. 217, 221). 

4. Excursion to the Hestmandse from Indre Kvare, or from 
Selsevig (p. 219). 

5. From Bode to the Saltenfjord (by steamboat) and to the 
Sulitjelma (reached from Fuske in 2-2!/2 days; p. 222). 

*6. From Bode to the N.W. to the Lofoden Islands, a magni- 
ficent trip of four days (p. 224). 

7. From Ledingen by a local steamer to Vesteraalen , passing 
between some of the Lofoden Islands (p. 229). 

8. From Seveien, in the interior of the Salangenfjord, by a good 
road through the Barduelvsdal and Maalselvsdal to the Rostavand, 
and to Maalselv on the Malangenfjord ; thence by a rough road to 
the Balsfjord and the Lyngenfjord (pp. 233, 234). 

*9. From Tromse to the Tromsdal with its herds of reindeer, 
and, if possible, thence to the Lyngenfjord (pp. 235, 236). 

*10. Visit to Tyven from Hammerfest (p. 240). 

*11. In order to ascend the North Cape (p. 243), a few days 
should be spent at Ojesvar on the W., or at Kjelvik on the E. 
side. From Kjelvik a visit may easily be paid to Sva-rholt (p. 246), 
the largest sea-fowl island in Norway. 

12. Travellers who proceed as far as Vadse should return by 
land to the Tanafjord (p. 248), and join the steamer there. 
Baedekek's Norway and Sweden. 14 

210 Route 22. NOKDLAlNl>. from Throndhjem 

The main question, how far to go, must of eourse depend on 
many considerations. Vadse is undoubtedly a very definite ter- 
minus, and the Porsanger, Laze, and Tana fjords, and above all 
the Kjellefjord and Nordkyn, situated between the North Cape 
and Vadsa, are well worthy of a visit. But the North Cape itself 
forms the most natural limit to the journey. Europe there termi- 
nates, and the Arctic regions begin; and there, too, the sublime 
scenery of the Norwegian coast may be said to culminate, as that 
of the N. and N.E. coasts begins to show a falling off in point of 
grandeur and interest. 

Beyond the North Cape the scene is one of utter desolation, 
and the same may indeed be said of the regions between Hammer- 
fest and the North Cape. Travellers, therefore, who have no taste 
for scenery of this forbidding character will perhaps do well not 
to proceed beyond Hammerfest. Between TromsB and Hammer- 
fest, on the other hand, the coast presents a series of most im- 
posing mountain and glacier scenes, while Tromsa itself, which 
by a slight stretch of imagination has been styled the 'Paris of the 
North', boasts of remarkably rich vegetation. The scenery with 
which the writer was most struck extends from the Arctic Circle 
(the Hestmandse) to the Lofoden Islands and the S. extremity of 
Hinde (Ladingen), where the grandest mountains and glaciers are 
seen in close proximity with the sea. A girdle consisting of nu- 
merous islands, some of which rise to a height of several thousand 
feet, here stretches far out to sea, while the fjords extend as far 
in the opposite direction, reaching to the bases of the lofty inland 

A trip to Bode and as far as Ledingen in the Lofoden Islands 
will thus comprise some of the most characteristic features of these 
northern regions ; but, if possible, the voyage should be extended 
to Tromse and Hammerfest for the sake of seeing the Lyngenfjoru 
and the island scenery of the Arctic Ocean, the finest of the 
kind in Europe. 

Steamboat Travelling. A cruise in one of the coasting steam- 
ers rather resembles a stay at a large hotel than a sea-voyage. 
The vessel's course lies almost always within the island-belt ( l in- 
denskjcers y ), and sea-sickness is of rare occurrence. From the 
Skjargaard, however, a view of the open sea is frequently obtained 
beyond the lower Skjar, or Var, as they are sometimes called. 

In July the steamboats are apt to be crowded. It is not easy 
to secure a berth beforehand by merely ordering it, or even by 
paying for it, as it is usually those who in propria persona first 
come who are first served. On arriving at Throndhjem, therefore, 
the traveller should lose no time in going on board , or sending 
some trustworthy messenger , to secure the fraction of a cabin 
which is to be his lodging for several days or even weeks. — All 
the steamboats contain a complete Post Office on board , where 

to Bode. NORDLAND. 22. Route. 211 

even telegrams are received. Letters and dispatches duly posted 
will be forwarded to their destinations from the nearest available 
station. The captain and several of the officials generally speak 
English and German. 

A coasting voyage of moderate length has many attractions. 
The captain and crew are usually very obliging and communica- 
tive, especially if the traveller shows an interest in their country. 
The Pilots (each of whom receives 140 kr. per month, besides their 
board) are especially well informed and intelligent. Two of them 
navigate the vessel from Christiansand to Throndhjem, two from 
Throndhjem to Hammerfest, and two others thence to Vadse, one 
of them always being on duty , except when the steamer is sta- 

Among the deck-passengers (who pay 15 e. per sea-mile) there 
are sometimes Lapps, Finns, and convicts, these last being occa- 
sionally met with on their way to the Slaveri, or house of correction, 
at Throndhjem. If questioned as to the object of their journey, 
they speak of it euphemistically as a 'voyage to the south' or 'in 
the king's service'. Itinerant musicians (who in accordance with 
the traditions of the country travel free) are often a source of an- 
noyance, and when the traveller hopes to get rid of them by going 
ashore, they are pretty sure to re-appear at the nearest inn or 
Gjastgiveri. The sailors are generally a sober and hard-working 
class, and the traveller will frequently have occasion to admire 
the patience and perseverance they exhibit in loading or discharg- 
ing cargo. 

The inhabitants of the small stations, who on the steamer's 
arrival crowd round her in their Ranenbaade (pointed skin's) are 
another object of interest. The charge for going ashore is usually 
20 »., but the Taxt should always be asked for, lest the traveller 
should unwittingly hurt the feelings of some landed proprietor or 
local dignitary (albeit wielding the oars with upturned shirt 
sleeves) by offering to pay. However far north the traveller ex- 
tends his voyage, he will be struck with the civility, honesty, and 
intelligence of the natives , especially those who are not in im- 
mediate contact with the influences of modern 'civilisation'. Even 
in the 'Parisian' Tromse the telegraph official on one occasion in- 
sisted on accompanying the writer for quarter of an hour in the 
midst of a deluge of rain to show him the way to the post-office ; 
and at Vadse a merchant of the place showed him a collection of 
valuable photographs from Vienna and a work on the philosophy 
of Bacon of which the owner was an admirer. Another native of 
the far north mentioned that he had just returned from Rome 
where he had spent the winter, while an intelligent native of 
Kjelvik, close to the North Cape, had travelled over a considerable 
part of Great Britain, but expressed a decided preference for the 
freedom of his Arctic home, the greater purity of its air and water, 


212 Route 22. 


From Throndhjem 

and even for its climate ! Clergymen, teachers, and government- 
offlcials also travel frequently in these vessels, and will give much 
interesting information regarding the Lapps, Finns, and other in- 
habitants of the country. 

Expenses. The cost of a voyage to the Nordland and Finmark 
is very moderate. The cabin fare is 40 e. per sea-mile, and return- 
tickets, available for the whole season, are issued at a fare and a 
half. The wife , son, or daughter of a passenger is entitled to 
travel for three-fourths of the full fare. A return-ticket from 
Throndhjem to Vads» costs 1*26 kr., to Tromse- 75 kr., the passen- 
ger's lodging and travelling expenses thus amounting to about 9 kr. 
per day only. The food is generally good. Fresh salmon and 
flounders (Kveiter or Helleflyndre) and salted delicacies are always 
abundant. For a substantial breakfast (Frokost) or supper (Aftens- 
mad) lV4 k r., and for dinner (Middag) l-W/z kr. are the usual 
charges. Tea, coffee, wine, and beer are extras. Spirits are not 
procurable. The steward expects a fee of at least J /2 kr. P er <* a y 
from each passenger at the end of the voyage. The account for 
food and extras should be paid daily, to prevent mistakes. 

Midnight Sun. The best season for a cruise to the North Cape 
is between 20th June and 15th August, whether the main object 
of the traveller be to witness the subdued glory of the midnight 
sun, or to see the scenery to the best advantage. Down to the 
middle of June the mountains are almost all covered with snow, 
and the vegetation in the valleys is imperfectly developed, and 
after the middle of August the nights become longer and colder; 
but the intervening period forms one unbroken day, during which 
the weather is often warm and genial. The midnight sun, which 
is visible within the Arctic Circle (66° 50') only, is partially or 
wholly seen from the sea-level within the following dates (those 
for the North Cape, however, being reckoned for a point 1000 ft. 
above the sea) : — 


For the first time. 

For the last time. 








North Cape 

30th May 





1st June 
19th May 
14th - 

3rd June 

20th May 
17th - 

8th June 
22th July 

10th July 





12th July 
29th - 
1st Aug. 

It need hardly be observed that travellers desirous of seeing 
the midnight sun should not postpone their journey till the latest 
possible date, as clouds and mist, as well as intervening mountains 
and islands, too often conceal the horizon and cause disappoint- 
ment. A height of several hundred feet of course commands a 
better view than the deck of the steamer, and enables the spec- 

to Bode. BEJAN. 22. Route. 213 

tator to see the midnight sun about one day earlier and later in 
the season than is otherwise possible. The sublimity of the spec- 
tacle, when witnessed in all its majesty, produces an impression 
never to be forgotten, and has been finely described by Carlyle, 
Bayard Taylor, and many other writers, while Tegner's lines on 
the subject are remarkable for their extreme simplicity : — 

'Midnattssolen pa bergen satt, 

Blodrod till att skada ; 

Det var ej dag, det var ej natt, 

Det vagde mellan bada.' 
(Literally. — 'The midnight sun shone on the mountain, blood-red 
to behold; 'twas neither day nor night, but a balance between them. 1 ) 

From Throndhjem to Bod*. 

76 M. (304 Engl. M.). Steamboats, comp. p. 191. One of the vessels 
from Christiania at present leaves Throndhjem on Thursday nights or 
Friday mornings, and the other on Saturdays at noon ; the Hamburg 
boat starts on Tuesday nights. Intending passengers should bear in mind 
that when a vessel is advertised to sail on a certain day , the very be- 
ginning of that day, or what is usually called the midnight of the pre- 
ceding day, is frequently meant. The direct distances from Throndhjem 
are pretixed to each station. Between Christiania or Christiansand and Ber- 
gen there are 4 stations, between Bergen and Throndhjem 6-10 stations ; 
between Throndhjem and Bod0 17-25, between Bod0 and Tromso 12-16, 
between TromsU and Hammerfest 3-6, and between Hammerfest and Vads<* 
19; or in all 63-90. For distances between the small stations, see 'Com- 

The first station is (3 M.) Redbjerget (at which the Hamburg 
vessels only call), and the next (7 M.) Bejan, at the mouth of the 
Throndhjem Fjord, on the S. extremity of Gfreland. To the N.E. 
stretches the Skjerenfjord. The vessel now steers to the N., skirt- 
ing the extensive peninsula of Fosen, formed by the sea and the 
long fjord of Throndhjem. To the "W. are the islands of Stor-Fosen 
and the Tarv-0er, and farther on is the Fro-Hav, a wide channel 
bounded on the W. by the Fro-0er. 

12 M. Valdersund. The Nordlandsjaegte , with their peculiar 
raised cabins (Veng), and rigged with a single square-sail (Raaseil) 
and a topsail (Fockseil), the latter being of recent introduction, 
are frequently seen here on their way to the Tydske-Bryg at Bergen, 
deeply laden with wood and dried fish. Part of their homeward 
cargo often consists of coffins, filled with bread and Kringler (a 
kind of rusk). These vessels, both in build and rig, are the lineal 
descendants of the piratical craft of the ancient Vikings. 

15 M. Stoksund, to the W. of which lie the Stoke and Lindncese. 

17 M. Syd-Kroge. Fish spread out on the rocks to dry (Klipfisk, 
'cliff-fish') begin to be seen here. In winter they are hung on 
Hjelder, or wooden frames, for the same purpose (thence called 
Stokftsk). Eider-ducks abound. 

21 M. Ramse. The black and white rings on the rocks (Mur- 
ker), resembling targets , indicate the position of iron stanchions 

214 Rontr -2-2. l'..T0T70. From Throndhjem 

for mooring vessels. For the next two hours the vessel traverses 
the open and sometimes rough Foldensje, which is prolonged 
towards the N.E. by the Foldenfjord (not to be confounded with 
the fjord of that name to the N. of Salten). 

25 M. Bjere. Here, and farther to the N., we often observe 
white marks on the rocks, and sometimes white planks in the 
water, the object of which is to attract the salmon, which mistake 
them for their favourite waterfalls and aTe thus decoyed into the 
nets. A peculiar ruffling of the water is sometimes caused by 
shoals of herrings (Sildstim), often pursued by the voracious Seid 
('saith', or hake, one of the Oadidae) or by a seal (Scelhund), to 
escape from which they dart into the nets and even spring ashore. 
Beyond Bjere the steamer's course is again 'indenskjsers'. To the 
right is the island of Skjeingen. We now steer to the S.E. into the 
Namsenfjord, which is separated from the Redsund to the N.E. by 
the long winding island of Ottere. As usual, the scenery improves 
as the fjord is ascended, and the steamer soon stops (generally to- 
wards evening) at the charming little town of — 

31 M. Namsos (p. 207). Steering through the very narrow 
Redsund, we next touch at Foslandsosen, and then traverse the 
Foldenfjord with its maze of islands to'Appelvar, on a small island 
at the mouth of the Indre Foldenfjord. 

From Namsos to Kongsmo on the Indre Foldenfjord, usually a 
steamboat on alternate Sundays. The fjord is very narrow and pictur- 
esque, resembling the Lysefjord near Stavanger, and is nearly 12 sea- 
miles in length. From Kongsmo at its head a road leads by JSeland 
to Haugum (p. 208), about 5'/2 M. distant; from Aavatnsvand, a little be- 
yond Hflland, a path diverging to the left crosses the hills to (3-4 hrs.) 
Fiskumfos (p. 208). 

The next station is Rervik on the island of Indre Vigten, to the 
W. of which are the islands of Mellem and Yttre Vigten, on which 
rise the Sulafjeld and Dragstind (450 ft.). On the left, farther on, 
is the Lecke, where a curiously shaped mountain is said by tra- 
dition to represent a giantess who was pursued by her lover, 
while her brother attempted to rescue her. The ' Torghcettd 1 (see 
below), or hat of the latter, having been pierced by an arrow shot 
by the amorous 'Hestmand' (p. 219), the sun shone through the 
aperture and metamorphosed the distressed maiden into stone, the 
pursuer being at this juncture only 105 English miles off! In pass- 
ing the giantess the natives sometimes raise their hats with mock 

36 M. Gutvik. On the right, farther on , is the Bindalsfjord, 
with its numerous ramifications, the boundary between Nordre 
Throndhjems Ami and Belgeland Fogderi, which extends to the N. 
to the promontory of Kunnen near Bode. Helgeland and Salten 
Fogderi beyond it together form the Amt or province of Nordland, 
which we now enter. 

On alternate Sundays (those on which the Foldenfjord mentioned 
above is not visited) a steamer from Namsos plies on the iBindalsfjord 

to Bode. TORGHjETTA. 22. Route. 215 

as far as Teraai, to the S.W. of Vatsaas. Thence towards the N.W. runs 
the "TJiosenfjord, a huge mountain-cleft, l s / 4 sea-miles in length, extend- 
ing to Ttiosbotn and Guard Thosdal , from which the traveller may pro- 
ceed with a guide to Hortskarmo in the Sveningsdal and Mosjaen on the 
Vefsenfjord (p. 216) in 172-2 days. The ascent from Gaard Thosdal is ex- 
tremely steep, and on the E. side of the mountain there is a very trouble- 
some ford across the Gaasvaselv. 

From Gutvik the steamer steers towards the island of Torgen 
with the *Torgh.setta ('market hat'), one of the most famous is- 
lands of theNordland, situated in 65°24' N. latitude. It resembles 
a hat, about 800 ft. in height, floating on the sea, and is pierced 
about halfway up, from N.B. to S.W., by an aperture known as 
Hullet (formed by the 'Hestmand's' arrow; see the legend above 
mentioned), through which, in passing between the island and the 
mainland , the passenger can see the sky on the other side. The 
height of this curious natural tunnel at the E. entrance, according 
to Prof. Mohri's measurements , is about 60 ft. , in the middle 
194 ft., and at the W. end 233 ft. The sides are flat at most 
places, nearly perpendicular, and here and there look as if they 
had been artificially chiselled. 'At the entrances are huge heaps 
of rocky rubble (Vr), but in the cavern itself there are but few 
blocks of rock, the floor being covered with fine sand and level 
enough for a carriage-drive. The view of the sea with its count- 
less islands and rocks, seen from this gigantic telescope, is in- 
describably beautiful and impressive'. {Vibe, 'Kusten u. Meer 
Norwegens' ; Gotha, 1860, with two views of the island. See also 
Friis. 'Kong Oscar II's Reise ; Kristiania, 1874.) On the island is 
Gaarden T'orget (good quarters), near which are a burial-place and 
a few reminiscences of antiquity. Passengers who intend to visit 
the island disembark at (41 M.) Somnces , a charmingly situated 
place, with smiling meadows and norn-flelds, or at — 

42 M. Brenasund (65°28'), which boasts of a pastor, a doctor, 
and a telegraph-office. The telegraph is of great importance to the 
natives. On the arrival of a Sildstim , or shoal of herrings , they 
frequently have to telegraph for extra supplies of salt and barrels, 
which are then sent by steamers chartered for the purpose. On the 
shore are often seen the isolated cottages of the Strandsiddere, who 
live .exclusively by fishing. Inland settlers are called Opsiddere 
or Nysiddere by way of contrast. 

A visit may he paid from Br0n0sund to the grand 'Velfjord, the 
broad ;mouth of which the steamboat afterwards passes. The route is 
by boat into the Skillebotn, at the end of which there is a quarry of ex- 
cellent bluish-white marble- Thence by a road across a narrow isthmus 
(Bid) to Saltbu on the Velfjord, and again by boat to (1 M.) Gaard Begge 
(good quarters at Landhandler Knoff's). — In the Tidingdal, one of the 
innermost branches of the Velfjord, which is there called the Store 
Bjeirga, the valley ascending from the fjord suddenly rises to a height 
of 438 ft., and over this terrace is precipitated the "Tidingdalsfos in a 
single leap. — From the Velfjord to the N. diverge the Oksfjord and the 
Slorfjord, two long and wild creeks, which may also be explored from 
Saltbu. — From Bjergeeren, at the end of the Store Bj0rga, a fatiguing 
mountain-route crosses to Hortskarmo in the Sveningsdal (see above). — 

21 6 Route 22. VEFSENFJORD. From Throndhjem 

From Hegge the traveller may walk to the S. to Nwversted on the Urfjord, 
row thence to Somnhoved, and walk to Somnccs, the steamboat-station to 
the E. of the Torghastta (p. 215). 

Some of the steamboats next call at Tilrum-Markedplads, to the 
N. of Branesund, others at Rer0, on the large mountainous island 
of Vegen, to the W. Most of the vessels then steer past the V el- 
fjord, in which, to the right, rises the huge Mosaksel, while on the 
N. side are the Heiholmstinder. They then pass between the 
island of Havne and the mainland, on which lies — 

47 Al. Forvik or Vivelstad. Near Vistnes, farther on, opens the 
0sterfjord, from the head of which a path crosses the mountains 
to the Lakaadal and the Eiteraadal in the district of Vefsen (see 
below). The steamer now approaches the imposing *Seven Sisters 
(Syv SestreJ, which have long been visible in the distance. To the 
B. towers the conspicuous Finknae (3880 ft.). The vessel crosses 
the Vefsenfjord, passes on the right a hill remarkable for its red 
colour, and stops at the flat island of Tjetet. 

Beyond Tj0t# the Chkistiania Steameks ascend the -Vefsenfjord to 
Mosjeen, at its S.E. end. The scenery is very imposing, and in the in- 
terior of the fjord the mountains are beautifully wooded. From Mos- 
j#en a good road leads to the Tustervand and to Stornces on the Resvand, 
which ranks next to Lake Mjgisen in point of area. From Stornces the 
traveller may ascend the Brurskanke and the Kjeringtind, on the W. side of 
the lake, and then follow the course of the liesaa, the discharge of the 
Tustervand and Rosvand, towards the X. to Resaaeren on the Ranenfjord 
(p. 217). About halfway thither a digression may be made to the E., up 
the course of the Bjuraa, for the sake of ascending the imposing 0x- 
tinder ; but these peaks are more easily reached from R0saa#ren and 
through the Leerskardal. — A local steamer plies on the Ranenfjord 
between R0saa#ren, Hemnces, Mo, and other stations. 

After leaving Mosjoen, the coasting steamboat follows the N. arm of 
the fjord to Sandnceseen, at the N. end of the island of Alsten, which 
lies to the W. of the mouth of the Vefsenfjord. 

The Hamburg steamboats skirt the W. side of the large island 
of Alsten, touch at Sevig, and then at — 

51 M. Sannesetn or Sandnaseen, at the N. end of the island. 
The view from this point of the Seven Sisters (really six peaks 
only), which rise toaheight of nearly 3000 ft., is strikingly grand. 
At the S. end of Alsten (65 Engl. sq. M. in area ; 1500 inhab.) is 
the church of Ahtahoug, where Peter Dass, the i famous author of 
'Nordlands Trompet' (published for the first time in 1739) was 
pastor from 1689 to 1708. This work contains a most accurate 
description of this province of Norway in poetic garb, and will be 
found an invaluable travelling companion by persons acquainted 
with the language. (Best edition by Eriksen; Christiania, 1874.) — 
A good road leads from Sevig to (3/ 4 M.) Alstahoug. On the Haug- 
nas, near the church, is the so-called Kongsgrav. — A good road 
also leads from Sandvig to (l'/4 M.) Sandn»s»en, ^2 M - f rom 
which is Qaard Botnet, the best starting-point for the ascent of the 
northernmost of the Seven Sisters. The *View from the summit 
is one of the grandest and most peculiar in Nordland. 

A local steamer runs from Swig to Vefsen and Ranen, and also to 

to Bode. RANENFJORD. 22. Route. 217 

the W. to Here. The fishery at Aasvair, to the W. of Dynnwse, and on 
the '■Skallen" ('fishing hanks') in December and January is very productive. 
At that season no fewer than 10,01)0 fishermen sometimes congregate 
here, and within a fortnight or three weeks they catch as many as ten 
million herrings (200-250,000 barrels). The greatest "Fair in the Nord- 
land takes place on 2nd July annually in the Bjam-Marknadsplads in 
the island of Dynnces, and is largely attended by the country-people from 
far and near, and by their servants, who are in the habit of specially 
stipulating in their contracts for l Markedsferier' or 'fair holidays.' 

53 M. Kobberdal on the island of Lekta, the next station of 
any importance, commands a view, towards the E., of the Banen- 
fjord, which the steamers from Christiania now enter. 

The Ranenfjord (anciently Jladund) is famous for its timber, and 
yields the material ,of which almost all the boats, houses, and coffins 
between this point and Vads<J are made. The principal stations are and Mo, both of which are touched at by one of the steamers 
from Christiania (Hemnses only by the other), while a local steamer, the 
'Helgeland', plies between these places and the S#vig and Vikholmen 
stations in correspondence with the Hamburg steamer. Hemnses is 4, 
Mo 8 sea-miles from Vikholmen. The scenery becomes more attractive 
as we ascend the fjord. 

Hemnas (good quarters at Landhandler Nilsen's). Excursions hence 
to Besaaeren and to the Oxtinder (see above). 

Mo (rooms at Landhandler Meyer's) carries on a considerable trade 
with JSorsele in Sweden via Umbugten and the Bonces Pass. A railway to 
Throndhjem to the S., to the Foldenfjord to the N., and even across the 
Bonses Pass into Sweden are projected. — The following stalactite ca- 
verns ('Drypstenshuler') may be visited from Mo : the Risagrotte on the 
Langvand, near Hammernces (1 M.) ; the Laphul, near Oaarden Bjemaa, 
and opposite to it another by Qaard Gunlien , both in the valley of the 
Redvaselv. An excursion may also be taken to the glacier of ''Svartisen 
by rowing to the end of the Langvand and following the valley to the 
N. as far as Fisktjernmo. A glacier-pass crosses hence to the end of the 
Melfjord (p. 219). The Svartis is said to be the largest glacier in Norway, 
hut is still almost unknown. 

Another excursion is to the Svartisvand , a lake into which an off- 
shoot of the Svartis Glacier descends. (Forbes's Norway, p. 228.) 

To the N.E. of Mo extends the interesting Dunderlandsdal (the Finnish 
word Tunduri, and the Lappish Duodar signifying mountain), a broad 
valley, the central point of which is Bjceldaances. From this point routes 
lead to the N. to the Beierenfjord and the Saltenfjord (p. 221), and the Svartis 
and neighbouring mountains may be ascended. Several of the streams in 
this valley disappear in caverns formed by the erosion of the marble 
from the surrounding mica-slate, and suddenly re-appear lower down. 
This is the case with the Stilvasaa, near Oaarden Storforshei in the Skog- 
frudal (about l'/3 M. from Mo), where there is a very curious, but now 
ruined mill. Near it is the Urtvand, an interesting forest-girt lake. 
Farther W. is the Eiteraa, which drives mills immediately on its egress 
from the bowels of the earth. In the vicinity lare Tyvshelleren (thieves' 
grotto') and an interesting Ravine, with an icy current of air through it, 
where the rushing of the subterranean water is distinctly heard. A third 
stream of the same kind is the Pruglaa near Gaarden Jordbro. By the 
Pruglheibro are about fifty water-worn Jasttegryder ('giant cauldrons'). 

From Bjeeldaanaes (5 M. from Mo; carriage-road) we may visit the 
* Stormdalsfos and the Marble Grotto at its foot, near the Bredikfjeld. 
The Urt/jeld, reached by crossing the Stormdalshei, and the Bredikfjeld 
command uninterrupted views, embracing the Svartis and the Lofoden 
Islands. An excursion is recommended to the Svartis, which descends 
to the Kvitvaselvdal, and to its ice-fall on the slope of the Magdajoklind. 
— From BjseldaanEes it is a day's ride to (5 M.) Storjord in the Beieren- 
dal. The route follows the Bjceldaadal, passes the Nedre and 0vre Bjtel- 
daavand, and traverses the Mvre and Nedre Toldaadal , past Toldaa and 

218 Routed. JUNKEIiSDAL. From Throndhjem 

Aasbakke, to Slorjord (good quarters at the under-forester's). From Stor- 
jord to Soleen (with the church of Beieren) 1 M. more. — From Bjseldaa- 
nses to Almindingen in the Saltdal is also a long day's journey, the route 
leading either through the Bjseldaadal (following the telegraph-wires), or 
through the Gullelaadal. Randal, and Lenesdal, which last forms the 
upper end of the Saltdal. Below the junction of the Saltdal and 
Junkersdal lies Oaarden Berghulnces ; thence to Almindingen and Rognan, 
see p. 223. — From Berghulnfts the traveller should proceed to the E. to 
the Junkersdals-Gaard, in the Junkersdal (l 1 / 4 M. ; good quarters). The 
bridle-path thither leads through the * Ur, one of the grandest rocky ra- 
vines in Norway, formed by the Kjernfjeld to the K. and the Solvaag- 
fjeld to the W. (i-5000 ft. high). The route is very dangerous in winter 
owing to the frequency of avalanches (Sneskred). The valley is named 
after the 'Amtmand', or governor, Junker Prcebend von Ahn, who during 
a war with Sweden was encamped here with a body of troops. Farther 
up, the valley is called Graddh, and is traversed by a bridle-path to 
Sweden, much frequented in winter, and provided with several 'Fjeld- 
stuer'. Many settlements of Lapps are to be met with on the heights in 
the Dunderdal and Saltdal, where acquaintance may easily be made with 
their Gammer ('earth-huts') and their mode of life. 

The next station, a little to the N. of the Ranenfjord, is — 

55 M. Vikholmen (good quarters), charmingly situated. The 
Ranenbaade , pointed skiffs with lofty bows , recalling the Vene- 
tian gondola, are built here. They are called Fjaring, Sexring, or 
Ottring , according as they have four, six, or eight oars (each 
pair wielded by one rower), these words being contractions of the 
numbers 4, 6, 8, in composition with ctring, a termination from 
Aar ('oar'). These boats were formerly amazingly cheap, and even 
now a substantial 'Sexring' can be bought for 40-50 crowns. The 
Fembering (or Fembyrding), a heavier kind of boat, used in the 
Lofoden fishery, and accommodating Ave men, is also built here. As 
might be expected, the Norwegian boatmen are far more skilful in 
the management of their craft than most other continental oarsmen. 

From Vikholmen the steamboat steers to the N.W. between the 
islands of Huglen, Hannese, and Tombei. To the E. are seen the 
S.W. spurs of the Svartis, and to the "W. the singularly shaped 
islands of Lovunden and the group of *Threnen (Threnst&vene). 
The former, upwards of 2000 ft. high, is 3 M., and the latter, a 
group which is equally lofty , consisting of four rocky islands, 
5 M. distant; but both seem quite near in clear weather. These 
islands are the haunt of dense flocks of sea-birds (Lunder, Lunde- 
fugle, Mormon Arcticus), which nestle in the clefts of the rocks 
and are caught by dogs trained for the purpose. 

The precipitousness of Lovunden, the summit of which appears to 
overhang the water, has given rise to the saying — 

'Se ! hvordan han luder den gamle Lovund !' 
('See how it overhangs, the ancient Lovund'.) 

Another saying is — 

'Hestemanden tute, Lovunden lute, og Trenen er Isengere ute.' 
('The Heslemand blows his horn, the Lovund overhangs, and the 
Thren lies farther out.') 

See Peter Dass, 'Samlede Skrifter'; Kristiania, 1874; vol. i., p. 94. 

Lovunden and Threnen are inhabited by fishermen only. On 
one of the latter group of islands there is a church, where the 

to Bode. HESTMANPS0. ™. Route. 219 

pastor of Lure occasionally performs divine service. These islands 
may be visited from the station Indre Kvare , but the passage of 
the Threnfjord is often rough. The coasting steamers sometimes 
touch at Lovunden. — Sandflesen, a mythical island like Gunillas 
0ar inFrithjofs Saga, overrun with game, and with shores abound- 
ing in fish, is said to lie to the W. of Threnen. 

In steering towards the Kvareer the steamboat traverses the 
Stegfjord, the passage between the Lure on the left and Alderen 
on the right, and we soon come in sight of the *Hestmands0 
("1750 ft.), which is perhaps the most interesting island in this 
archipelago. To the right, on a projecting peninsula of the main- 
land, lies — 

59 M. Indre Kvare, a lonely place , from which visits may be 
paid to the Melfjord, the Lure, Lovunden, Threnen, and the Hest- 
rnandse. The 'horseman's island', seen from the W., resembles a 
rider with a long cloak falling over his horse (see the legend men- 
tioned above). The summit is said to be inaccessible, but an 
attempt to reach it might be made from Oaard Hestrnoen on the S. 
side of the island. The view from it must be very gTand , embra- 
cing the whole of the archipelago and the vast and imposing Svartis 
on the mainland. Those who visit the Lure should ascend the 
mountain (2110 ft.) at the back of Oaarden Lure, which lies i / i M. 
from the harbour. The view is extolled by L. v. Buck (vol. i.). — 
The Arctic Circle (66° 50'), which we now cross, passes through the 
islands of Threnen and a little to the S. of the Hestmandse. 

Magnificent as the scenery has hitherto been, it is far sur- 
passed by that of the *Svartis, which the steamer now skirts for 
several miles. This part of the voyage is usually performed at 
night, so that passengers have an opportunity of observing the 
effects of the midnight sun. Svartisen is an enormous mantle of 
snow and ice, resembling the Jostedalsbrae and the Folgefond, 
about 6 M. in length and 2-4 M. in breadth, and covering a moun- 
tain-plateau upwards of 4000 ft. in height, from which protrude a 
few Nuter or Knolde ('peaks', 'knolls'). From this plateau descend 
numerous glaciers to within a few hundred feet of the sea , those 
extending farthest down being in the Holandsfjord. The western- 
most spur of this almost unknown region is the promontory of 
Kunnen (p. 220), which extends far into the sea. 

The first station on this part of the voyage is (60 M.) Selsevig, 
to the right of which is the Rangsunde , with the Melfjord and its 
grand mountains beyond it. 

The Melfjord, which may be visited from Selff-rvig, branches off into 
the Nordfjord and the inner Melfjord. From Oaarden Melfjord, at the 
head of the latter, a route crosses the Svartis to Fisktj ernmo (p. 217), and 
leads thence to the Langvand and to Mo on the Eanenfjord (see above). 

62 M. Rede, with the 'Norshe Leve\ To the right, farther on, 
are the Tjongsfjord and the Skarsfjord, with their ramifications the 
Berangsfjord and Holandsfjord, which extend into the heart of the 

220 Route 22. KUNNEN. From Throndhjem 

Svartis. Passing the Omnese on the right, the steamer touches at 
(64 M.J *Grene, a picturesque and smiling island, one of the 
nearest points to the Svartis, of which it commands a striking view, 
and the best starting-point for a visit to its magnificent scenery. 
The steamer affords a view of the deep indentation formed by the 
Glomfjord, and then steers through a narrow strait between the 
Mele on the left and the Skjerpa on the right to the promon- 
tory of Kunnen. Far to the N. we obtain our first glimpse of the 
Lofoden Islands. 

From Qrung we may take a boat into the Holandsfjord as far as 
Reindalsvik (tolerable quarters), and thence ascend the *Reindalstind 
(about 2100ft.), which commands a magnificent view of the Svartis. — A 
visit should also be paid to the f/gM.) Fondalbra, with its huge ice-caverns. 
— From Glommen, at the head of the Glomfjord (also reached by boat from 
Gr0n#), which does not penetrate so far into the Svartis, the dreary Dok- 
modal or Arstadal may be ascended and the mountains crossed (without 
difficulty, though no path) to Beierens Kivke (Soleen, Arstad, p. 2!21). 

The promontory of Kunnen (1995 ft.) forms the boundary 
between the districts of Helgeland and Salten, and at the same 
time possesses a climatic and geographical importance similar to 
that of the promontory of Statt in the Sendmere. From this point 
there is a 'Havsed' ('sea glimpse'), or opening in the island-belt, 
through which a view of the open sea is obtained and its motion 
sometimes felt. To the N. the Fugle comes in sight, and 5% sea- 
iniles beyond it the island olLandegode, resembling 'two gigantic 
buoys which mark the entrance to the Saltenfjord'. The atmosphere 
here is often remarkably clear. — The opening in the 'Skjaergaard' 
is soon passed (generally at night), and we next observe on the left 
the Fugle, the Fleina, and the Ameer, and on the right the church 
of Oildeskaal and the large island of Sandhom, the highest moun- 
tain in which is called Sandhornet (3295 ft.). The Beieren fjord 
(p. 221) may be entered either on the S. or the N. side of this is- 
land. This fjord and the promontory of Kunnen form the northern- 
most limit of the silver fir. — We now enter the Saltenfjord, ob- 
taining a view in clear weather of the snow-mountains around the 
Sulitjelma to the E., and soon reach the curious rocky harbour of — 

76 M. Bod«r (b7° 17'; Nilseri's Hotel), a busy and increasing 
place , with 1500 inhab. , the seat of the Amtmand or provincial 
governor, and a telegraph-station. The annual mean temperature 
here is 37-/5° Fahr. , that of July 54 1 /2°, and that of January (not 
colder than Christiania) 32°. The large modern buildings contrast 
strangely with the old cottages with their roofs of turf. Passengers 
who do not intend making any stay here will at least have time to 
disembark and ascend the *Lebsaas, a hill to theN.E. of the town, 
which commands a view of the Lofoden Islands to the W., and of 
the Blaamandsfjeld (Olmajalos, 5350 ft.), a snowy range adjoining 
the Sulitjelma (which is not itself visible) to the E. (A similar 
view, though less extensive, is obtained from the fields, 5 min. to 
the S. of the town.) Geologists will be interested in the erratic 

to Bode. BOD0. 22. Route. 221 

blocks of syenite in the midst of a rock-formation of slate. The 
town is supplied -with water from a neighbouring lake. 

A road leads to the S.E to ('/ 4 M.) the Church of Bode and the 
Prcestegaard, at which Louis Philippe, when travelling as a refugee 
under the name of Muller (accompanied by Montjoye, who called 
himself Froberg), was entertained on his voyage to the North Cape 
in 1796. A room in the house is still named after him. On the S. 
wall of the church is the monument of a former 'Praest' (d. 1666). 
Beyond the church the road traverses a pleasant tract , with rich 
vegetation, on the bank of the Saltenfjord. 

Bode is a good starting-point for a number of very interesting 
Excursions , of which the three following are the most important. 

1. From Bod» to the Beierenfjord. 

This fjord, a profound mountain-chasm which is not unlike the 
Geiranger Fjord, is most conveniently visited by the steamer 
t Salten\ which usually leaves Bode on Tuesday and Friday mor- 
nings and returns the same day (6 hrs. there and back). Crossing 
the Saltenfjord, we skirt the island of Sandhorn on the right. Sta- 
tions Skaalland, on the left, and Sandnes, in the island of Sand- 
horn. We now enter the ^Beierenfjord, a narrow inlet flanked by 
most imposing mountains. The narrowest point is at Gaarden Eg- 
gesoik. The third station is Kjelling, and the last Tvervik, whence 
the steamer returns to Bode. From Tvervik we row to ( 1 / 4 M.) 
Soleen (good quarters at Landhandler Jentoft's), or to Arstad, 
where there is a Skydsstation. The road leads thence through a 
picturesque valley, past Beierens Kirke (with Gaarden Moldjord ad- 
jacent), to Storjord, Aasbakke, and (about l^M.) Toldaa(j>. 218), 
from either of which we may proceed to (2'/2 M-) Rusaanas in 
the Saltdal (see p. 223). 

From Toldaa a route leads through the lower and upper Toldaa- 
dal to the Upper Bjaldaavand or Raudivand, 1 M. long, the Lower 
Bjaldaavand, and the Dunderlandsdal (comp. p. 218). 

If neither of these routes be undertaken, the traveller should 
ascend from Soleen (or Beierens Kirke) to the summit of the 
*Heitind (4120 ft. ; with guide), which rises to the S. and com- 
mands a magnificent view of the mountain-solitudes extending 
into Sweden, of the Svartis to the S., and of the sea with its nu- 
merous islands to the W., including even the mountains in the 
Lofoden islands, 17-20 sea-miles distant. 

2. From Bod» to the Saltenfjord and Skjerstadfjord. 

The steamboat 'Salteri usually leaves Bode on "Wednesdays 
and Saturdays for Rognan at the S. end of the Skjerstadfjord, 
where the Saltdal begins, and returns thence to Bode at night. 
Stations Valosen, Leding, Strem, Skjerstad, Venset, Fuske, Leif- 
set, and Rognan. 

222 Route 22. SALTSTR0M. Excursions 

The Skjerstad Fjord is the western prolongation of the Salten- 
fjord, from which it is separated by the Streme and the Gode, to 
the N. of the Strame. Between these islands and the mainland 
are three very narrow straits, the Sundstrem (200 ft. wide), the 
Storstrem (500 ft.), and the Godestrem , through which an enor- 
mous mass of water has to pass four times daily, forming a tre- 
mendous, roaring cataract, commonly known as the *Saltstr«m, as 
each tide pours in or out of the fjord. The usual rise of the tide 
here is 5-6 ft. only, but when it increases to 8-9 ft., as in the case 
of spring-tides, the scene is a most imposing one. No vessel dares 
to attempt the passage at such times, and the violence of the cata- 
ract has even proved destructive to whales. The steamboat can 
pass through these straits during an hour or so at high or at low 
tide only, and times its departure from Bode accordingly from 4 
to 10 a.m.). The Saltstrem is described by Schytte in 'Bodes 
Beskrivelse', by Sommerfelt in 'Saltdalens Beskrivelse', by Vibe 
in his work on the sea and coast of Norway, and other writers. 

The Saltstrem, which surpasses the famous Malstrerm on the 
coast of the Lofoden Islands, is best viewed from Strem, where the 
passenger must disembark and wait for several hours (quarters at 
Landhandler Thomson's). A granite column at Baksundholm com- 
memorates the visit of Oscar II. on 26th June, 1873. {Friis' Beise, 
1874.) The ascent of the Bersvatnstinder to the S. of Strom is 

Skjerstad, on the S. bank of the fjord named after it, lies at 
the entrance to the Misvarfjord, a bay of the fjord. Opposite, to 
the \V r ., is the old gaard of Lences with an ancient burial-place. 

Venset (good quarters at Koch's). About 7-2 ^- farther is 0ines- 
gaulen, a promontory of conglomerate, a formation which also oc- 
curs in the Kjcttnces, l 1 /^ M. to the S. — The steamer next 
touches at — • 

Fuske, on the N. bank of the fjord, whence a road leads by 
Fuskeeid to Dybvik on the Foldenfjord {Serf olden , p. 230), from 
which, or rather from Resuig (good .quarters at Landhandler Ner- 
mann's), 1 M. distant, a steamboat at present starts for Bode on 
Tuesday and Thursday evenings. — Fuske is also the starting- 
point Cor an — 

Excursion to the Sulitjblma. The route traverses the district 
called Vattenbygden, and passes the Nedre Vand, the 0ore Vand, 
and the Langoand (357 ft.). On leaving the steamer we cross the 
Finneid, where there is a tine waterfall, past which runs a wooden 
slide (Lapp muorka) for the purpose of drawing boats up to the 
lake. We then row on the Nedre Vand to Moen, at its upper end, 
and, if possible, as far as Skjenstuen at the head of the 0vre 
Vand. Next day we walk to (!/ 4 M.) Slormo, where the forester 
(Skovvogter) lives, and ascend thence to the Langvand, a boat on 
which conveys us past a number of gaards to Fagermo at its upper 

from Bode. ROGNAN. 22. Route. 223 

end (quarters at Opsidder Seven's, who also acts as a guide). A 
height to the E. of the gaard should be ascended for the sake of 
the **View it affords of the Sulitjelma, which a single valley only 
separates from the spectator. The spectacle is of surpassing gran- 
deur. The ascent of the Sulitjelma from this side has rarely or 
never been attempted. 

'The extensive pedestal of the gigantic Sulitjelma, which is formed 
of a kind of mica-slate as hard as glass, rises almost immediately from the 
Langvand, extends from E. to W. for upwards of a mile, slopes towards 
the S., and ascends again at its X. margin, where it is 4780 ft. above the 
sea-level, and where, with its various peaks, it assumes a nearly semi- 
circular form. The mountain is covered with enormous masses of snow, 
which have forced the glacier to descend 700 ft. below the snow-line, 
and it culminates in two colossal peaks, often concealed by clouds, the 
northernmost of which is 6485ft. in height, while between them the 
tongue of the glacier descends into the narrow valley. The S. peak is 
divided by a deep cleft into two rocky pinnacles, which, as well as the 
N. peak, rise in tremendous precipices from the glacier below. To the 
N. extends the vast and gently sloping glacier of the Blaamand, and to 
the 8. the mountain is adjoined by the flat Lairofjeld\ 

The great Swedish naturalist Q. Wahlenberg, the author of works on 
the flora of Lapland and of the Carpathians, spent several weeks in 1807, 
in a tent on the Virijaur, about 1850 ft. above the sea, with a view to 
explore the Sulitjelma group. He describes the various peaks and the 
glaciers (here called Jwkna), and ascended the highest peak of the moun- 
tain, the height of which he estimated at about 6000 feet. Between the 
summit and the southern peak (5320 ft.) the Salajcekna descends towards 
the S. to the Lomijaur (2260 ft. ; jaw, 'lake'), a depth of 2570 ft., according 
to Durocher's calculation. This lake is separated by a narrow Eid, the 
watershed ( Vandskillei) between the Atlantic and the Baltic, from the 
Swedish Pjeskajaur. — Adjoining the Sulitjelma group on the N. is 
the above-mentioned Olmajalos (5350 ft.) , with its two glaciers , the 
Olmajalos and the Lina-Jcekna. — See Q. Wahlenberg's 'Berattelse om 
Matninger och Observationer vid 67 Graders Polhojd' ; Stockholm, 1808 
(with three maps). 6. v. Duberi's 'Om Lappland och Lapparne' ; Stock- 
holm, 1873. Hartung & Bulk's 'Norwegen', 1877. 

Passes to Qvickjock and other places in Sweden, see below. 

Rognan , the last steamboat-station , lies at the end of the 
Saltenfjord , on the left bank of the Saltdalselv , while Saltdal 
Kirke stands on the right bank. Good quarters at EUingeris at 
Saltnces, y 4 M. from Rognan. 

From Rognan, which is a Skydsstation, we may drive up the 
Saltdal to ( 3 / 4 M.) Sundby (quarters at Larsen's, the forester). 

About l 5 / 8 M. from Rognan is Almlndingen, a little below 
which, on the opposite bank of the river, lies Eoe nsgaarden (good 
quarters). From the latter a route ascends the Evencesdal for a 
short distance, and leads to the S. across the Solvaagfjeld, on the 
N. side of the *8olvaagtind, to the Junkerdals-Oaard (p. 218), a 
short day's walk, with which the ascent of the Solvaagtind can 
easily be combined. — From Almindingen the road next leads to 
(3/ 4 M.) Rusaanas, those who proceed beyond which must take 
a 'Sundmand' thence to ferry them across the river higher up. 
About 3 / 4 lI. above Rusaanaes we cross the river near Langsandmo 
or Troldhelen and reach Oaarden Berghulnres, where a horse and 

224 Route 22. LOFODEN. Excursions 

guide to Beieran may be procured. The route now leads through 
beautiful pine-wood to Storjord (quarters at the house of the 'Forst- 
assistent'), in the Beierendal (p. 217). Excursion to the Junkers- 
dal, and route to the Dunderlandsdal, see pp. 217, 218. 

The Passes to Sweden are very rough and fatiguing in summer. 
(In winter they are traversed more easily, "being then practicable for 
Kjcerris, or reindeer-sledges.) Between the gaard of the last i Opsidder" 
on the Norwegian side to that of the first '•Nyhyggare? on the Swedish, 
the traveller must frequently ride 12 or even 20 hours. It is, however, 
usual to break this part of the journey by spending a night in one of 
the Lappish 'Gammer'', or earth-huts. At places, too, there are 'Fjeld- 
stuer',, which have been erected by government for the accommodation 
of travellers , where shelter at least may be procured. A guide and a 
supply of provisions are indispensable. — Hartung & Dalle's German work 
on 'Norwegen' (Stuttgart, 1877) contains an interesting account of some 
of these passes. 

1. From the Junkersdal, the upper part of which is called Graddis, 
a path leads to the S.E., passing the Godjavre, or through the Merkdal 
to the Sadva Lake, Horn-Avan, and Skelle/tea on the Gulf of Bothnia. 
On each side of the pass there is a Fjeldstue. 

2. From the Junkersdal another path leads to theN.E., passing (1 M.) 
Skaidi, to the (l'/2 M.) Balvand, and thence to the S.E. to the Horn-Avan, 
where it joins the above route. The Balvand may also be reached from 
the Langvand, at the W. end of the Sulitjelma group, so that a circuit 
from the Junkersdal to the Balvand and Langvand, or the reverse, may 
be made by those who do not intend crossing into Sweden. 

3. From the Langvand a route leads past the N. side of the Suli- 
tjelma group to Qvickjock on the Lule-Elf in Sweden. The path leads past 
the Rovijaur and Farrejaur to the Virijaur (once the head quarters of 
Wahlenberg, the naturalist), where Lapps with their tents are generally 
met with. Thence to Njungis, the first permanently inhabited place in 
Sweden, and to Qvickjock. The distance from the Langvand to the high- 
est point of the route is about. 3 M. ; thence to Qvickjock 7 M. more. 
The journey takes 2-3 days, in accordance with the weather and other 

The first of these routes is the easiest, the third by far the grandest. 
Qvickjock, Lulea, etc., see R. 39. 

3. From Bod» to the Lofoden and Vesteraalen Islands. 

The Vestfjord separates the long chain of the Lofoden and Ves- 
teraalen Islands from the mainland, and is prolonged by the Ofoten- 
fjord, which forms a deep indentation in the coast. The Lofoden 
and Vesteraalen groups are separated from each other by the Raft- 
■mnd, which lies between the 0st-Vaage on the "W. and the Hinde 
on the E., all the islands on the W. of this boundary belonging to 
the Lofoden, and those on the E. and N. to Vesteraalen. The 
Lofoden Islands describe a long curve towards the W. and S., 
somewhat resembling a horn, which tapers towards the S. from the 
Hinde ; and they have not inaptly been likened to the skeleton of 
some vertebrate animal, the smaller vertebrae of the tail being at 
the S. end. Most of these islands lie so close together that no 
opening in their long mountain chain is visible from a distance, 
but the intervals between those at the S. end of the group are 
wider. The principal islands and straits (Sunde, Streme), from 

from Bode. LOFODEN. -J '2. Route. "22f> 

the Hinde towards theS.W., are: the Raftsund, through which 
lies the steamboat's course to the N.W. Vesteraalen ; the J&at-naage, 
the largest of the Lofoden Islands ; the Gimsestrem, in which lies 
the Gimse; then Vestvaage, with tlie Napstrem; the island of 
Flagstad with the Sundstrem, and the Moskencese; the famous 
Malstrem, or Moskenstrem, and the island of Mosken; the Voire, 
and lastly the archipelago of Rest. — This chain forms a perfect 
maze of mountains, bays, and straits, interspersed with thousands 
of small rocky islets (Holme, Skjver, or Flese, from the Icel. flesjar, 
as they are often here called"), and numerous excellent fishing- 
banks (Skaller, Klnkke), and enlivened at places with fishing- 
stations and small harbours ( Vmr). Most of the mountains are 
picturesque and pointed in shape, and many of them rise im- 
mediately from the sea (as the Vaagekalle, at Henningsvaer, 3090 ft. 
high), while the whole range, sometimes called the 'Lofotvag' 
( 'Lofoden wall'), with its countless pinnacles , which have been 
compared to sharks' teeth, presents a singularly impressive scene. 
A peculiarity of these mountains is the crater-like formation of 
many of their peaks, recalling those of the Tatra Mts. in Austria. 
So far as they are not covered with snow , they are for the most 
part clothed with a kind of green moss, which possesses a curious 
luminosity , particularly in damp weather ; but there is also 
no lack of entirely barren rocks. Good harbours (Vaage, Icel. 
Vagar) abound, where the largest vessels, dwarfed to the dimen- 
sions of nut-shells, lie in close proximity to enormous walls of 
rock, several thousand feet in height. The larger islands contain 
rivers and lakes of no inconsiderable size. The growth of trees in 
this high latitude is but scanty, but there is abundance of fresh 
green vegetation owing to the humidity of the climate in summer 
and its mildness in winter. The sea never freezes here. — The 
scenery of the Lofoden Islands, as well as that of the mainland 
opposite, is viewed to the best advantage on a bright summer day, 
in steering across the Vestfjord. By midnight light they present 
a strange and weird, but less imposing appearance, while the 
moon is entirely shorn of its silvery lustre by the proximity of the 
orb of day. Still more picturesque is the scene when witnessed 
during a gale or a passing thunder-storm, the solemnity of which 
greatly enhances the wildness of the picture. Having seen the 
Lofoden Islands in all these various aspects, the writer ventures 
to affirm that they surpass the finest scenery of Southern Europe 
in sublimity. 

The famous Lofoden Fishery (Gaatfiske) is prosecuted on the 
E. coast of the islands from the middle of January to the middle 
of April. Millions of cod (Gadus morrhua), which come here to 
spawn, are caught here annually, chiefly with long lines (Liner) 
provided with numerous baited hooks, or with hand-lines (JDjup- 
sogn, or Dybsagn). The fish are then carefully cleaned, and either 

Baedeker's Norwav and Sweden. ^5 

226 Route 22. LOFODEN. Excursions 

dried on the islands on wooden frames (Hjelder), or slightly 
salted and carried to drier regions on the mainland, where they are 
spread out on the rocks to dry [Klipfish, 'cliff-fish'). When the fish 
is cut open and the backbone removed, it is called Rotskjcer ; when 
simply cleaned in the ordinary way, it is called Rundfisk or Stok- 
fisk. The Rundfisk is chiefly exported to Italy, and the Klipfisk 
to Spain, where it is known as baccala salsa. The heads were 
formerly thrown away, but are now dried by fire and pulverised, 
and thus converted into manure. A German manufactory for the 
purpose has been established at Henningsvcer, and a Norwegian 
at Svolncer. On some of the outlying islands the cod-heads are 
boiled with sea-weed (Tare) and used as fodder (Lepning) for the 
cattle. During the three fishing months no fewer than 20,000 
fishermen are employed on the Lofoden coasts. The boats, to the 
number of 3000 or more, flock to the three principal fishing-banks, 
within a mile of the islands, where the water varies in depth from 
30 to 120 fathoms. The shoals (Skreid) of cod, probably on their 
way from the great banks farther N., extending along the coast 
and thence to Spitzbergen, are here so dense that hand-line fish- 
ers, with artificial minnow (Pilk) or other bait, hook their prey 
as fast as they can lower their lines. Each boat's crew is called a 
Lag, over which the Hovedmand or captain presides. The annual 
yield averages 20 million fish, many of which are of great size, 
and the number has even reached 26 millions. The chief stations 
are Henningsvcer, where a naval officer is posted to preserve order, 
Vaagen, and Soolvar (the island of Skroven). The motley multi- 
tude, assembled from every region of Norway, presents a most 
interesting and novel sight. Most of the fishermen sleep in tem- 
porary huts (Rorboder) erected for their accommodation. In the 
middle is the fire-place (Komfur), where they cook their Supa- 
melja (a kind of soup) and Okjysta. The whole proceedings are 
usually very orderly and peaceable, especially as no opportunity 
is afforded for the purchase of spirits. Many of the fishermen 
realise very handsome profits, and as they are paid in cash, the 
coffers of the Norwegian banks are often well-nigh drained for the 
purpose. A clergyman (Stiftskapellan) is stationed here during 
the period of the fishery for the purpose of performing additional 
services in different parts of the islands. — • At the close of the 
winter fishery (OaatfisketJ most of the fishermen proceed towards 
the N. to Finmarken to prosecute the Vaarfiske ('spring fishery') 
or Loddefiske, so called from the Loddestimer ('shoals of smelts' ; 
Lodde, Osmerus arcticus ; used as bait), which approach the shore 
to spawn, pursued by the voracious cod and its congeners. 

The winter fishery is unfortunately often attended with great 
loss of life. Thus when a westerly gale unexpectedly springs up, 
rendering it impossible to return to the islands, the open boats 
are driven across the broad and stormy expanse of the Vestfjord 

from Bod0. LOFODEN. 22. Route. 227 

for a distance of 10-12 sea-miles, often capsizing before they reach 
the mainland. On these occasions the 'Tolleknive' of the ill-fated 
crew are sometimes found sticking on the outside of their craft, 
■where they have been used by their owners for the purpose of 
enabling them to hold on. One of the most serious catastrophes 
of the kind took place on 11th Feb., 1848, when 500 fishermen 

The total length of the Lofoden and Vesteraalen Islands is 
about 130 Engl. M. , their area 1560 sq. M., and their permanent 
population about 20,000 souls. 

Steamboat to the Lofoden Islands. The most convenient 
way of visiting these interesting islands is by the local steamer 
from Bode, which usually starts on Friday mo.nings, after the 
arrival of the Hamburg boat, and plies thence to all the principal 
points on the Lofoden Islands, including the Hinde and part of 
the Ofoten Fjord, performing the whole voyage in about four days. 
As the vessel proceeds to the extreme point of its voyage, and 
returns thence by the same route, the traveller may disembark at 
one of the most interesting points and remain there for two or 
three days. The Hammerfest boat also touches once weekly in 
each direction at the principal stations on the Lofoden Islands 
mentioned below, performing the voyage between Bode and Le- 
dingen in 24 hours. All the coasting steamers touch at Ledingen, 
both on the northward and southward voyage. (From Ledingen a 
local steamer plies to the Vesteraalen Islands in connection with 
the Hamburg boat, starting at present oh Saturdays.) 

Leaving Bode on Friday morning , the local steamer steeis 
across the Vestfjord to Vitrei (not always), Moskencss, and Reirie. 

Early on Saturday it starts for Sand, Balstad, Stene, Stunsund, 
Lyngvcer, Oimse , Henningsvcer , 0rsvaag , Kabelvaag, and Suol- 
vcer (halt of 3 hrs.). Then to Kjte and Ledingen, both in the 

On Sunday the boat lies at Ledingen, from which one of 
the steamers from Christialiia to Hammerfest at present starts 
for Tromse on Mondays at midnight, and the other on Tuesday 

On Monday the local steamer proceeds to Lidland on the Ofoten 
Fjord, and' to Fagernces oil the Beis fjord, the E. arm of the Ofoten 
Fjord. It then returns by the same route to the above-mentioned 
stations, stopping for the night at Henningsvaer. 

On Tuesday it steers to Gimse and the dther stations already 
named, and finally crosses the Vestfjord to Bode, where it usually 
arrives at 3 p.m. 

Moskences is the principal village , with the church, of the 
MoskenaBse. To the S. of it is the famous Malstrem or Mosken- 
strerm, a cataract formed like the Saltstrem (see p. 222) by the 


228 Route 22. LOFODEN. Excursions 

pouring of the tide through a narrow strait, hut inferior to it in 
grandeur. It assumes a most formidahle appearance , however, 
when on the occasion of a spring-tide the wind happens to he 
contrary and disturbs the regular flow of the water. There are 
several other rapids of the same description among the Lofoden 
Islands, the navigation of which is not unattended with danger. 
The worst part of the Malstrem ('grinding stream') is at a deep 
sunken ridge between the Lofotodde (the S. promontory of the 
Moskeiicesfl) and the Hegholme ('hawk islands'), called the Horgan 
('rocky height'), where the sea seethes and foams angrily at almost 
all states of the tide. 

The Vare lies 2 sea-miles to the S. of Lofotodden, and 4 M. 
to the S. of Moskenaes. The church, transferred hither from Vaage 
in 1799, contains an altar-piece with reliefs in alabaster. 

The flat and populous island of Rest, 4 M. to the S.W. of 
Vaer0, lies in a very lonely and open situation, forming the tip of 
the horn with which the Lofoden group has been compared. It 
possesses a small church, but the 'Praest' lives in the Vare. Auks 
(Alca pica) are hunted here, as in the island of Lovunden (p. 218), 
with dogs trained for the purpose. 

On the way to the N. from Moskenaes we pass the stations 
above mentioned and the rapids of the *Sundstr£im, the Napstrem, 
and the Qimsestrem. Among the higher mountains the following 
deserve mention. Near Balstad, on the small island of that name. 
rise the Skotstinder. In the Vestvaage are the * Himmeltinder and 
the imposing promontory of *Vrebjerg, beyond which appears 
Stumsund. The steamer then steers across the broad Gimsestrem 
to *Henningsvaer , above which towers the grand * Vaagekalle 
(3090 ft.). The Skjser, or rocky islands, to the right, are the Vest- 
veer, Grundskaller, and Flesene. The whole of this region is re- 
nowned for its fishery. Vast flocks of birds are frequently encoun- 
tered, and whales are not uncommon here. In the island of Flag- 
stad, near Sund, there is a bay called Kvalvig ('whale creek'), 
where numerous whales are caught annually. What attracts them 
to this spot is unknown, but the fact that the water suddenly be- 
comes shallow here, and that the whale has great difficulty in turn- 
ing, constitutes the creek a natural trap from which escape is al- 
most impossible. 

From Hen nin gsvaer the next stations, *0rsvaag and *Kabelvaag, 
can be reached by water only. Near 0rsvaag are the church and 
parsonage of Kirkevaag, founded at the beginning of the 12th cent., 
where Hans Egede , the Greenland missionary , was pastor in 

A walk may be taken from Kabelvaag by a good road to (iy 2 hr.) 
the Norwegian manure-manufactory near Svolvser. Imposing sce- 
nery. Acquaintance will thus be made with the vegetation of the 
islands ; and the manufactory itself, where the cods'-heads are 

from Bode. VESTERAALEN. 25. Route. 229 

pulverised in large pans, may also be inspected. From this point 
it is possible to reach *Svolvser by land (crossing a river and pass- 
ing a picturesque lake) , but as the road takes a long circuit , the 
steamboat is preferable. Near Svulvser rises the lofty *Svolv<rrjur, 
and opposite to it lies the island of Skroven , 1 sea-mile distant. 
To the N. is Molla. A navigable channel leads hence to the N.E. 
through the 0hellesund into the *Raftsund, the last of the Lofoden 
Streme, and separating the 0stvaage from the Hinder. At the S. 
end of the strait is the station of Digermulen. 

The Lofoden steamer and the vessels bound for Hammerfest, 
instead of entering the Raftsund, pass through a narrow strait be- 
tween the islands of Molla, steer across the Vestfjord to Kjee, and 
past the mouth of the Kanstadfjord to — 

Ledingen (p. 231), both situated on the Hinde. As all the 
steamboats lie here for some time, passengers will always have 
time to walk to the (20 min.) Church and Parsonage. Interesting 
flora; Multebar abundant. Opposite Ledingen , to the E., lies 
the Tjalde. The Tjaldsund separates the Hinde, the largest of 
the Vesteraalen Islands, from the mainland. 

The Vesteraalen Islands, some of which , and particularly the 
Ande, extend far into the Arctic Ocean, are most conveniently 
visited from Ledingen. Starting on Saturday morning , after the 
arrival of the Hamburg boat from the S., the local-steamer proceeds 
to Kjee, Svolvcer, and Digermulen, Lofoden stations mentioned 
above, and then steers through the *Baftsund, where the current 
is often very violent, to — 

Hane, at the end of the strait, opposite which, to the N., lies 
the Brode. The steamer then crosses the Hadselfjord (passing the 
Mesadel, which rises in the Hinde to a height of 3000 ft.) to Melbo 
in the pleasant *VUve, from which a view of the open Arctic Ocean 
is obtained. Skirting this island, we next touch at — 

Stene i Be on the Lang«r, an island with numerous peninsulas, 
fjords, and narrow isthmuses, forming nearly the whole W. side 
of the Vesteraalen group, and containing together with the Skogse 
Ave different parishes. We next call at — 

StokmarkncBS, steer through the narrow Beresund to Kvitnces, 
in the Hinde, and thence to the N. , between the Lange and the 
Hinde, to — 

Sortland on the *Sortlandsund. During the whole passage the 
Mesadel remains in view. Its glaciers are said to be the veil of a 
maiden giantess fleeing from her pursuers, all of whom, like herself, 
have been transformed to stone. The scenery here is both grand 
and pleasing. The next station is — 

Skjoldehavnin the AnxLer; then Alfsuaag in the Lange, situated 
on the Qaolfjord which separates the Lange from the Ande. The 
steamer proceeds as far as Langenas , the N. extremity of the 
Lange, returns thence, steers round the S. end of the Ande to the 

230 Route 23. FOLDENFJORD. From Bode 

stations Sommere, Bredstrand , and Sundere on the E. coast, and 
lastly steams back to Ladingen by the same route as on the out- 
ward trip. 

A steamboat from Tromse also plies weekly to the And», touch- 
ing at Andenas at the N. end of the island, and at Dverberg, from 
which a visit may be paid to the (}/% M.) Coal Fields near Ramsaa, 
wheTe the steamboat also sometimes touches. (A railway from 
Ramsaa to Risehavn in Hinda is projected.) The island of And», 
about 270 Engl. sq. M. in area, is less picturesque than the others 
of the Vesteraalen group, a great part of it being occupied with 
flat marshes, where the 'Multebser' grows abundantly. The highest 
mountain in the island, to the W. of Ramsaa, about 1850 ft. in 
height, commands a magnificent view, but the ascent is marshy 
and rough. 

From Ledingen to An<\0 and back the steamer takes about three days 
(from Saturday morning to Monday evening); from Tromse to Andenses 
and hack f( ur days (from Tuesday morning to Friday evening). 

23. From Bod» to Troms», Hammerfest, Vard0, and 


Finmarken. North. Cape. Nordkyn. 

134 M. (536 Engl. M.), Steamboats (three to Hammerfest, and one to 
Vadsi* weekly), comp. p. 'J13. The voyage to Tromse (49 M.) usuallv 
lakes i'/2, to Hammerfest (79 11.) 3, and "to Yadse (134 M.) 5'/2 days, fine 
of the steamboats hound for Hammerfest at present leaves Bod# on Satur- 
days at midnight, the other on Mondays at 6 p.m., and the Hamburg 
vessel to Vads0 on Thursdays at midnight. 

The stations on the Lofoden Islands which are touched at by 
one of the Christiania steamers between Bod» and Lfrdingen have 
already been mentioned. The route described below is that followed 
by the two other steamers. 

The steamer steers Tound the Hjerte, running chiefly within 
the Skjaergaard. On the left rises the mountainous island of Lan- 

4 M. Kjcerringe , the first station, lies to the S. of the Folden- 
fjord, the surroundings of which are very grand. The lower part 
of the mountains has frequently been worn quite smooth by gla- 
cier-action, while their summits are pointed and serrated like the 
Aiguilles of Mont Blanc. One mountain in particular, of which 
Prof. Forbes gives a sketch ('Norway', p. 58), presents the appear- 
ance of an extinct crater. At the head of the Foldenfjord rise other 
huge mountains, the peak of one of which somewhat resembles the 

The Foldenfjord divides into the Nordfolden and the Serfolden , to 
which a local steamer plies from Bodu on Tuesdays and Thursdays , in 
10-12 hours. The stations are Myklebostad, Kjwrringe , Leines (on the 
Leinesfjord , to the N. of Nordfolden). Nordfolden, Eesvik (on Serfol- 
den), and Dybvik (at the end of Serfolden, on Thursdays only). From 
Dybvik across the Fuskeeid to Fvske on the Saltenfjord, see p. 222. — 
The scenery is exceedingly wild , and there are very few signs of cul- 



to TromsB. LJ^DINGEiN. l>3. Route. 231 

tivation. — From S0rfolden the Leerfjord diverges to the N.E. ; from 
Nordfolden branch off the Vinkefjord, with its prolongation the Stavfjord, 
and the Merkesvikfjord. These fjords are almost entirely uninhabited. 

Shortly before reaching (9 M.) Qrete the steamboat passes 
through the Gissund, an extremely narrow strait, the bottom of 
which is often distinctly visible through the clear green water im- 
mediately under the steamer, and where the navigation requires 
great caution. It then passes between the Engelvar on the W. 
and the Skotsfjord on the E., steers eastwards into the Flagsund, 
bounded, by the mainland on the S. and the Engele (Stegen) on 
the N., and stops at (12 M.) Bogei. Steering in a sharp curve 
round Stegen, we observe on the right the beautiful, but sequestered 
Sagfjord, which extends inland to Ternmernces, about 4 sea-miles 
distant. Farther on, leaving the Lunde to the right, the vessel 
again steers out into the Vestfjord, where in clear weather a magni- 
ficent *View is disclosed of the entire Lofoden range, one of the 
most superb sights on the whole voyage. We now traverse the 
open fjord, unprotected by islands , this being one of those parts 
of the voyage known as 'et rent Farvand' ('an open course'). The 
fjord contracts. We pass the stations of Trane and Korsnas on 
the Tysfjord, and next stop at — 

22 M. L^dingen, on the Tjaldsund, at the S.E. promontory of 
the Hinde, before reaching which a view of the church and par- 
sonage is obtained (p. 229). 

To the S. of Ltfdingen opens the Tysfjord, which may be visited 
from Korsnpes, but the outer part of which is uninteresting. Its ramifi- 
cations, the Hellemo/Jord and the Botirfjord, extend inland to within a 
mile of the Swedish frontier. From Musken, near the head of the Tys- 
fjord, a route leads by Krankmo, situated between the 4th and 5th of the 
seven lakes bearing the name of Sagvand, to Tmnmernws on the Sagfjord, 
and another to Hopen on the Nordfolden (p. 230). — From Kraakmo 
(where excellent quarters are obtainable) we may ascend the huge 
* Kraakmotind, and make an excursion by the 5th , 6th, and Tth Sagvand 
(the boat being dragged across the intervening necks of land) to the mag- 
nificent prima-val forest adjoining the 7th lake. Travellers from Kraakmo 
to TtfmmernseS on the Sagfjord (f/2 M.) cross the 4th, 3rd, and 2nd Sag- 
vand by boat. A waterfall 50 ft. high is passed a little before the fjord is 
reached. — Another route leads from Drag on the Tysfjord across the 
picturesque Drogseid to the Sagfjord. The steamboat-stations nearest the 
Sagfjord are Boge and Trane (see above). 

The Ofoten Fjord, one of the largest fjords in Norway, forms the 
N.E. continuation of the Vestfjord, and extends nearly to the Swedish 
frontier. A local steamer already mentioned runs on DIondays from LjJ- 
dingen to Lidland (quarters at !: Kl?eboe's) on the N. side of the Ofoten (at 
the entrance to the Bogen) and thence to the E. to "Fagernces on the 
Beisfjord (quarters at "Mosling's). The grandest scenery on this fjord is 
to be found in its W. ramifications, particularly the Ronibak and the 
Beisfjord, between which rise the easily ascended -Tetta (5150 ft.) and 
Vomtind. The Landhandler Mosling at Fagerna>s will provide the trav- 
eller with a guide (probably Jo Larsen , a Lapp). To the S. from the 
Ofoten Fjord diverges the imposing "Skjomenfjord, at the end of which 
lies Elvegaard (good quarters). A route to Sweden leads hence through 
the Seirdal, passing the old copper-mines of Skjangli (372 M). By far 
the finest scenery here, however, is on the W. arm of the Skjomenfjord, 
at the end of which is Skjombotn, above which towers the "Frostis (to the 
W.) with its enormous glaciers. — The S. banks of the Ofoten Fjord, 

232 Route 23. HAVNVIK. From Bode 

called Balangen, are well cultivated and comparatively tame. On the 
Bersvand to the S. are some abandoned copper-mines, recognisable only 
by their large mounds of slag. 

The steamers usually leave Ladingen very early in the morning 
and steer through the Tjueldsund , -which afterwards expands into 
the Vaagsfjord, the scenery at first being comparatively uninter- 
esting. Passing (26 M.) Sandtorv in the Hind», where we enter 
Finmarken, the northernmost province of Norway, we next touch 
at — 

30 M. Harstadhavn , situated on a fertile height , and one of 
the most beautiful places on this part of the coast. Towards the 
E. lies an expanse of water resembling an Alpine lake, with snow- 
mountains in the background ; to the N. rises the Senjehest, the 
S. promontory of the island of Senjen. — About 20 min. walk to 
the N.E. of Harstadhavn is the famous old church of Throndenas, 
containing a good altar-piece. A visit to it is interesting, but the 
steamer does not stop long enough to admit of it. Roads lead 
hence to the Kasfjord (view of And**) and- the church of Eaa. 
Harstadhavn is the junction of several steamboat lines. All the 
large steamers touch here , and also the local boat from Tromsa 
to Ande (see p. 227). 

The steamer next steers to the E. across the Vaags fjord to the 
promontory of Rolde. To the left are the Gryte and the Senjehest, 
between which a glimpse of the open sea ('Hav«d') is obtained. 
Passing through the strait between the Rold# and the Andorje, 
we next call at — 

32 M. Havnvik, in the Rold», with the church of Ibestad, to 
the S. of which rises the snow-clad Messetind. Like Throndenaes, 
it possesses a vaulted stone church, while all the other churches in 
Tromse Stift are timber-built. The scenery continues very fine 
as we steam through the *8alangenfjord, but becomes still grander 
as we pass between the Andorje and the mainland. On the left 
rises the huge Aarbodstind , with a fine waterfall, and on the right 
the pointed Faxtind (4120 ft. ; Fax, 'mane', 'fringe'). The scene 
is most impressive at the next station — 

35 M. *Kastnaeshavn, whence all these mountains, including 
the pinnacle of the Faxtind , are seen simultaneously, while the 
horizon to the W. is bounded by the mountains of Ande and others. 
■ — To the W. lies the Dyre, with the Dyresund. The voyage be- 
tween Havnvik (or even between Harstadhavn) and Kastnaeshavn 
should on no account be missed by the traveller, and the scenery 
should be witnessed both in going and in returning. The writer, 
who saw this sublime spectacle both in bright sunshine and in 
wild, stormy weather, considers it unsurpassed in Norway. — In the 
Salangenfjord, as well as elsewhere, it should be observed that the 
glacier-action has had the effect of wearing smooth the lowest third 
of the mountains ('roches moutonne'es'), while the two-thirds above 
are rough and serrated. 

to Tromse. MALANGENFJORD. 23. Route. 233 

The Troms/J Local Steamboats touch at Seveien in the Salangenfjord, 
from which a journey to the E. to the Bardudal and the Maalselvsdal 
may be undertaken (see below). Passengers by the larger steamers reach 
S/atveien by landing at Havnvik and rowing thence (3 sea -miles). 

39M. Kleven. To the S.E. rises the snow -clad Ohirragas- 
Zhjokko, or Istinden. 

42 M. Gibostad. These two last stations are in the island of 
Senjen, which is separated from the mainland by the strait through 
which the steamboat passes. The shores on both sides are green, 
wooded, and tolerably well peopled, and in the background 
rise snow-clad mountains, the chief of which is the Broddenfjeld 
to the S. — Though still pleasing, the scenery between Kastnses- 
havn and the Malangenfjord is inferior to that above described. 

The ^Malangenfjord, with the fjords to the N. and S. of it, 
forms a large cross, the four arms of which are seen at one time 
from the deck of the steamer, while to the N.W. we obtain a 
glimpse of the open sea through the *Vangs Havseie. The fjord is 
enclosed by lofty mountains in every direction. To the S. rise the 
snowy * Maalselvsdal Mountains. The steamer does not enter the 
deep indentations formed by the Nordfjord and Auerfjord , but 
touches at (47 M.) Maalsnces on a promontory in the Malangenfjord, 
near the mouth of the Maalselv, the waters of which still ruffle the 
surface of the fjord. The estuary of the river freezes in winter, 
but the fjord remains open 1 M. lower down. 

A very interesting excursion may be made from Maalsnces through 
the Maalselvsdal to the S.E. to the Rosta-Vand and the Rostafjeld (a 
carriole-drive of about 6 M.), and another to the S. to the Alte-Vand in 
the Bardudal. — Instead of returning to Maalsnees , the traveller may- 
proceed from Kirkemoen in the Bardudal to the W. to Seveien on the 
Salangenfjord (see above). — The inhabitants of these valleys are chiefly 
colonists from the Uttterdal (valley of the Glommen) and the Oudbrands- 
daly the first of whom were induced to settle here by the chamberlain 
Berndt Ancker in 1796. 

1. Through this Maalselvsdal to the Rostavand. We drive from 
Maalsnces (to which it is advisable to telegraph beforehand for horses) 
past Jlollcendemces, a place deriving its name from the settlement which 
the Dutch once attempted to found here against the will of the German 
merchants of Bergen , by whom the whole trade of Norway was then 
monopolised. This circumstance is alluded to by Peter Dass in the foll- 
owing lines : — 

'Men der denne Handel lidt lsenge paastod, 
Da blev det de Bergenske Kjerbmaend imod, 
Hollsenderne maatte sig pakke.' 
(But their trade was soon doomed to expire 
By the merchants of Bergen in ire : 
So the Dutchmen had soon to be off.) 
The first station in this picturesque valley is (l'/4 M.) Guldhav. The 
road then leads past the church of Slorbakken to (1 M.) Moen. The im- 
posing mountain facing us is the *Ghirragas Zhjokko, or Istinden (about 
5150 ft. high), somewhat resembling a crater. — An excellent point of 
view is the mountain called "Lille Mauket, near Moen, 1850 ft. in height. 
Passing the small stations of (i M.) Bakkenhaug, and ( 7 /s M.) Neer- 
gaard, with its small church, we arrive at J&verby (poor quarters), which, 
with the Nordgaard, lies at the confluence of the Maalselv and the Tab- 
mokelv. Above the Rostavand rises the huge "Rostafjeld (5150 ft.), the 
ascent of which is not difficult, and may even be undertaken by mou